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Jaggery (also transliterated as jaggeree) is a traditional uncentrifuged sugar consumed in Asia and Africa It is a concentrated product of date, cane juice, or palm sap without separation of the molasses and crystals, and can vary from golden brown to dark brown in color. It contains up to 50% sucrose, up to 20% invert sugars, up to 20% moisture, and the remainder made up of other insoluble matter, such as wood ash, proteins, and bagasse fibers. Jaggery is mixed with other ingredients, such as peanuts, condensed milk, coconut, and white sugar, to produce several locally marketed and consumed delicacies.
Origins and production 
Jaggery is made of the products of both sugarcane and the date palm tree. The sugar made from the sap of the date palm is both more prized and less commonly available outside of the regions where it is made. The coconut palm is also tapped for producing jaggery in West Bengal, South India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, syrup extracts from kithul (Caryota urens) trees are widely used for jaggery production. This is considered the best quality jaggery available in local market and is given a higher value than jaggery from other sources. All types of the sugar come in blocks or pastes of solidified concentrated sugar syrup heated to 200°C. Traditionally, the syrup is made by boiling raw sugarcane juice or palm sap in large, shallow, round-bottom vessels.
South Asia 
Jaggery, also called Gurh, is used as an ingredient in both sweet and savory dishes across India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. For example, a pinch of it is sometimes added to sambar, rasam, and other staples in India. Jaggery is also added to lentil soups (dāl) to add sweetness to balance the spicy, salty and sour components, particularly in Gujarati cuisine.
Maharashtra is the largest producer and consumer of jaggery (guḷ (गुळ) in Marathi); most vegetable dishes, curries, and dals contain it. This is specially used during Makar Sankranti for making a dessert called tilgul. In Gujarat, known as gôḷ (ગોળ), during Makara Sankranti, a similar preparation called tal na ladu or tal sankli is made. In rural Maharashtra and Karnataka, water and a piece of jaggery is given when someone arrives home from working under a hot sun.
Kakvi, a byproduct of the production of jaggery, is also used in rural Maharashtra and Karnataka as a sweetener. It contains many minerals not found in ordinary sugar and is considered beneficial to health in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. It is an ingredient of many sweet delicacies, such as gur ka chawal ("jaggery rice"), a traditional Rajasthani dish.
In Gujarat, laddus are made from wheat flour and jaggery. A well-known Maharashtrian recipe, puran poli, also uses it as a sweetener apart from sugar. Jaggery is considered an easily available sweet which is shared on any good occasion. In engagement ceremonies, small particles of it are mixed with coriander seeds (ધાણા). Hence in many Gujarati communities, engagement is commonly known as gol-dhana (ગોળ-ધાણા), literally "jaggery and coriander seeds".
In Andhra Pradesh, it is used for sweets like Chakkara pongali , Milk pongal(prepares with rice, milk, jaggery) . During Sankranthi they used to prepare 'Arisalu' which is authenticated Andhra Pradesh dish.
In Tamil Nadu, it is used in a dish called chakkarai Pongal (Thai Pongal). It is prepared during the festival of Pongal, which is held when the harvesting season begins.
In Bengali Hindu cuisine, it is commonly used in making sweet dishes, some of which mix jaggery with milk and coconut. Popular sweet dishes such as laḍḍu / laṛu or paṭishapta piṭha mix it with coconut shreds. Jaggery is also molded into novel shapes as a type of candy. The same preparation of sweets have been made in its neighboring state of Assam. Some of the popular sweet dishes of Assam. such as til-pitha (made of rice powder, sesame and jaggery), other rice-based pitha, and payas are made of jaggery. In some villages of Assam, people still drink salty reed tea with a cube of gurd (jaggery), which is popularly called cheleka- chah (licking tea).
Traditional Karnataka sweets, such as paayasa, obbattu (holige), and unday use different kinds of jaggery. A pinch is commonly added to sambar (a.k.a. huLi saaru) and rasam (a.k.a. saaru). Karnataka produces both sugar- and palm-based jaggery. Also the combination of crushed jaggery with ghee is excellent and goes well with chapathi.
The Muzaffarnagar District in Uttar Pradesh has the largest jaggery market in the world, followed by Anakapalli in the Visakhapatnam District in Andhra Pradesh. The Kolhapur District in western Maharashtra is also famous for its variety of jaggery, which is yellow and much sought-after in Maharashtra and Gujarat. Mandya in Karnataka is known for its jaggery production.
All over India, jaggery has religious significance to Hindus. Many of the festivals involve the offering of jaggery to deities during worship. Jaggery is considered auspicious in many parts of India, and is eaten raw before the commencement of good work or any important new venture, or after good news is shared by family and friends.
In Myanmar, jaggery is harvested from toddy palm syrup. In central Myanmar and around Bagan (Pagan), toddy syrup is collected solely for the purpose of making jaggery. The translucent white syrup is boiled until it becomes golden brown, and then made into bite-sized pieces. It is considered a sweet and is eaten by children and adults alike, usually in the afternoon along with a pot of green tea. It has been referred to locally as Burmese chocolate. Toddy palm jaggery is also sometimes mixed with coconut shreds, jujube puree or sesame, depending on the area. This type of jaggery is also used in Burmese cooking, usually to add color and enrich the food.
Other uses 
Jaggery may also be used in the creation of alcoholic beverages such as palm wine.
Names of jaggery 
In South Asia 
- Htanyat in Burmese
- Guḍa in Sanskrit (गुड—literally 'a ball')
- Guḍ in Punjabi
- Guḍ in Oriya
- Guḍ in Hindi
- Gura in Pashto
- Guṛ in Assamese (গুড়), Bengali (গুড়), Bhojpuri (गुड़), Hindi (गुड़), Maithili, Punjabi (ਗੁੜ), and Urdu (گڑ)
- Gurh (ڳُڙ) in Sindhi
- Godd (गोड )in Konkani
- Sarkkara or chakkara in Malayalam
- Gôḷ (ગોળ) in Gujarati
- Gôḷ (गौळ) in Rajasthani
- Guḷ (गुळ) in Marathi
- Bella (ಬೆಲ್ಲ) in Kannada
- Bellam (బెల్లం) in Telugu
- Bella in Tulu: Vale bella is a type of jaggery which prepared from toddy.
- Vellam (வெல்லம்) in Tamil. Also Paagu Vellam (for Jaggery made out of sugarcane), Karumbu chakkarai, Naatu chakkarai or kalkandu for the cystalised and sugary powder form of Jaggery made from sugarcane. And karuppatti or Panang karupatti for jaggery made from palm wine.
- Vellam (വെല്ലം) (for jaggery made from sugarcane) in Malabar, as well as North Malabar and chakkara in the rest of Kerala in Malayalam, sharkkara (ശര്ക്കര) is also a term used in Malayalam. Karuppaṭṭi or karippaṭṭi or "karipetti" (കരിപെട്ടി) is used for jaggery made from palm wine, and panam kalkandam (പനം കല്കണ്ടം) is for sugar crystal made from coconut.
- Hakuru (හකුරු) in Sinhalese
- Kurtai in Mizo
- Veli in Nepali or Nepalese (नेपाली)
- Mitha in Bhojpuri
In Southeast Asia 
- Htanyet in Burmese
- Gula melaka in Malay
- Gula merah in Malaysia or nisan (nise) in Kelantan (north eastern state of West Malaysia) or gula jawa in Indonesian
- Panocha (Spanish) or panutsa in the Philippines
- Namtaan tanod (น้ำตาลโตนด) = palm sugar; น้ำตาลทราย(แดง) [năm-ta:n sà:j (dae:ng)] = “sugar+sand+(red)”] (red) cane sugar; น้ำตาลมะพร้าว [năm-ta:n màprâ:o] coconut sugar, in Thai
See also 
- IndiaCurry.com Gur Making
- Step by step illustrated process of jaggery manufacturing
- Khejur Gur Making (Gur from Silver Date Palm)