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For other uses, see Jasper (disambiguation).
Jasper outcrop, Bucegi Mountains, Romania

Jasper, an aggregate of microquartz and/or chalcedony and other mineral phases,[1][2] is an opaque,[3] impure variety of silica, usually red, yellow, brown or green in color; and rarely blue. The common red color is due to iron(III) inclusions. The mineral aggregate breaks with a smooth surface and is used for ornamentation or as a gemstone. It can be highly polished and is used for vases, seals, and snuff boxes. The specific gravity of jasper is typically 2.5 to 2.9.[4] Along with Heliotrope (bloodstone), jasper (green with red spots) is one of the traditional birthstones for March. Jaspilite is a banded iron formation rock that often has distinctive bands of jasper.

Etymology and history[edit]

Moveable ring from 664 to 322 BC (Late Period). Green jasper and gold.[5] The Walters Art Museum
Goat-headed basket carved from red jasper. Russian, late 19th century, Kremlin Armoury

The name means "spotted or speckled stone", and is derived via Old French jaspre (variant of Anglo-Norman jaspe) and Latin iaspidem (nom. iaspis)) from Greek ἴασπις iaspis, (feminine noun)[6] from an oriental language (cf. Hebrew יושפה yushphah, Akkadian yashupu).[7]

Green jasper was used to make bow drills in Mehrgarh between 4th and 5th millennium BC.[8] Jasper is known to have been a favorite gem in the ancient world; its name can be traced back in Arabic, Persian, Hebrew, Assyrian, Greek and Latin.[9] On Minoan Crete, jasper was carved to produce seals circa 1800 BC, as evidenced by archaeological recoveries at the palace of Knossos.[10]

Although the term jasper is now restricted to opaque quartz, the ancient iaspis was a stone of considerable translucency including nephrite.[2] The jasper of antiquity was in many cases distinctly green, for it is often compared to the emerald and other green objects. Jasper is referred to in the Niebelungenlied as being clear and green. Probably the jasper of the ancients included stones which would now be classed as chalcedony, and the emerald-like jasper may have been akin to the modern chrysoprase. The Hebrew word yushphah may have designated a green jasper.[11] Flinders Petrie suggested that the odem, the first stone on the High Priest's breastplate, was a red jasper, whilst tarshish, the tenth stone, may have been a yellow jasper.[12]

Types[edit]

Jasper is an opaque rock of virtually any color stemming from the mineral content of the original sediments or ash. Patterns arise during the consolidation process forming flow and depositional patterns in the original silica rich sediment or volcanic ash. Hydrothermal circulation is generally thought to be required in the formation of jasper.[citation needed]

Jasper can be modified by the diffusion of minerals along discontinuities providing the appearance of vegetative growth, i.e., dendritic. The original materials are often fractured and/or distorted, after deposition, into myriad beautiful patterns which are to be later filled with other colorful minerals. Weathering, with time, will create intensely colored superficial rinds.

The classification and naming of jasper presents a challenge.[13] Terms attributed to various well-defined materials includes the geographic locality where it is found, sometimes quite restricted such as "Bruneau" (a canyon) and "Lahontan" (a lake), rivers and even individual mountains, many are fanciful such as "Forest Fire" or "Rainbow", while others are descriptive such as "Autumn", "Porcelain" or "Dalmatian". A few are designated by the country of origin such as a Brown Egyptian or Red African.

Picture jaspers exhibit combinations of patterns (such as banding from flow or depositional patterns (from water or wind), dendritic or color variations) resulting in what appear to be scenes or images, on a cut section. Diffusion from a center produces a distinctive orbicular appearance, i.e., Leopard Skin Jasper, or linear banding from a fracture as seen in Leisegang Jasper. Healed, fragmented rock produces brecciated (broken) jasper. Examples of this can be seen at Llanddwyn Island in Wales.

The term basanite has occasionally been used to refer to a variety of jasper, for example a black flinty or cherty jasper found in several New England states of the USA. Such varieties of jasper are also informally known as Lydian stone or lydite and have been used as touchstones in testing the purity of precious metal alloys.[14]

Gallery[edit]

Varieties of jasper
Brecciated red jasper tumbled smooth, 1 in (2.5 cm) 
Brecciated yellow jasper, cut and oiled 
Dalmatian jasper, Pune, India 
Green jasper rough, Montjuïc, Barcelona 
Orbicular jasper, 5 cm (2.0 in), Madagascar 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "U.S. Geological Survey, Chalcedony Site". www.USGS.gov. 
  2. ^ a b Kostov, R. I. 2010. Review on the mineralogical systematics of jasper and related rocks. – Archaeometry Workshop, 7, 3, 209-213. PDF
  3. ^ "Jasper". Mindat.org. 
  4. ^ Dietrich, R. V. (2005-05-23). "Jasper". GemRocks. Central Michigan University. 
  5. ^ "Finger Ring with a Representation of Ptah". The Walters Art Museum. 
  6. ^ "Strong's G2393-iaspis". Lexicon. Blue Letter Bible. 
  7. ^ "Jasper" at etymonline.com
  8. ^ Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 0-415-32920-5. 
  9. ^ "Jasper". Gem by Gem. International Colored Gemstone Association. 
  10. ^ Hogan, C. Michael (2008-04-14). "Knossos fieldnotes". The Modern Antiquarian. 
  11. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainFrederick William Rudler (1911). "Jasper". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  12. ^ Hastings's Dict. Bible, 1902, as cited in 1911 Britannica.
  13. ^ "World of Jaspers". Hans Gamma. 
  14. ^ "Mindat data for basanite". Mindat.org. 2012-10-15. Retrieved 2013-03-24. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasper — Please support Wikipedia.
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Stockton Record
Fri, 19 Dec 2014 17:41:15 -0800

Now 14 and in his senior year, Jasper, with characteristic humility, is marking another landmark. He's just been accepted into Princeton University, putting him among the youngest to enter the Ivy League, where less than a handful of 15- and 16-year ...
 
Clarksville Leaf Chronicle
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 10:34:21 -0800

TDVA Commissioner Many-Bears Grinder and Tennessee State Veterans Home Executive Director Ed Harries announced their selection of Warren Anthony Jasper to head the 108-bed State Veterans Home currently under construction in Clarksville.
 
Harrison Daily (subscription)
Fri, 19 Dec 2014 16:33:45 -0800

Jasper held Lead Hill to just four points in the opening quarter for a 9-4 lead. The Pirates stretched that lead to 21-12 as the two teams went to the lockerrooms. Both teams scored 15 points in the third quarter as the Pirates' lead stayed at nine ...

Concord Monitor

Concord Monitor
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 12:48:45 -0800

Rep. Shawn Jasper, right walks by former Speaker of the House Bill O'Brien, seated left, in the back of the House chambers as votes are counted Wed. Dec. 3, 2014 at the Statehouse in Concord, N.H. Jasper mounted a last-minute challenge to former ...
 
Hilton Head Island Packet
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 14:52:30 -0800

The Jasper County school board flunked again this year when it labeled its superintendent "above average," even though student performance has been anything but. The district has not improved its "at risk" rating on state report cards since 2009 and in ...

Tristatehomepage.com

Tristatehomepage.com
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 16:00:00 -0800

Jasper, IN (News Now Dubois County) The city of Jasper starts lowering Beaver Lake's water level - something it does each year. It's a process that takes about three weeks and prepares the lake for the winter season by dropping it by six feet. "It's ...
 
14 News WFIE Evansville
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 14:07:30 -0800

After a lot of conversation about concerns, the Jasper TIF district passes through the City Council. The vote was unanimous in favor of the TIF. Jasper Mayor Terry Seitz says the TIF now goes back to the redevelopment commission for final approval at ...

KBTV Fox 4 Beaumont

KBTV Fox 4 Beaumont
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 22:22:30 -0800

JASPER COUNTY - The vehicle belonging to a Jasper County man who was murdered is back in Jasper County. Jasper County deputies are combing through Herbert Deaton's truck for evidence, linking the couple suspected of killing the 89-year-old.
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