|James Edward Pough|
|Born||James Edward Pough
February 16, 1948
Jacksonville, Florida, United States
|Died||June 18, 1990
Jacksonville, Florida, United States
|Cause of death||Suicide|
|Date||June 17–18, 1990|
|Location(s)||Jacksonville, Florida, United States|
|Killed||12 (including himself)|
Universal M1 Carbine
James Edward "Pop" Pough (February 16, 1948 – June 18, 1990) was an American spree killer, who, on June 18, 1990, killed nine people and wounded four others in a General Motors Acceptance Corporation car loan office in Jacksonville, Florida, before committing suicide. The day before, he had already killed a prostitute and her pimp, wounded two teenagers, and robbed a convenience store.
The shooting at the GMAC office was the worst single-day massacre by a lone gunman in Florida history, surpassing the murder of eight machine shop employees in Hialeah by Carl Robert Brown on August 20, 1982. It was surpassed on June 12, 2016 by the murder of 50 people in the massacre at the Pulse nightclub shooting in Orlando.
Pough, who was born on February 16, 1948, in Jacksonville, Florida and was the first of nine children, grew up in an area near Florida Community College at Jacksonville. As a child, Pough suffered from asthma and he had a close relationship to his mother, whom he helped out a lot after his father had left the family in 1959. He attended a vocational school, but dropped out in his sophomore year. At the age of 18, he began working as a common laborer, which he stayed as until his death. He earned a reputation as a very reliable worker and his business agent would later describe him as one of their best, and somebody who was never late. During the last year of his life, he was doing construction maintenance at a brewery.
According to former schoolmates, Pough had affiliations with gangs during his time at school. He was arrested twice in 1965 for vagrancy, and twice again in 1966, once for attempted robbery and a second time for assault after he attacked a construction worker who owed him a quarter. In 1968, Pough was arrested for dangerously displaying a knife and was fined $75, and in July 1969, he was fined $10 after being charged for gambling. In 1970, he was arrested, but not prosecuted, for motor vehicle theft and vagrancy-prowling by auto.
1971 murder of David Lee Pender
On May 8, 1971, Pough got into an argument with his best friend, David Lee Pender, who had called his girlfriend a "bitch". In the following scuffle, Pough grabbed a .38-caliber pistol from his girlfriend's purse and shot Pender three times; he eventually died in a hospital. According to relatives, he never managed to get over the fact that he had killed his friend.
Pough was initially charged with murder, though the charge was later reduced to manslaughter. In the end, he pleaded guilty to aggravated assault and was sentenced to five years probation, but the judgment of his guilt was withheld by the court subject to the successful completion of probation.
Due to Pough's violent behavior in the past, it was also ruled that he should never be allowed to own a gun, though this was never forwarded to police. As a result, Pough was not considered a felon and therefore was able to purchase several handguns, among them the .38-caliber revolver he later used to commit suicide, which was registered with the police on June 4, 1979. In 1977, Pough appeared twice in court for charges of bad debt, and there was also an outstanding warrant for his arrest in a 1982 employment compensation fraud case.
Life prior to the shootings
In December 1988, Pough traded his old car for a 1988 Pontiac Grand Am, though he soon had difficulties to make his payments. As a result, the car was voluntarily repossessed by GMAC in January 1990. He received a bill for $6,394 of outstanding fees in March, and again on April 6, which was the last contact between him and the office. About two months prior to the shootings, Pough purchased a M1 carbine at a local pawnshop.
Pough, who was living in a rundown duplex in Jacksonville's Northwest Quadrant at the time, was known by his neighbors as a quiet and nice man who kept a regular and fixed schedule, but also as someone who would become angry fairly quickly and get engaged in enraged conversations, especially in matters concerning money and his car. Relatives described him as a recluse with no friends.
After the death of his mother three years prior to the shootings, Pough was said to have emotionally changed for the worse, saying that he had nothing left to live for and arguing that he would "take someone with him when he leaves this world". Frequently, he had violent outbursts, which were directed against his wife, Theresa, and twice he threatened her by putting a gun to her head. In January 1990, they separated, as Mrs. Pough feared for her safety, and on March 2, she was granted an injunction that disallowed Pough to get in contact with her for a year. As a consequence, he withdrew even more and rarely socialized.
The 1990 killing spree
Pough started his killing spree in the night of June 17 at about 12:50 a.m. Armed with his M1 carbine, which was wrapped in a blanket, he walked up to a group of men standing at a street corner in the northwest section of Jacksonville, not far from his home, and killed Louis Carl Bacon, a pimp, with two shots in the chest before leaving. A couple of minutes later, he attacked prostitute Doretta Drake, who was chatting with two other women in a vacant parking lot just two blocks from the first crime scene. After hitting Drake with his car, throwing her on the sidewalk, Pough stepped out of his Buick and killed her with a single shot to the head, again from the M1, before driving away. Police assumed that the reason behind these killings was a failed sex-for-money deal.
A short time later, Pough also shot and wounded two youths, 17 and 18 years of age, after asking them for directions. Later, on the morning of June 18, Pough entered a convenience store, threatened the clerk with a pistol and, stating that he didn't have anything to lose, demanded all of the money in the register. After getting the money he left.
After robbing the convenience store, he visited his mother's grave one last time, and then called his supervisor that he wouldn't come to work because he had something else to do. At about 10:44 a.m., Pough parked his car at the General Motors Acceptance Corporation office located at 7870 Baymeadows Way in Jacksonville. He entered the building through the front door, armed with his M1 carbine, a .38-caliber revolver, several loaded magazines, and ammunition packed in his pockets. Then, without saying a word, he immediately began shooting with the M1 carbine at two customers at the front counter, killing Julia Burgess and wounding David Hendrix with four shots. Walking through the open office, he then systematically moved from desk to desk and shot at the GMAC workers, deliberately aiming at those hiding under their desks.
Drew Woods was the first to be shot at his desk, followed by Cynthia Perry and Barbara Holland nearby, as well as Phyllis Griggs, who was injured. When the GMAC employees realized what was going on, many of them escaped through a back door of the building, while Pough started shooting at those ducking for cover. GMAC employees Janice David, Sharon Hall, Jewell Belote, Lee Simonton, Denise Highfill, Ron Echevarria, and Nancy Dill were also shot. He then put the .38-caliber revolver to his head and committed suicide. In just about two minutes, Pough had fired at least 28 rounds from his carbine, hitting 11 of the 85 workers in the office, as well as the two customers. Six of his victims died at the scene, while another three died at hospital, the last being Jewell Belote, who succumbed to his wounds nine days after the shooting.
When searching Pough's car, police recovered a loaded 9mm pistol, two magazines, and ammunition, as well as twelve pieces of nylon rope, each having a length of 24 inches, which led police to the assumption that Pough initially might have intended to take hostages. When police arrived at Pough's home, it had been ransacked, although they found a calendar with two dates circled in red: May 8, the day he killed his friend Pender, and June 18.
- June 17
- Louis Carl Bacon, 39
- Doretta Drake, 30
- June 18
- Julia White Burgess, 42, customer
- Drew Woods, 38
- Cynthia L. Perry, 30
- Barbara Duckwall Holland, 45
- Janice David, 40
- Sharon Louise Hall, 45
- Jewell Belote, 50, died on June 27
- Lee Simonton, 33
- Denise Sapp Highfill, 36
- June 17
- Unidentified teenager, 17
- Unidentified teenager, 18
- June 18
- David Hendrix, 25, customer
- Phyllis Griggs
- Ron Echevarria
- Nancy Dill
- Man kills self, 8 others at loan office, The Gainesville Sun (June 19, 1990)
- Officials puzzled over Pough, The Gainesville Sun (June 24, 1990)
- Florida Gunman Kills 8 And Wounds 6 in Office, The New York Times (June 19, 1990)
- Hazy Records Helped Florida Gunman Buy Arms, The New York Times (June 20, 1990)
- 911 tapes reveal workers' terror, The Gainesville Sun (June 20, 1990)
- Police still seek motive in massacre, The Gainesville Sun (June 21, 1990)
- Manselsberg, Rose G. (ed.): Mass Murderers: From the Files of True Detective Magazine; Pinnacle, 1993 (p. 163-180). ISBN 978-1-55817-777-2
- Florida Gunman Kills 8 And Wounds 6 in Office - New York Times. Nytimes.com (1990-06-19). Retrieved on 2013-09-04.
- VPC - Where'd They Get Their Guns? - GMAC office, Jacksonville, Florida
- NOVA Responses in 1990
- A deadly day in Jacksonville
- 10 years since state's worst mass murder at the Wayback Machine (archived September 27, 2007)
- 10th Death in Office Shooting, The New York Times (June 28, 1990)
- Death Toll Reaches 10 In Loan Office Killings, The Washington Post (June 28, 1990)
- City tires to make sense of slaughter, St. Petersburg Times (June 21, 1990)
- Funerals held for six GMAC shooting victims, St. Petersburg Times (June 22, 1990)
- GMAC moves its offices from site of rampage, St. Petersburg Times (June 27, 1990)
- 10th GMAC victim dies, St. Petersburg Times (June 28, 1990)
- Massacre memories remain, The Prescott Courier (June 17, 1991)
- Gunman's death toll reaches 8, The Prescott Courier (June 19, 1990)
- Office shootings stir gun control debate, The Prescott Courier (June 20, 1990)
- Florida police seek rampage clues, Deseret News (June 19, 1990)
- 911 tape tells horror of Florida massacre, Deseret News (June 20, 1990)
- Nine dead in bloody rampage, Ocala Star-Banner (June 19, 1990)
- Massacre sparks calls for assault gun ban, Ocala Star-Banner (June 20, 1990)
- Investigators still unsure of motive for GMAC massacre, Ocala Star-Banner (June 21, 1990)
- Governor leads service for vicitms of massacre, Ocala Star-Banner (June 23, 1990)
- Lines again drawn on assault guns, Ocala Star-Banner (June 24, 1990)
- Killer's motives unknown, Ocala Star-Banner (June 25, 1990)
- Woman dies, ninth victim of gunman, Ocala Star-Banner (June 28, 1990)
- Woman honored for life-saving role, Ocala Star-Banner (July 13, 1990)
- Another victim dies from gunshots, Spokane Chronicle (June 28, 1990)
- Eight slain in Florida massacre, The Milwaukee Sentinel (June 19, 1990)
- Tapes reveal terror during massacre, The Milwaukee Sentinel (June 20, 1990)
- "Loaded for war", The Free Lance–Star (June 19, 1990)
- Eight people killed in office massacre, Eugene Register-Guard (June 19, 1990)
- Police blame same gunman for shootings, Eugene Register-Guard (June 20, 1990)
- Jacksonville killing spree began over weekend, police say, Daily News of Kingsport (June 21, 1990)
- Florida killer had criminal past, police widen investigation, Daily News of Kingsport (June 22, 1990)
- Silent killer kills 10 people, himself in two days, Mohave Daily Miner (June 19, 1990)
- Tapes tell terror of shooting spree, The News (June 20, 1990)
- Gunman kills 8; may have slain others, Ludington Daily News (June 19, 1990)
- Gunman opens fire, kills nine in Florida, Wilmington Morning Star (June 19, 1990)
- Services held for shooting victims, The Gainesville Sun (June 22, 1990)
- Keystone pays respect to victims, The Gainesville Sun (June 23, 1990)
- GMAC massacre renews state assault wepaons debate, The Gainesville Sun (June 24, 1990)
- Victims families urged to go forward, The News (June 24, 1990)
- Gunman blasts his way through office, The Spokesman-Review (June 19, 1990)