digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

For other uses, see Jasper (disambiguation).
Jasper outcrop, Bucegi Mountains, Romania

Jasper, an aggregate of microquartz and/or chalcedony and other mineral phases,[1][2] is an opaque,[3] impure variety of silica, usually red, yellow, brown or green in color; and rarely blue. The common red color is due to iron(III) inclusions. The mineral aggregate breaks with a smooth surface and is used for ornamentation or as a gemstone. It can be highly polished and is used for vases, seals, and snuff boxes. The specific gravity of jasper is typically 2.5 to 2.9.[4] Along with heliotrope (bloodstone), jasper (green with red spots) is one of the traditional birthstones for March. Jaspilite is a banded iron formation rock that often has distinctive bands of jasper.

Etymology and history[edit]

Moveable ring from 664 to 322 BC (Late Period). Green jasper and gold.[5] The Walters Art Museum
Goat-headed basket carved from red jasper. Russian, late 19th century, Kremlin Armoury

The name means "spotted or speckled stone", and is derived via Old French jaspre (variant of Anglo-Norman jaspe) and Latin iaspidem (nom. iaspis)) from Greek ἴασπις iaspis, (feminine noun)[6] from an oriental language (cf. Hebrew יושפה yushphah, Akkadian yashupu).[7]

Green jasper was used to make bow drills in Mehrgarh between 4th and 5th millennium BC.[8] Jasper is known to have been a favorite gem in the ancient world; its name can be traced back in Arabic, Persian, Hebrew, Assyrian, Greek and Latin.[9] On Minoan Crete, jasper was carved to produce seals circa 1800 BC, as evidenced by archaeological recoveries at the palace of Knossos.[10]

Although the term jasper is now restricted to opaque quartz, the ancient iaspis was a stone of considerable translucency including nephrite.[2] The jasper of antiquity was in many cases distinctly green, for it is often compared to the emerald and other green objects. Jasper is referred to in the Niebelungenlied as being clear and green. Probably the jasper of the ancients included stones which would now be classed as chalcedony, and the emerald-like jasper may have been akin to the modern chrysoprase. The Hebrew word yushphah may have designated a green jasper.[11] Flinders Petrie suggested that the odem, the first stone on the High Priest's breastplate, was a red jasper, whilst tarshish, the tenth stone, may have been a yellow jasper.[12]

Types[edit]

Jasper is an opaque rock of virtually any color stemming from the mineral content of the original sediments or ash. Patterns arise during the consolidation process forming flow and depositional patterns in the original silica rich sediment or volcanic ash. Hydrothermal circulation is generally thought to be required in the formation of jasper.[citation needed]

Jasper can be modified by the diffusion of minerals along discontinuities providing the appearance of vegetative growth, i.e., dendritic. The original materials are often fractured and/or distorted, after deposition, into myriad beautiful patterns which are to be later filled with other colorful minerals. Weathering, with time, will create intensely colored superficial rinds.

The classification and naming of jasper varieties presents a challenge.[13] Terms attributed to various well-defined materials includes the geographic locality where it is found, sometimes quite restricted such as "Bruneau" (a canyon) and "Lahontan" (a lake), rivers and even individual mountains, many are fanciful such as "forest fire" or "rainbow", while others are descriptive such as "autumn" or "porcelain". A few are designated by the place of origin such as a brown Egyptian or red African.

Picture jaspers exhibit combinations of patterns (such as banding from flow or depositional patterns (from water or wind), dendritic or color variations) resulting in what appear to be scenes or images, on a cut section. Diffusion from a center produces a distinctive orbicular appearance, i.e., leopard skin jasper, or linear banding from a fracture as seen in leisegang jasper. Healed, fragmented rock produces brecciated (broken) jasper. While these "picture jaspers" can be found all over the world, specific colors or patterns are unique based upon the geographic region from which they originate. Oregon's biggs jasper and bruneau jasper from Bruneau Canyon near the Bruneau River in Idaho are known as particularly fine examples. Other examples can be seen at Llanddwyn Island in Wales.[14]

The term basanite has occasionally been used to refer to a variety of jasper, a black flinty or cherty jasper found in several New England states of the USA. Such varieties of jasper are also informally known as lydian stone or lydite and have been used as touchstones in testing the purity of precious metal alloys.[15]

Gallery[edit]

Varieties of jasper
Brecciated red jasper tumbled smooth, 1 in (2.5 cm) 
Brecciated yellow jasper, cut and oiled 
Green jasper rough, Montjuïc, Barcelona 
Orbicular jasper, 5 cm (2.0 in), Madagascar 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "U.S. Geological Survey, Chalcedony Site". www.USGS.gov. 
  2. ^ a b Kostov, R. I. 2010. Review on the mineralogical systematics of jasper and related rocks. – Archaeometry Workshop, 7, 3, 209-213. PDF
  3. ^ "Jasper". Mindat.org. 
  4. ^ Dietrich, R. V. (2005-05-23). "Jasper". GemRocks. Central Michigan University. 
  5. ^ "Finger Ring with a Representation of Ptah". The Walters Art Museum. 
  6. ^ "Strong's G2393-iaspis". Lexicon. Blue Letter Bible. 
  7. ^ "Jasper" at etymonline.com
  8. ^ Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 0-415-32920-5. 
  9. ^ "Jasper". Gem by Gem. International Colored Gemstone Association. 
  10. ^ Hogan, C. Michael (2008-04-14). "Knossos fieldnotes". The Modern Antiquarian. 
  11. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainFrederick William Rudler (1911). "Jasper". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  12. ^ Hastings's Dict. Bible, 1902, as cited in 1911 Britannica.
  13. ^ "World of Jaspers". Hans Gamma. 
  14. ^ Jasper Gemological Information - International Gem Society (IGS) Retrieved 16 January, 2015
  15. ^ "Mindat data for basanite". Mindat.org. 2012-10-15. Retrieved 2013-03-24. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasper — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

2173472 news items

AL.com

AL.com
Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:30:00 -0700

When the expansion is complete, Mar-Jac will add 50 jobs to the Jasper operations. The grant will help Jasper expand its Town Creek wastewater treatment plant to increase intake capacity to 500,000 gallons of wastewater daily. The Mar-Jac plant will ...

Jasper County Sun Times

Jasper County Sun Times
Tue, 01 Sep 2015 18:07:30 -0700

COLUMBIA — Attorney Margie Bright Matthews of Colleton County has won Jasper County in the special election for the state Senate District 45 seat with nearly 37 percent of the vote, followed by Rep. Kenneth Hodges with about 24 percent. Senate ...

Charleston Post Courier

Charleston Post Courier
Tue, 01 Sep 2015 09:17:51 -0700

Residents soon may move back into the Sergeant Jasper apartment building while The Beach Co. moves forward with its lawsuit challenging the city's rejection of its most recent redevelopment plan. The building was emptied out last year in the ...

Jasper County Sun Times

Jasper County Sun Times
Wed, 02 Sep 2015 07:48:45 -0700

Horton was the first Jasper County African American bank teller, and Morse was the first Jasper County African American grocery store cashier. The “Sankofa” moment continued from the past to the present as Vashti K. Washington was honored for ...

Jasper County Sun Times

Jasper County Sun Times
Wed, 02 Sep 2015 08:00:00 -0700

The Jasper County school board elections, one of the most anticipated county elections in years, are set for Sept. 22. All seven incumbents and nine challengers have filed for the seats, for a total to 16 candidates running for the nine districts. A ...

Newton Daily News

Newton Daily News
Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:52:30 -0700

Work to repair cracks and building separation at the Jasper County Law Enforcement Center was approved by the Jasper County Board of Supervisors on Tuesday. Denco Highway Construction Corporation of Mingo was awarded the bid for the work at ...

wlfi.com

wlfi.com
Tue, 01 Sep 2015 07:48:45 -0700

JASPER COUNTY, Ind. (WLFI) — The Franciscan Alliance has finalized the purchase of the Jasper County Hospital, making it the group's 14th hospital in Indiana and Illinois. The purchase is final effective Tuesday. On June 1, the hospital's Board of ...
 
Evansville Courier & Press
Wed, 02 Sep 2015 06:30:00 -0700

The public is invited to TRI-CAP's open house Sept. 24 at the newly renovated 17,000 square foot clinic, offices and classrooms facility. It is located at 607 Third Avenue in Jasper. At 4 p.m. EDT, officials will make remarks and host a ribbon cutting.
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight