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For other uses, see Jasper (disambiguation).
Jasper outcrop, Bucegi Mountains, Romania

Jasper, an aggregate of microquartz and/or chalcedony and other mineral phases,[1][2] is an opaque,[3] impure variety of silica, usually red, yellow, brown or green in color; and rarely blue. The common red color is due to iron(III) inclusions. The mineral aggregate breaks with a smooth surface and is used for ornamentation or as a gemstone. It can be highly polished and is used for vases, seals, and snuff boxes. The specific gravity of jasper is typically 2.5 to 2.9.[4] Along with heliotrope (bloodstone), jasper (green with red spots) is one of the traditional birthstones for March. Jaspilite is a banded iron formation rock that often has distinctive bands of jasper.

Etymology and history[edit]

Moveable ring from 664 to 322 BC (Late Period). Green jasper and gold.[5] The Walters Art Museum
Goat-headed basket carved from red jasper. Russian, late 19th century, Kremlin Armoury

The name means "spotted or speckled stone", and is derived via Old French jaspre (variant of Anglo-Norman jaspe) and Latin iaspidem (nom. iaspis)) from Greek ἴασπις iaspis, (feminine noun)[6] from an oriental language (cf. Hebrew יושפה yushphah, Akkadian yashupu).[7]

Green jasper was used to make bow drills in Mehrgarh between 4th and 5th millennium BC.[8] Jasper is known to have been a favorite gem in the ancient world; its name can be traced back in Arabic, Persian, Hebrew, Assyrian, Greek and Latin.[9] On Minoan Crete, jasper was carved to produce seals circa 1800 BC, as evidenced by archaeological recoveries at the palace of Knossos.[10]

Although the term jasper is now restricted to opaque quartz, the ancient iaspis was a stone of considerable translucency including nephrite.[2] The jasper of antiquity was in many cases distinctly green, for it is often compared to the emerald and other green objects. Jasper is referred to in the Niebelungenlied as being clear and green. Probably the jasper of the ancients included stones which would now be classed as chalcedony, and the emerald-like jasper may have been akin to the modern chrysoprase. The Hebrew word yushphah may have designated a green jasper.[11] Flinders Petrie suggested that the odem, the first stone on the High Priest's breastplate, was a red jasper, whilst tarshish, the tenth stone, may have been a yellow jasper.[12]

Types[edit]

Jasper is an opaque rock of virtually any color stemming from the mineral content of the original sediments or ash. Patterns arise during the consolidation process forming flow and depositional patterns in the original silica rich sediment or volcanic ash. Hydrothermal circulation is generally thought to be required in the formation of jasper.[citation needed]

Jasper can be modified by the diffusion of minerals along discontinuities providing the appearance of vegetative growth, i.e., dendritic. The original materials are often fractured and/or distorted, after deposition, into myriad beautiful patterns which are to be later filled with other colorful minerals. Weathering, with time, will create intensely colored superficial rinds.

The classification and naming of jasper varieties presents a challenge.[13] Terms attributed to various well-defined materials includes the geographic locality where it is found, sometimes quite restricted such as "Bruneau" (a canyon) and "Lahontan" (a lake), rivers and even individual mountains, many are fanciful such as "forest fire" or "rainbow", while others are descriptive such as "autumn" or "porcelain". A few are designated by the place of origin such as a brown Egyptian or red African.

Picture jaspers exhibit combinations of patterns (such as banding from flow or depositional patterns (from water or wind), dendritic or color variations) resulting in what appear to be scenes or images, on a cut section. Diffusion from a center produces a distinctive orbicular appearance, i.e., leopard skin jasper, or linear banding from a fracture as seen in leisegang jasper. Healed, fragmented rock produces brecciated (broken) jasper. While these "picture jaspers" can be found all over the world, specific colors or patterns are more unique based upon the geographic region from which they originate. Oregon's biggs jasper and bruneau jasper from Bruneau Canyon near the Bruneau River in Idaho are known as particularly fine examples. Other examples can be seen at Llanddwyn Island in Wales.[14]

The term basanite has occasionally been used to refer to a variety of jasper, for example a black flinty or cherty jasper found in several New England states of the USA. Such varieties of jasper are also informally known as lydian stone or lydite and have been used as touchstones in testing the purity of precious metal alloys.[15]

Gallery[edit]

Varieties of jasper
Brecciated red jasper tumbled smooth, 1 in (2.5 cm) 
Brecciated yellow jasper, cut and oiled 
Green jasper rough, Montjuïc, Barcelona 
Orbicular jasper, 5 cm (2.0 in), Madagascar 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "U.S. Geological Survey, Chalcedony Site". www.USGS.gov. 
  2. ^ a b Kostov, R. I. 2010. Review on the mineralogical systematics of jasper and related rocks. – Archaeometry Workshop, 7, 3, 209-213. PDF
  3. ^ "Jasper". Mindat.org. 
  4. ^ Dietrich, R. V. (2005-05-23). "Jasper". GemRocks. Central Michigan University. 
  5. ^ "Finger Ring with a Representation of Ptah". The Walters Art Museum. 
  6. ^ "Strong's G2393-iaspis". Lexicon. Blue Letter Bible. 
  7. ^ "Jasper" at etymonline.com
  8. ^ Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 0-415-32920-5. 
  9. ^ "Jasper". Gem by Gem. International Colored Gemstone Association. 
  10. ^ Hogan, C. Michael (2008-04-14). "Knossos fieldnotes". The Modern Antiquarian. 
  11. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainFrederick William Rudler (1911). "Jasper". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  12. ^ Hastings's Dict. Bible, 1902, as cited in 1911 Britannica.
  13. ^ "World of Jaspers". Hans Gamma. 
  14. ^ Jasper Gemological Information - International Gem Society (IGS) Retrieved 16 January, 2015
  15. ^ "Mindat data for basanite". Mindat.org. 2012-10-15. Retrieved 2013-03-24. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasper — Please support Wikipedia.
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Jasper the new Gem has no choice but to fusion, and the only person around is Lapis Lazuli and with them, they fused into Malachite! Subscribe to me here on my channel for more videos http://www.yo.

Tyler, The Creator - Bitch Suck Dick Featuring Jasper And Taco

Directed By: Wolf Haley Edited By: Dave McCary And Wolf Haley From The Album GOBLIN ( yes, its on itunes) Niggas In This Video Include: ANTWAN DIXON NAKEL SMITH MAN CHILD LOUIE LOPEZ ...

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All rights go to cartoon network. I did not make this show. All rights go to Rebecca Sugar.

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Grab your copy on iTunes: https://itunes.apple.com/it/album/another-sleepless-night-single/id828925853 Listen on Spotify: http://open.spotify.com/album/0t8ZfWiq6igS4ZYhQmhbJM ...

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Bustle

Bustle
Sun, 26 Apr 2015 07:15:00 -0700

Royals fans, have you all recovered from seeing bodyguard Jasper sleep with Elizabeth Hurley's Queen Helena on last week's episode? Nope? Yeah, I didn't think so. While The Royals fandom was hit hard by the betrayal, King Simon must be having a much ...

Newsweek

Newsweek
Fri, 24 Apr 2015 09:30:00 -0700

American artist Jasper Johns's longtime assistant, James Meyer, will be spending 18 months in a very different kind of storied institution: prison. Meyer, 53, was ordered to do time by a Manhattan court on Thursday after he admitted to swiping artworks ...

Horse Racing Nation

FOXSports.com
Sun, 26 Apr 2015 14:45:00 -0700

NEW YORK (AP) Irish Jasper won the Belle Harbor for 3-year-old fillies on Sunday, one of the trio of $100,000 stakes on closing day at Aqueduct. Possessed, the 6-5 favorite, and Take Issue, 14-1, captured the New York Stallion Stakes for 3-year-olds.

WSAV-TV

WSAV-TV
Sat, 25 Apr 2015 11:22:30 -0700

The South Carolina Highway Patrol is investigating a fatal accident that killed one driver in Jasper County. Lance Corporal Judd Jones says the single car crash happened at 8:06 a.m. on Saturday on Highway 321, five miles north of Hardeeville. Jones ...
 
Effingham Daily News
Sun, 26 Apr 2015 16:37:30 -0700

The first Jasper County CEO trade show Wednesday will give 10 Newton Community High School students the chance to test their skill as small business owners. The CEO program is a class designed to expose students to hands-on business experience.

WBIW.com

WBIW.com
Mon, 27 Apr 2015 00:18:45 -0700

Arrested were 24-year old Christopher Barrett of Huntingburg, and 23-year old Kelvin Brown of Jasper. Jasper police say at about 8:45 p.m. last Saturday, an argument between Barrett and another employee at the Jasper Rubber Products Plant #1 and ...

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Thu, 23 Apr 2015 17:21:36 -0700

Baskaran Jeyachandran cooks two dishes, biscuits and gravy and shrimp and grits at his new restaurant, Blue Jasper. Baskaran has had culinary training in his native India and puts an Indian spin on many of their breakfast and lunch dishes. TIFFANY ...

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Sat, 25 Apr 2015 17:00:00 -0700

"All of the law enforcement agencies, Walker County, Sherriff's office, Jasper police department, the Department of Human Resources, the District Attorney's office, bring us all together in under one roof so that these cases don't slip through the ...
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