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James Olds (May 30, 1922 in Chicago, Illinois - August 21, 1976 in California) was an American psychologist who co-discovered the pleasure center of the brain with Peter Milner while he was a postdoctoral fellow at McGill University in 1954. He is considered to be one of the founders of modern neuroscience[1][2][3] and received numerous distinctions ranging from election to the United States National Academy of Sciences to the Newcomb Cleveland Prize of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Biography[edit]

Early life and education[edit]

Olds was born in Chicago, Illinois. His father Leland Olds later became Chairman of the Federal Power Commission under President Franklin D. Roosevelt. His grandfather George D. Olds was the ninth President of Amherst College. Olds grew up in Nyack, New York. Olds attended college at a number of schools including St. John's College, Annapolis, and the University of Wisconsin, but received his undergraduate B.A. from Amherst College in 1947. His undergraduate years were interrupted by military service in the U.S. Army during the Second World War as part of the Persian Gulf Command. Following the war, Olds went on to get his Ph.D. at Harvard University in the Department of Social Relations under Professor Talcott Parsons. His thesis was focused on motivation and led to his subsequent interest in the biological basis of motivation.[4] Olds married fellow neuroscientist, Marianne E. Olds in 1946. They had two children, Jacqueline Olds and James Leland Olds.

Career[edit]

Following his Ph.D., Olds went on to do postdoctoral work at McGill University under Donald Olding Hebb, where he made his most important discovery with Peter Milner.[5] Subsequently Olds moved to UCLA, where he took his first academic appointment at the Brain Research Institute.[6] In 1957 Olds was appointed associate professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Michigan.[7] He left Michigan in 1969 to become the Bing Professor of Behavioral Biology at the California Institute of Technology[8] where he continued his research and led a large lab until his untimely death in a swimming accident in August 1976. His last work was aimed at understanding the mechanisms of learning and memory.

Bibliography[edit]

  • 1954 Olds, J., and P. Milner. Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 47:419-27.
  • 1955 Olds, J. "Reward" from brain stimulation in the rat. Science 122:878.
  • 1956 Olds, J. Runway and maze behavior controlled by basomedial forebrain stimulation in the rat. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49:507-12.
  • 1956 Olds, J., K. F. Killiam, and P. Bach-Y-Rita. Self-stimulation of the brain used as a screening method for tranquilizing drugs. Science 124:265-66.
  • 1956 Olds, J. Pleasure center in the brain. Sci. Am. 195: 105-16.
  • 1958 Olds, J. Self-stimulation of the brain. Science 127:315-24.
  • 1958 Olds, J., and M. E. Olds. Positive reinforcement produced by stimulating hypothalamus with iproniazid and other compounds. Science 127:1175-76.
  • 1965 Operant conditioning of single unit responses. Proc. 23rd Congr. Physiological Sciences. Excerpta Med. Int. Congr. Ser. no. 87, pp. 372–80.
  • 1967 The limbic system and behavioural reinforcement. Prog. Brain Res. 27 144-64.
  • The central nervous system and the reinforcement of behaviour. Am. Psychol. 24 (1969) 114-32.
  • 1969 Olds, J., and Hirano, T.: Conditioned responses of hippocampal and other neurons. Electroencephalogr. clin. Neurophysiol. 26 159-66.
  • 1969 Olds, J., and Best, P. J.: Single unit patterns during anticipatory behaviour. Electroencephalogr. clin. Neurophysiol. 26 144-58.
  • 1972 Olds, J., Disterhoft, J. F., Segal, M., Kornblith, C. L., and Hirsh, R.: Learning centres of rat brain mapped by measuring latencies of conditioned unit responses. J. Neurophysiol. 35 202-19.
  • Drives and reinforcements Raven Books ISBN 0-89004-087-7 (1977)

References[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Olds — Please support Wikipedia.
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125 news items

National Science Foundation (press release)

National Science Foundation (press release)
Wed, 03 Sep 2014 11:45:00 -0700

The National Science Foundation (NSF) has selected George Mason University's James L. Olds to serve as assistant director for the Directorate for Biological Sciences (BIO). BIO's mission is to enable discoveries for understanding life. BIO-supported ...
 
Pueblo Chieftain
Wed, 10 Jun 2015 19:48:45 -0700

Leland James Olds and Chanel Marie Watkins, both of Pueblo. Matthew W. Arden Turner and Patricia Rae Hines, both of Pueblo. Robert James Quintana Jr. and Reyna Ashley Ehrman, both of Pueblo. Jared Michael Cavin and Miranda Renee West, both of ...

ExecutiveGov

ExecutiveGov
Mon, 08 Sep 2014 09:41:44 -0700

Interdisciplinary researcher James Olds has joined the National Science Foundation as assistant director of the Directorate for Biological Sciences, NSF announced Wednesday. The academic leader, who starts in his new role in October 2014, is a ...

Live Science

Live Science
Thu, 26 Mar 2015 17:32:22 -0700

James Olds is head of the U.S. National Science Foundation's Directorate for Biological Sciences and is a named professor of molecular neuroscience at George Mason University. Olds contributed this article to Live Science's Expert Voices: Op-Ed & Insights.

Live Science

Live Science
Thu, 26 Mar 2015 17:27:09 -0700

... brain science, and for more on what scientists expect from the future of brain research, read the related essay "Unlocking the Brain, Earth's Most Complex Biological Structure " by neuroscientist, and NSF Directorate for Biological Sciences head ...
 
Post Searchlight
Tue, 23 Jul 2013 16:54:17 -0700

Funeral services for Mr. Johnny James Olds Jr., 39, were held Saturday, July 20, 2013, at Antioch M.B. Church in Brinson, with the Rev. Kelvin Wells officiating. Interment was at Oak Long Cemetery in Miller County, with Larry Williams, Carye Collier ...

Discover Magazine

Discover Magazine
Thu, 02 Apr 2015 11:24:26 -0700

At a McGill University lab in the early 1950s, postdoc James Olds was hunched over a rat, trying to attach electrodes to the area of its brain he suspected was associated with pain. Olds and graduate student Peter Milner planned to zap the rat every ...
 
Boing Boing
Mon, 03 Nov 2014 03:13:38 -0800

In the 1940s, two researchers named James Olds and Peter Milner accidentally uncovered some peculiar properties of a special area of the brain. The researchers implanted electrodes in the brains of lab mice that enabled the mice to give themselves tiny ...
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