digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

For other uses, see Jasper (disambiguation).
Jasper outcrop, Bucegi Mountains, Romania

Jasper, a form of chalcedony,[1] is an opaque,[2] impure variety of silica, usually red, yellow, brown or green in color; and rarely blue. The common red color is due to iron(III) inclusions in what is basically a chert. The mineral breaks with a smooth surface and is used for ornamentation or as a gemstone. It can be highly polished and is used for vases, seals, and snuff boxes. The specific gravity of jasper is typically 2.5 to 2.9.[3] Along with Heliotrope (bloodstone), jasper is one of the traditional birthstones for March. Jaspilite is a banded iron formation rock that often has distinctive bands of jasper.

Etymology and history[edit]

Moveable ring from 664 to 322 BC (Late Period). Green jasper and gold.[4] The Walters Art Museum
Goat-headed basket carved from red jasper. Russian, late 19th century, Kremlin Armoury

The name means "spotted or speckled stone", and is derived via Old French jaspre (variant of Anglo-Norman jaspe) and Latin iaspidem (nom. iaspis)) from Greek ἴασπις iaspis, (feminine noun)[5] from a Semitic language (cf. Hebrew יושפה yushphah, Akkadian yashupu).[6]

Green jasper was used to make bow drills in Mehrgarh between 4th and 5th millennium BC.[7] Jasper is known to have been a favorite gem in the ancient world; its name can be traced back in Arabic, Persian, Hebrew, Assyrian, Greek and Latin.[8] On Minoan Crete, jasper was carved to produce seals circa 1800 BC, as evidenced by archaeological recoveries at the palace of Knossos.[9]

Although the term jasper is now restricted to opaque quartz, the ancient iaspis was a stone of considerable translucency. The jasper of antiquity was in many cases distinctly green, for it is often compared to the emerald and other green objects. Jasper is referred to in the Niebelungenlied as being clear and green. Probably the jasper of the ancients included stones which would now be classed as chalcedony, and the emerald-like jasper may have been akin to the modern chrysoprase. The Hebrew word yushphah may have designated a green jasper.[10] Flinders Petrie suggested that the odem, the first stone on the High Priest's breastplate, was a red jasper, whilst tarshish, the tenth stone, may have been a yellow jasper.[11]

Types[edit]

Jasper is an opaque rock of virtually any color stemming from the mineral content of the original sediments or ash. Patterns arise during the consolidation process forming flow and depositional patterns in the original silica rich sediment or volcanic ash. Hydrothermal circulation is generally thought to be required in the formation of jasper.[citation needed]

Jasper can be modified by the diffusion of minerals along discontinuities providing the appearance of vegetative growth, i.e., dendritic. The original materials are often fractured and/or distorted, after deposition, into myriad beautiful patterns which are to be later filled with other colorful minerals. Weathering, with time, will create intensely colored superficial rinds.

The classification and naming of jasper presents a challenge.[12] Terms attributed to various well-defined materials includes the geographic locality where it is found, sometimes quite restricted such as "Bruneau" (a canyon) and "Lahontan" (a lake), rivers and even individual mountains, many are fanciful such as "Forest Fire" or "Rainbow", while others are descriptive such as "Autumn", "Porcelain" or "Dalmatian". A few are designated by the country of origin such as a Brown Egyptian or Red African.

Picture jaspers exhibit combinations of patterns (such as banding from flow or depositional patterns (from water or wind), dendritic or color variations) resulting in what appear to be scenes or images, on a cut section. Diffusion from a center produces a distinctive orbicular appearance, i.e., Leopard Skin Jasper, or linear banding from a fracture as seen in Leisegang Jasper. Healed, fragmented rock produces brecciated (broken) jasper. Examples of this can be seen at Llanddwyn Island in Wales.

The term basanite has occasionally been used to refer to a variety of jasper, for example a black flinty or cherty jasper found in several New England states of the USA. Such varieties of jasper are also informally known as Lydian stone or lydite and have been used as touchstones in testing the purity of precious metal alloys.[13]

Gallery[edit]

Varieties of jasper
Brecciated red jasper tumbled smooth, 1 in (2.5 cm) 
Brecciated yellow jasper, cut and oiled 
Dalmatian jasper, Pune, India 
Green jasper rough, Montjuïc, Barcelona 
Orbicular jasper, 5 cm (2.0 in), Madagascar 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "U.S. Geological Survey, Chalcedony Site". www.USGS.gov. 
  2. ^ "Jasper". Mindat.org. 
  3. ^ Dietrich, R. V. (2005-05-23). "Jasper". GemRocks. Central Michigan University. 
  4. ^ "Finger Ring with a Representation of Ptah". The Walters Art Museum. 
  5. ^ "Strong's G2393-iaspis". Lexicon. Blue Letter Bible. 
  6. ^ "Jasper" at etymonline.com
  7. ^ Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 0-415-32920-5. 
  8. ^ "Jasper". Gem by Gem. International Colored Gemstone Association. 
  9. ^ Hogan, C. Michael (2008-04-14). "Knossos fieldnotes". The Modern Antiquarian. 
  10. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainFrederick William Rudler (1911). "Jasper". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  11. ^ Hastings's Dict. Bible, 1902, as cited in 1911 Britannica.
  12. ^ "World of Jaspers". Hans Gamma. 
  13. ^ "Mindat data for basanite". Mindat.org. 2012-10-15. Retrieved 2013-03-24. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasper — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
1000000 videos foundNext > 

Tyler, The Creator - Bitch Suck Dick Featuring Jasper And Taco

Directed By: Wolf Haley Edited By: Dave McCary And Wolf Haley From The Album GOBLIN ( yes, its on itunes) Niggas In This Video Include: ANTWAN DIXON NAKEL SM...

Jasper of Charlie Row Campo - West Coasting (Official Music Video)

New single by Jasper Loco (of Charlie Row Campo) - West Coasting. Off the new album "Gutter Tales" out now! Directed by: SANTO LOUIE contact armentastudios@g...

2012 - Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada

I'm especially proud to share this particular video of mine. In my opinion, it is the first true CANADIAN video I've put together that represents some of the...

Jasper - Der HDL-Song - [original & live]

Weitere Infos unter www.jaspermusik.de ---------------------------------------------------------------------- DiEseS LieD IsT FüR aLLe MeInE LieBEn FReuNdE U...

Jasper Forks - Another Sleepless Night (Official Video HD)

TAKEN FROM KONTOR HOUSE OF HOUSE VOL. 19 +++ 42 FULL LENGTH & UNMIXED CLUB ANTHEMS PLUS SPECIAL DJ-MASTERMIX +++ INCL. MANY EXCLUSIVE TRACKS +++ 3CD ...

Jasper - Die Bahnhofstaube Berta [original & live]

Der Songtext: Die Bahnhofstaube Berta Bahnsteig 14 auf den Gleisabschnitten D und E, zwischen Erfrischungsgetränkeautomat und WC kam ein Schnabel mit zwei Fü...

Jasper - Neidlos - [original & live]

Weitere Infos unter www.jaspermusik.de ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Ich bin neidlos glücklich...

JASPER by Aidan Knight with Dan Mangan

Somewhere in the rocky mountains of British Columbia, Aidan Knight and Dan Mangan play JASPER, one of the many great tracks on Aidan Knight's recently releas...

Jasper - Es hört nicht auf - [original & live]

Es hört nicht auf Es hört nicht mehr auf weh zu tun. Ich dachte das geht vorbei. Ich dachte die Zeit überschreibt all das, was an wunden Punkten bleibt. Ich ...

Jasper - Nördlich - [original & live]

Weitere Infos unter www.jaspermusik.de ---------------------------------------------------------------------- (c) by Jasper, 2007. Werbung in eigener Sache: ...

1000000 videos foundNext > 

93046 news items

The Grand Rapids Press - MLive.com

The Grand Rapids Press - MLive.com
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 06:30:00 -0700

Drawings, watercolors and pastels from artists such as Picasso, Van Gogh and Jasper Johns go on display this fall in the exhibition titled "Marks of Genius: 100 Extraordinary Drawings from the Minneapolis Institute of Arts." The appeal of the work ...

Beaumont Enterprise

Beaumont Enterprise
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 08:33:45 -0700

At the Jasper City Council meeting this past Monday, October 20th a proposal to adjust water and sewer rates was approved. The proposal lowers the minimum water usage to 2000 gallons and increases the cost for the usage. The new rate structure that was ...

Hilton Head Island Packet

Hilton Head Island Packet
Thu, 23 Oct 2014 16:50:40 -0700

"We're missing out on a lot of good candidates by only supporting the Democratic Party," said Arzillo, a Jasper County GOP executive committee member. "When we do that at the local level, we give no support to our Republican (state) delegation members, ...

Hilton Head Island Packet

Hilton Head Island Packet
Thu, 23 Oct 2014 17:33:18 -0700

Employment, military and volunteer history: Member, Hardeeville Chamber Of Commerce; member Bluffton Chamber of Commerce; American Heart Association chairman for Jasper County, 2013; fundraising chairman of Jasper Volunteers in Medicine, 2014; ...

Albuquerque Journal

Albuquerque Journal
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 08:12:37 -0700

Jasper was one of four Tasmanian devils – two males and two females – loaned to the Albuquerque BioPark Zoo as part of an effort to create a breeding program for the species that has been decimated by a form of cancer. The Tasmanian devils came to the ...

Hilton Head Island Packet

Hilton Head Island Packet
Thu, 23 Oct 2014 17:25:54 -0700

People should vote for me because I have experience, and I want to continue to work on the economic development Jasper County Council has started. We've done a tremendous amount of work, and I'd like to continue to be part of that. Although small, we ...

Baxter Bulletin

Baxter Bulletin
Tue, 21 Oct 2014 20:45:00 -0700

NORFORK – A size and rebounding advantage went a long way for the Jasper Lady Pirates in their 2014 Twin Rivers Classic opening game against the host team. The Lady Pirates shook off a sluggish start and closed the first half on a 25-1 run en route to ...

REjournals.com

REjournals.com
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 07:26:15 -0700

Mike Marchal, president of Holland Construction Services (Holland), announced that Brian Jasper has joined the Holland team as a Project Manager. Brian brings more than 26 years of experience in the construction industry. Brian's first project with ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!