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For other uses, see Jasper (disambiguation).
Jasper outcrop, Bucegi Mountains, Romania

Jasper, an aggregate of microquartz and/or chalcedony and other mineral phases,[1][2] is an opaque,[3] impure variety of silica, usually red, yellow, brown or green in color; and rarely blue. The common red color is due to iron(III) inclusions. The mineral aggregate breaks with a smooth surface and is used for ornamentation or as a gemstone. It can be highly polished and is used for vases, seals, and snuff boxes. The specific gravity of jasper is typically 2.5 to 2.9.[4] Along with heliotrope (bloodstone), jasper (green with red spots) is one of the traditional birthstones for March. Jaspilite is a banded iron formation rock that often has distinctive bands of jasper.

Etymology and history[edit]

Moveable ring from 664 to 322 BC (Late Period). Green jasper and gold.[5] The Walters Art Museum
Goat-headed basket carved from red jasper. Russian, late 19th century, Kremlin Armoury

The name means "spotted or speckled stone", and is derived via Old French jaspre (variant of Anglo-Norman jaspe) and Latin iaspidem (nom. iaspis)) from Greek ἴασπις iaspis, (feminine noun)[6] from an oriental language (cf. Hebrew יושפה yushphah, Akkadian yashupu).[7]

Green jasper was used to make bow drills in Mehrgarh between 4th and 5th millennium BC.[8] Jasper is known to have been a favorite gem in the ancient world; its name can be traced back in Arabic, Persian, Hebrew, Assyrian, Greek and Latin.[9] On Minoan Crete, jasper was carved to produce seals circa 1800 BC, as evidenced by archaeological recoveries at the palace of Knossos.[10]

Although the term jasper is now restricted to opaque quartz, the ancient iaspis was a stone of considerable translucency including nephrite.[2] The jasper of antiquity was in many cases distinctly green, for it is often compared to the emerald and other green objects. Jasper is referred to in the Niebelungenlied as being clear and green. Probably the jasper of the ancients included stones which would now be classed as chalcedony, and the emerald-like jasper may have been akin to the modern chrysoprase. The Hebrew word yushphah may have designated a green jasper.[11] Flinders Petrie suggested that the odem, the first stone on the High Priest's breastplate, was a red jasper, whilst tarshish, the tenth stone, may have been a yellow jasper.[12]

Types[edit]

Jasper is an opaque rock of virtually any color stemming from the mineral content of the original sediments or ash. Patterns arise during the consolidation process forming flow and depositional patterns in the original silica rich sediment or volcanic ash. Hydrothermal circulation is generally thought to be required in the formation of jasper.[citation needed]

Jasper can be modified by the diffusion of minerals along discontinuities providing the appearance of vegetative growth, i.e., dendritic. The original materials are often fractured and/or distorted, after deposition, into myriad beautiful patterns which are to be later filled with other colorful minerals. Weathering, with time, will create intensely colored superficial rinds.

The classification and naming of jasper varieties presents a challenge.[13] Terms attributed to various well-defined materials includes the geographic locality where it is found, sometimes quite restricted such as "Bruneau" (a canyon) and "Lahontan" (a lake), rivers and even individual mountains, many are fanciful such as "forest fire" or "rainbow", while others are descriptive such as "autumn" or "porcelain". A few are designated by the place of origin such as a brown Egyptian or red African.

Picture jaspers exhibit combinations of patterns (such as banding from flow or depositional patterns (from water or wind), dendritic or color variations) resulting in what appear to be scenes or images, on a cut section. Diffusion from a center produces a distinctive orbicular appearance, i.e., leopard skin jasper, or linear banding from a fracture as seen in leisegang jasper. Healed, fragmented rock produces brecciated (broken) jasper. While these "picture jaspers" can be found all over the world, specific colors or patterns are unique based upon the geographic region from which they originate. Oregon's biggs jasper and bruneau jasper from Bruneau Canyon near the Bruneau River in Idaho are known as particularly fine examples. Other examples can be seen at Llanddwyn Island in Wales.[14]

The term basanite has occasionally been used to refer to a variety of jasper, a jasper pear for example or a black flinty or cherty jasper found in several New England states of the USA and in South Korea. Such varieties of jasper are also informally known as lydian stone or lydite and have been used as touchstones in testing the purity of precious metal alloys.[15]

Gallery[edit]

Varieties of jasper
Brecciated red jasper tumbled smooth, 1 in (2.5 cm) 
Brecciated yellow jasper, cut and oiled 
Green jasper rough, Montjuïc, Barcelona 
Orbicular jasper, 5 cm (2.0 in), Madagascar 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "U.S. Geological Survey, Chalcedony Site". www.USGS.gov. 
  2. ^ a b Kostov, R. I. 2010. Review on the mineralogical systematics of jasper and related rocks. – Archaeometry Workshop, 7, 3, 209-213. PDF
  3. ^ "Jasper". Mindat.org. 
  4. ^ Dietrich, R. V. (2005-05-23). "Jasper". GemRocks. Central Michigan University. 
  5. ^ "Finger Ring with a Representation of Ptah". The Walters Art Museum. 
  6. ^ "Strong's G2393-iaspis". Lexicon. Blue Letter Bible. 
  7. ^ "Jasper" at etymonline.com
  8. ^ Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 0-415-32920-5. 
  9. ^ "Jasper". Gem by Gem. International Colored Gemstone Association. 
  10. ^ Hogan, C. Michael (2008-04-14). "Knossos fieldnotes". The Modern Antiquarian. 
  11. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainFrederick William Rudler (1911). "Jasper". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  12. ^ Hastings's Dict. Bible, 1902, as cited in 1911 Britannica.
  13. ^ "World of Jaspers". Hans Gamma. 
  14. ^ Jasper Gemological Information - International Gem Society (IGS) Retrieved 16 January, 2015
  15. ^ "Mindat data for basanite". Mindat.org. 2012-10-15. Retrieved 2013-03-24. 

External links[edit]


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3130497 news items

WSAV-TV

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Jasper County voters will elect a new state senator and school board in just weeks, but there's already been some controversy surrounding the upcoming September election. Some voters reached out to NEWS 3 with questions, after receiving a document ...

WSAV-TV

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The ballot is set for Jasper County's Sept. 22 special election to elect school board members following a federal judge's decision in April to draw new voting districts. All nine school board seats will be open for election. Polls will be open from 7 a ...
 
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Beaumont Enterprise

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Interested in being part of the Jasper High School Fishing Team?ALL students, 7th through 12th grade, along with their parents, who plan tobe part of the JHS Fishing Team for the 2015-16 school year need to plan tobe at our registration meeting on ...
 
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Dallas Morning News (blog)

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Dallas Cowboys Jasper Brinkley (54) stretches during Dallas Cowboys minicamp at AT&T Stadium in Arlington, on Wednesday, June 17, 2015. (Vernon Bryant/The Dallas Morning News). 1. The basics. Related. Meet 'arts-and-craftsy' Tony Romo in Cowboys ...

WJLA

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Fri, 24 Jul 2015 02:34:36 -0700

Jasper Spires, the man accused of stabbing and killing a Metro rider over the Independence Day Weekend, appeared in court Friday. He's charged with felony murder in the death of 24-year-old Kevin Sutherland. 18-year-old Spires sat in court today as ...

Metro

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Sun, 26 Jul 2015 14:39:48 -0700

Manchester United have already sealed a deal to sign Jasper Cillessen and are waiting to announce it, according to reports. United were thought to have sorted out personal terms to sign Ajax glovesman Cillessen a week ago, with the Red Devils seeing ...
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