digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















King of Joseon Dynasty
King JeongJo of Joseon.jpg
King Jeongjo (1752-1800), the 22nd king of the Joseon Kingdom (1392-1910)
Reign 27 April 1776 – 18 August 1800
Predecessor Yeongjo of Joseon
Successor Sunjo of Joseon
Born (1752-10-28)28 October 1752
Changgyeong Palace, Kingdom of Joseon
Died 18 August 1800(1800-08-18) (aged 47)
Changgyeong Palace, Kingdom of Joseon
Burial Geolleung, Hwaseong, Gyeonggi
Spouse Queen Hyoui,
Royal Noble Consort Won, concubine
Royal Noble Consort Hwa, concubine
Royal Noble Consort Ui, concubine
Royal Noble Consort Su, concubine
Issue Crown Prince Munhyo
Sunjo of Joseon
House House of Yi
Father Crown Prince Sado
Mother Lady Hyegyeong
Jeongjo of Joseon
Hangul 정조
Hanja 正祖
Revised Romanization Jeongjo
McCune–Reischauer Chŏngjo
Birth name
Hangul 이산
Hanja 李祘
Revised Romanization I San
McCune–Reischauer Yi San

King Jeongjo (28 October 1752 – 18 August 1800) was the 22nd ruler of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea (r. 1776-1800). He made various attempts to reform and improve the nation of Korea. He was preceded by his grandfather King Yeongjo (r. 1724–1776) and succeeded by his son King Sunjo (r. 1800–1834).

Some say Jeongjo is one of the most successful and visionary rulers of the Joseon Dynasty[who?]. But it is also pointed out that he was overestimated[where?].

Early life[edit]

Born as Yi San, he was the son of Crown Prince Sado (who was put to death by his own father, King Yeongjo) and Lady Hyegyeong (who wrote an autobiography, The Memoirs of Lady Hyegyeong detailing her life as the ill-fated Crown Princess of Korea). Lady Hyegyeong's collection of memoirs serves as a significant source of historical information on the political happenings during the reigns of King Yeongjo (her father-in-law), King Jeongjo (her son), and King Sunjo (her grandson).

When he was the Crown Prince, King Jeongjo met Hong Guk-yeong[1] (홍국영, 洪國榮), a controversial politician who first strongly supported Jeongjo's accession and toiled to improve the king's power, but ended up being expelled because of his desire for power.

Jeongjo spent much of his reign trying to clear his father's name. He also moved the court to the city of Suwon to be closer to his father's grave. He built Hwaseong Fortress to guard the tomb. It is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.


The era before his rule was in disorder as his father was killed by royal decree of his own father, King Jeongjo's grandfather. King Yeongjo's ultimate decision to execute Crown Prince Sado was greatly influenced by other politicians who were against the Crown Prince. After King Yeongjo's death and on the day that Jeongjo became the King of Joseon, he sat on his throne in the throne room and looked at everyone and said, "I am the son of the late Crown Prince Sado..."[citation needed] This was a bold statement that sent shivers down the spines of all the politicians who were complicit in his father's death.[citation needed]

During his accession, he also issued a royal decree that his mother, Lady Hyegyeong, be a Dowager Queen since his father, her husband, was supposed to be the King before him. Thus, she became the Queen Dowager, the widow of Crown Prince Sado. From then on, King Jeongjo experienced many turbulent periods, but overcame them with the aid of Hong Guk-yeong.[1]


King Jeongjo led the new renaissance of the Joseon Dynasty, but was initially stopped by continuing the policy of Yeongjo's Tangpyeong rule. He tried to control the politics of the whole nation to advance and further national progress.

He made various reforms throughout his reign, notably establishing Kyujanggak (규장각), a royal library. The primary purpose of Kyujanggak was to improve the cultural and political stance of Joseon and to recruit gifted officers to help run the nation. Jeongjo also spearheaded bold new social initiatives, including opening government positions to those who were previously barred because of their social status.

Jeongjo had the support of the many Silhak scholars who supported Jeongjo's regal power, including Scholars Jeong Yak-yong, Yu Deuk-gong, Pak Ji-won, Pak Je-ga and Yu Deuk-gong. His reign also saw the further growth and development of Joseon's popular culture.


King Jeongjo was known as an innovative person despite his high political status in Joseon. In 1800, he died suddenly under mysterious circumstances at the age of 48, without seeing his lifelong wishes that were later realized by his son, Sunjo.[2] There are many books regarding the mysterious death of Jeongjo, and speculation as to the cause of his death continues even today.

He is buried with his wife, Queen Hyoui, at the royal tomb of Geolleung (건릉, 健陵) in the city of Hwaseong.


  • Father: Crown Prince Sado (사도세자, 1735–1762)
    He is given the posthumous title, "Jangjo" (장조)
  • Mother: Queen Heongyeong of the Poongsan Hong clan (헌경왕후 홍씨, 1735–1815)[3][4]
  • Consorts and Issues:
  1. Queen Consort Hyoui of the Cheongpung Gim clan (효의왕후 김씨, 1753–1821)[5]
  2. Royal Noble Consort Won Bin of the Pyeongsan Hong clan (원빈 홍씨, 1766–1779)[6]
    1. Prince Sang Gye (상계군, 1770–1786): Adoptive son following her death[7]
  3. Royal Noble Consort Hwa Bin of the Yun clan (화빈 윤씨, 1765–1824)[8]
  4. Royal Noble Consort Ui of the Seong clan (의빈 성씨, 1753–1786)[9]
    1. Crown Prince Successor Mun Hyo (문효세자, 1782–1786; Westernized name also spelled as Moon Hyo); birth name, Prince Yi Hyang
    2. Unnamed Princess (1784)[10]
    3. Unborn child (1786); died in utero as a result of mother's death
  5. Royal Noble Consort Su of the Bannam Park clan (수빈 박씨, 1770–1822)[11]
    1. Prince Yi Gong, and later Sunjo the Royal Prince Successor (왕세자,1790–1834)
    2. Princess Suk Seon (숙선옹주, 1793–1836)-who created Kkakdugi alongside the wife of Hong Hyeon-ju

Full posthumous name[edit]

  • King Jeongjo Gyeongcheon Myeongdo Hongdeok Hyeonmo Munseong Muryeol Seongin Janghyo the Great of Korea
  • 정조경천명도홍덕현모문성무렬성인장효대왕
  • 正祖敬天明道洪德顯謨文成武烈聖仁莊孝大王

Portrayal in works of media[edit]

Jeongjo portrayed in modern films and TV dramas:



  1. ^ a b Digital Korean studies (Korean site) http://www.koreandb.net/koreanking/html/person/pki60022.htm Archived 23 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ National Heritage – Hwaseong
  3. ^ Daughter of Hong Bong-han (홍봉한) and Lady Yi of the Hansun Yi clan
  4. ^ Queen Heongyeong is also called "Lady Hyegyeong" (혜경궁)
  5. ^ Daughter of Kim Si-muk (김시묵) and Lady Hong of the Namyang Hong clan
  6. ^ Daughter of Hong Nak-chun (홍낙춘) and younger sister of Hong Guk-yeong (홍국영). She became Noble Royal Consort 1778, but she died suddenly a year after receiving the title.
  7. ^ Son of Jeongjo's half-brother, Prince Euneon. After the banishing and death of Hong Guk-yeong, he was also banished for treason and committed suicide by poison.
  8. ^ Daughter of Yun Chang-yun (윤창윤). She became Noble Royal Consort in 1781; conceived, but the child was stillborn.
  9. ^ Daughter of Seong Yun-u (성윤우) and Lady Im. She did not receive the title Noble Royal Consort until her son became Grand Prince in 1782. She died suddenly in 1786 (most likely from liver cancer), just months after the death of her son.
  10. ^ Died after birth (1784)
  11. ^ Daughter of Park Jun-won (박준원) and Lady Won. Also called Royal Noble Consort Hyeon(현빈). She became Noble Royal Consort in 1787.
  12. ^ a b c Chung, Ah-young (13 November 2007). "Renaissance of Joseon King Jeongjo". The Korea Times. Retrieved 2013-04-02. 
  13. ^ Sungkyunkwan Scandal

External links[edit]

*Official site of Hwaseong Fortress

Jeongjo of Joseon
Born: 22 September 1752 Died: 28 June 1800
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King of Joseon
Succeeded by

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeongjo_of_Joseon — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
207 videos foundNext > 

yi san - king jeong jo opening theme [korean drama]

King Jeong-Jo is Joseon's 22nd Monarch who is remembered in Korean history as one of Korea's greatest Kings who loved the people and reigned for the ...

김홍도 그림 정조 어가행렬도 (Joseon dynasty king jeongjo)

"道吾善者는 是吾賊이요 道吾惡者는 是吾師니라" "The person who says that you are best is the very person that will hurt me and the person who tells you of your...

The Grand Heritage-King Jeongjo′s visit to Hwaseong 정조대왕의 화성 행궁

The uigwe realistically illustrates the big and small events of the Joseon Dynasty like a picture book. 오늘날 조선의 궁중문화가 생생히 재현될 수 있는 것은 선인 ...

Yi San - A love story

Yi San - A love story. ▻HD 720p please. Promise by Jang Yoon Jung. This drama details the life of King Jeongjo, Joseon's 22nd monarch, who is remembered ...

Korean Swordsmanship: Joseon Martial Arts

http://ozoutback.com.au Demonstration of handling the swords and a sword fight, traditional martial arts in costumes dating back to the Joseon dynasty at ...

"The 21st Respect" King YeongJo, Joseon Dynasty, Korea, 1694 1776

Traditional Korean weapons: Joseon Martial Arts

http://ozoutback.com.au Demonstration of handling the “Dangpa” (a trident), the “Jukjangchang (spear of bamboo with a long blade). the “Keechang” (a long ...

Archery: Korean Joseon Martial Arts

http://ozoutback.com.au Demonstration of traditional martial arts in costumes dating back to the Joseon dynasty at Hwaseong Haenggung, King Jeongjo's palace ...

SUWON TRAVEL BIBLE [A must-see tour city!]

Suwon, where past and future breathe together A must-see tour city recommended by Korea Tourism Organization! The 1st planned city in the country by King ...

Joseon Martial Arts: Korean Swordsmanship and flails

http://ozoutback.com.au Demonstration of swordsmanship and fighting using a kind of flail, “decapitating” straw figures: traditional martial arts in costumes dating ...

207 videos foundNext > 

4 news items

The Seoul Times
Sun, 10 Apr 2016 21:37:54 -0700

It is assumed that about half a million years before human habitation was started in Korea. The first kingdom was established in the 2,333 BC with the name Gojoseon (The ancient Joseon). Within the first century BC three ancient kingdoms Goryeo, Baekje ...

Korea Times

Korea Times
Tue, 26 Jan 2016 00:15:00 -0800

At Changgyeong Palace, visitors can see Jeongjo of Joseon, the dynasty's 22nd king reigning 1776-1800, and at Gyeongbok Palace, visitors can experience royal cuisine in Sojubang, the royal kitchen featured in the hit drama "Jewel in the Palace." ...


Wed, 26 Aug 2015 05:33:45 -0700

Before Moon Geun Young stars in her October comeback drama "The Village: Acharia's Secret," fans can see her on the big screen in the upcoming historical film "The Throne." It is Moon's first film in over eight years. The 28-year-old actress has not ...

Korea Times

Korea Times
Thu, 29 Jan 2015 01:45:00 -0800

Buyongjeong pavilion in Changdeokgung Palace, located across "Gyujanggak" (royal library), was where King Jeongjo of Joseon Kingdom (1392-1910) enjoyed fishing with courtiers. That was where Nam's acclaimed atelier series began. She read the ...

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight