digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

For other uses, see Japa (disambiguation).

Japa (Sanskrit: जप) is a spiritual discipline involving the meditative repetition of a mantra or name of a divine power. The mantra or name may be spoken softly, enough for the practitioner to hear it, or it may be spoken purely within the reciter's mind. Japa may be performed while sitting in a meditation posture, while performing other activities, or as part of formal worship in group settings. The practice of repetitive prayer is present in varied forms within most religions in the world, although the religions of India generally give more emphasis to it as a specific discipline.

Etymology[edit]

The Sanskrit word japa is derived from the root jap-, meaning "to utter in a low voice, repeat internally, mutter".[1]

Varieties of Japa[edit]

Japa Mala, or Japa beads, consisting of 108 beads plus the head bead.

Mental repetition[edit]

Many Hindus will recite mantras, either under their breath or in mental introspection, at any time of the day. This sort of casual chanting is said to be a way of inspiring reflection on either the self or divine power, thereby attaining a life which, though interrupted by daily chores and concerns, is a constant flow of prayer. Frequent mental repetition of a mantra (or "mantram") was also recommended by Eknath Easwaran, as the second point in the Passage Meditation program that he developed.[2]

Beads[edit]

Main article: Hindu prayer beads

In some forms of japa, the repetitions are counted using a string of beads known as a japa mala. Many different types of materials are used for japa. The number of beads in the japa mala is generally 108. It is not uncommon for people to wear japa beads around their neck, although some practitioners prefer to carry them in a bead-bag in order to keep them clean.

Analogues in other traditions[edit]

Some Catholic prayer forms that involve repetition of prayers, such as use of the Rosary or one of various chaplets, are similar to, but not "japa", because the aim is different. Mental methods of repeated short prayers, very similar to japa are also used in Christian traditions, most notably the practice of repeating the Jesus Prayer found in the Eastern Orthodox Church.[3][4] The practice of dhikr by Sufis and some other Muslims is also similar to japa, as is the practice of nembutsu in Pure Land Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhists include japa meditation as a large part of their religious practices.

Mantra Upasana[edit]

The process of initiating the japa practitioner (called the "Sadhak") into the mantra practice is called the Mantra Upasana. A qualified guru (called Upasaka) examines the practitioners body and determines body and mind passageways(called the "Nadi") that are clogged. Then a program called Mantra Upasana is indoctrinated into the practitioner. As the japa progresses the Nadi's are cleared in a certain sequence leading to a healthy body and mind.

Aims[edit]

The stated aim, or goal of japa may vary greatly depending on the mantra involved and the religious philosophy of the practitioner. In both Buddhist and Hindu traditions mantras may be given to aspirants by their guru, after some form of initiation. The stated goal could be moksha, nirvana, bhakti, or simple personal communion with a divine power in a similar way to prayer. Many gurus and other spiritual teachers, and other religious leaders, especially Hindu and Buddhist, teach that these represent different names for the same transformed state of consciousness. However, this claim is not made about mantras that are not intended for spiritual growth and self-realization.[5]

After long use of a mantra that is intended to foster self-realization or intimacy with a divine power, an individual may reach a state of ajapajapam. In ajapajapam, the mantra "repeats itself" in the mind.[2] Similar states have been reached by adherents to other major faith traditions, using prayers from their own traditions.

See also[edit]

Popular Japa mantras
General

References[edit]

  1. ^ V. S. Apte. A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. p. 447.
  2. ^ a b Eknath Easwaran (1977/2008). Mantram Handbook (see article) (5th ed.). Tomales, CA: Nilgiri Press. ISBN 1-58638-028-1
  3. ^ Doug Oman & Joseph D. Driskill (2003). Holy name repetition as a spiritual exercise and therapeutic technique. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, v22 n1, pp5-19.
  4. ^ Per-Olof Sjögren (1966/1996). The Jesus prayer: Lord Jesus Christ, son of God, have mercy upon me] (3rd ed.) London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. ISBN 0-281-04957-2
  5. ^ For example, when used for magical or occult purposes.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japa — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

2437 news items

 
DhakaTribune
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 14:11:15 -0700

The Jatiya Party submitted its annual income and expenditure report to the Election Commission for 2013, showing lower expenditure than the party's income yesterday. According the report, the JaPa earned Tk3.37 crore and spent Tk2.82 crore during the ...
 
DhakaTribune
Fri, 15 Aug 2014 14:33:45 -0700

Earlier, JaPa presidium member Kazi Feroz Rashid was acting as the president of the old committee. Centring the issue of deputy leader, Ershad removed him from his poet and appointed Syed Abu Hossain Babla as new president. Through a statement, the ...
 
DhakaTribune
Sat, 23 Aug 2014 08:33:45 -0700

Jatiya Party (JaPa) Chairman HM Ershad has urged the BNP leaders and activists to join his party, shunning alliance with the Jamaat-e-Islami. He made the call while speaking as chief guest at the biennial conference of Feni district JP at Mizan Maidan ...
 
DhakaTribune
Mon, 11 Aug 2014 13:31:14 -0700

But JaPa Chairman HM Ershad sent another letter to the speaker last week, opposing the selection of Feroz Rashid by his wife. Ershad, also the former president, had not proposed anyone's name. The deposed president, however, removed him from the city ...
 
DhakaTribune
Sat, 09 Aug 2014 13:15:00 -0700

Through a party statement, the JaPa chief announced the new committee dissolving the old one. The statement, signed by the party's central Joint Office Secretary Abul Hassan Ahmed Juwel, also said the decision was made following the section 39 of the ...

Olhar Direto

Olhar Direto
Fri, 29 Aug 2014 09:18:45 -0700

Carol Nakamura (assistente de palco de Fausto Silva) e Sidney Sampaio (ator) terminaram o polêmico noivado (cheio de idas e vindas, tapas e beijos etc) que eles tanto expuseram na mídia. O blog descobriu que os patrocinadores do casamento, que ...
 
DhakaTribune
Sun, 31 Aug 2014 11:33:45 -0700

While discussing its role in the third session starting today, the JaPa decided that it would examine the bill thoroughly and walk out of the House, if necessary, to protest the government decision on judges impeachment and the national broadcast policy.
 
DhakaTribune
Sat, 30 Aug 2014 12:41:15 -0700

There is no rule of law in the country, which is why people are being exposed to the mercy of criminals every day, said Jatiya Party (JaPa) Chairman HM Ershad yesterday. “People are being killed every day. There were 35 murders last month, but no steps ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Japa

You can talk about Japa with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!