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Main article: Ionization energy

Molar ionization energies and corresponding ionization energies[edit]

["use" and "WEL" give former in the unit "kJ/mol"; "CRC" gives latter in the unit "eV".]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
1 H hydrogen
use 1312.0
WEL 1312.0
CRC 13.59844
2 He helium
use 2372.3 5250.5
WEL 2372.3 5250.5
CRC 24.58741 54.41778
3 Li lithium
use 520.2 7298.1 11815.0
WEL 520.2 7298.1 11815.0
CRC 5.39172 75.64018 122.45429
4 Be beryllium
use 899.5 1757.1 14848.7 21006.6
WEL 899.5 1757.1 14848.7 21006.6
CRC 9.3227 18.21116 153.89661 217.71865
5 B boron
use 800.6 2427.1 3659.7 25025.8 32826.7
WEL 800.6 2427.1 3659.7 25025.8 32826.7
CRC 8.29803 25.15484 37.93064 259.37521 340.22580
6 C carbon
use 1086.5 2352.6 4620.5 6222.7 37831 47277.0
WEL 1086.5 2352.6 4620.5 6222.7 37831 47277.0
CRC 11.26030 24.38332 47.8878 64.4939 392.087 489.99334
7 N nitrogen
use 1402.3 2856 4578.1 7475.0 9444.9 53266.6 64360
WEL 1402.3 2856 4578.1 7475.0 9444.9 53266.6 64360
CRC 14.53414 29.6013 47.44924 77.4735 97.8902 552.0718 667.046
8 O oxygen
use 1313.9 3388.3 5300.5 7469.2 10989.5 13326.5 71330 84078.0
WEL 1313.9 3388.3 5300.5 7469.2 10989.5 13326.5 71330 84078.0
CRC 13.61806 35.11730 54.9355 77.41353 113.8990 138.1197 739.29 871.4101
9 F fluorine
use 1681.0 3374.2 6050.4 8407.7 11022.7 15164.1 17868 92038.1 106434.3
WEL 1681.0 3374.2 6050.4 8407.7 11022.7 15164.1 17868 92038.1 106434.3
CRC 17.42282 34.97082 62.7084 87.1398 114.2428 157.1651 185.186 953.9112 1103.1176
10 Ne neon
use 2080.7 3952.3 6122 9371 12177 15238 19999.0 23069.5 115379.5 131432
WEL 2080.7 3952.3 6122 9371 12177 15238 19999.0 23069.5 115379.5 131432
CRC 21.5646 40.96328 63.45 97.12 126.21 157.93 207.2759 239.0989 1195.8286 1362.1995
11 Na sodium
use 495.8 4562 6910.3 9543 13354 16613 20117 25496 28932 141362 159076
WEL 495.8 4562 6910.3 9543 13354 16613 20117 25496 28932 141362
CRC 5.13908 47.2864 71.6200 98.91 138.40 172.18 208.50 264.25 299.864 1465.121 1648.702
12 Mg magnesium
use 737.7 1450.7 7732.7 10542.5 13630 18020 21711 25661 31653 35458 169988 189368
WEL 737.7 1450.7 7732.7 10542.5 13630 18020 21711 25661 31653 35458
CRC 7.64624 15.03528 80.1437 109.2655 141.27 186.76 225.02 265.96 328.06 367.50 1761.805 1962.6650
13 Al aluminium
use 577.5 1816.7 2744.8 11577 14842 18379 23326 27465 31853 38473 42647 201266 222316
WEL 577.5 1816.7 2744.8 11577 14842 18379 23326 27465 31853 38473
CRC 5.98577 18.82856 28.44765 119.992 153.825 190.49 241.76 284.66 330.13 398.75 442.00 2085.98 2304.1410
14 Si silicon
use 786.5 1577.1 3231.6 4355.5 16091 19805 23780 29287 33878 38726 45962 50502 235196 257923
WEL 786.5 1577.1 3231.6 4355.5 16091 19805 23780 29287 33878 38726
CRC 8.15169 16.34585 33.49302 45.14181 166.767 205.27 246.5 303.54 351.12 401.37 476.36 523.42 2437.63 2673.182
15 P phosphorus
use 1011.8 1907 2914.1 4963.6 6273.9 21267 25431 29872 35905 40950 46261 54110 59024 271791 296195
WEL 1011.8 1907 2914.1 4963.6 6273.9 21267 25431 29872 35905 40950
CRC 10.48669 19.7694 30.2027 51.4439 65.0251 220.421 263.57 309.60 372.13 424.4 479.46 560.8 611.74 2816.91 3069.842
16 S sulfur
use 999.6 2252 3357 4556 7004.3 8495.8 27107 31719 36621 43177 48710 54460 62930 68216 311048 337138
WEL 999.6 2252 3357 4556 7004.3 8495.8 27107 31719 36621 43177
CRC 10.36001 23.3379 34.79 47.222 72.5945 88.0530 280.948 328.75 379.55 447.5 504.8 564.44 652.2 707.01 3223.78 3494.1892
17 Cl chlorine
use 1251.2 2298 3822 5158.6 6542 9362 11018 33604 38600 43961 51068 57119 63363 72341 78095 352994 380760
WEL 1251.2 2298 3822 5158.6 6542 9362 11018 33604 38600 43961
CRC 12.96764 23.814 39.61 53.4652 67.8 97.03 114.1958 348.28 400.06 455.63 529.28 591.99 656.71 749.76 809.40 3658.521 3946.2960
18 Ar argon
use 1520.6 2665.8 3931 5771 7238 8781 11995 13842 40760 46186 52002 59653 66199 72918 82473 88576 397605 427066
WEL 1520.6 2665.8 3931 5771 7238 8781 11995 13842 40760 46186
CRC 15.75962 27.62967 40.74 59.81 75.02 91.009 124.323 143.460 422.45 478.69 538.96 618.26 686.10 755.74 854.77 918.03 4120.8857 4426.2296
19 K potassium
use 418.8 3052 4420 5877 7975 9590 11343 14944 16963.7 48610 54490 60730 68950 75900 83080 93400 99710 444880 476063
WEL 418.8 3052 4420 5877 7975 9590 11343 14944 16963.7 48610
CRC 4.34066 31.63 45.806 60.91 82.66 99.4 117.56 154.88 175.8174 503.8 564.7 629.4 714.6 786.6 861.1 968 1033.4 4610.8 4934.046
20 Ca calcium
use 589.8 1145.4 4912.4 6491 8153 10496 12270 14206 18191 20385 57110 63410 70110 78890 86310 94000 104900 111711 494850 527762
WEL 589.8 1145.4 4912.4 6491 8153 10496 12270 14206 18191 20385 57110
CRC 6.11316 11.87172 50.9131 67.27 84.50 108.78 127.2 147.24 188.54 211.275 591.9 657.2 726.6 817.6 894.5 974 1087 1157.8 5128.8 5469.864
21 Sc scandium
use 633.1 1235.0 2388.6 7090.6 8843 10679 13310 15250 17370 21726 24102 66320 73010 80160 89490 97400 105600 117000 124270 547530 582163
WEL 633.1 1235.0 2388.6 7090.6 8843 10679 13310 15250 17370 21726 24102 66320 73010 80160 89490 97400 105600 117000 124270 547530 582163
CRC 6.5615 12.79967 24.75666 73.4894 91.65 110.68 138.0 158.1 180.03 225.18 249.798 687.36 756.7 830.8 927.5 1009 1094 1213 1287.97 5674.8 6033.712
22 Ti titanium
use 658.8 1309.8 2652.5 4174.6 9581 11533 13590 16440 18530 20833 25575 28125 76015 83280 90880 100700 109100 117800 129900 137530 602930 639294
WEL 658.8 1309.8 2652.5 4174.6 9581 11533 13590 16440 18530 20833 25575 28125 76015 83280 90880 100700 109100 117800 129900 137530 602930
CRC 6.8281 13.5755 27.4917 43.2672 99.30 119.53 140.8 170.4 192.1 215.92 265.07 291.500 787.84 863.1 941.9 1044 1131 1221 1346 1425.4 6249.0 6625.82
23 V vanadium
use 650.9 1414 2830 4507 6298.7 12363 14530 16730 19860 22240 24670 29730 32446 86450 94170 102300 112700 121600 130700 143400 151440 661050 699144
WEL 650.9 1414 2830 4507 6298.7 12363 14530 16730 19860 22240 24670 29730 32446 86450 94170 102300 112700 121600 130700 143400 151440
CRC 6.7462 14.66 29.311 46.709 65.2817 128.13 150.6 173.4 205.8 230.5 255.7 308.1 336.277 896.0 976 1060 1168 1260 1355 1486 1569.6 6851.3 7246.12
24 Cr chromium
use 652.9 1590.6 2987 4743 6702 8744.9 15455 17820 20190 23580 26130 28750 34230 37066 97510 105800 114300 125300 134700 144300 157700 166090 721870 761733
WEL 652.9 1590.6 2987 4743 6702 8744.9 15455 17820 20190 23580 26130 28750 34230 37066 97510 105800 114300 125300 134700 144300 157700
CRC 6.7665 16.4857 30.96 49.16 69.46 90.6349 160.18 184.7 209.3 244.4 270.8 298.0 354.8 384.168 1010.6 1097 1185 1299 1396 1496 1634 1721.4 7481.7 7894.81
25 Mn manganese
use 717.3 1509.0 3248 4940 6990 9220 11500 18770 21400 23960 27590 30330 33150 38880 41987 109480 118100 127100 138600 148500 158600 172500 181380 785450 827067
WEL 717.3 1509.0 3248 4940 6990 9220 11500 18770 21400 23960 27590 30330 33150 38880 41987 109480 118100 127100 138600 148500 158600
CRC 7.43402 15.63999 33.668 51.2 72.4 95.6 119.203 194.5 221.8 248.3 286.0 314.4 343.6 403.0 435.163 1134.7 1224 1317 1437 1539 1644 1788 1879.9 8140.6 8571.94
26 Fe iron
use 762.5 1561.9 2957 5290 7240 9560 12060 14580 22540 25290 28000 31920 34830 37840 44100 47206 122200 131000 140500 152600 163000 173600 188100 195200 851800 895161
WEL 762.5 1561.9 2957 5290 7240 9560 12060 14580 22540 25290 28000 31920 34830 37840 44100 47206 122200 131000 140500 152600 163000
CRC 7.9024 16.1878 30.652 54.8 75.0 99.1 124.98 151.06 233.6 262.1 290.2 330.8 361.0 392.2 457 489.256 1266 1358 1456 1582 1689 1799 1950 2023 8828 9277.69
27 Co cobalt
use 760.4 1648 3232 4950 7670 9840 12440 15230 17959 26570 29400 32400 36600 39700 42800 49396 52737 134810 145170 154700 167400 178100 189300 204500 214100 920870 966023
WEL 760.4 1648 3232 4950 7670 9840 12440 15230 17959 26570 29400 32400 36600 39700 42800 49396 52737 134810 145170 154700 167400
CRC 7.8810 17.083 33.50 51.3 79.5 102.0 128.9 157.8 186.13 275.4 305 336 379 411 444 511.96 546.58 1397.2 1504.6 1603 1735 1846 1962 2119 2219.0 9544.1 10012.12
28 Ni nickel
use 737.1 1753.0 3395 5300 7339 10400 12800 15600 18600 21670 30970 34000 37100 41500 44800 48100 55101 58570 148700 159000 169400 182700 194000 205600 221400 231490 992718 1039668
WEL 737.1 1753.0 3395 5300 7339 10400 12800 15600 18600 21670 30970 34000 37100 41500 44800 48100 55101 58570 148700 159000 169400
CRC 7.6398 18.16884 35.19 54.9 76.06 108 133 162 193 224.6 321.0 352 384 430 464 499 571.08 607.06 1541 1648 1756 1894 2011 2131 2295 2399.2 10288.8 10775.40
29 Cu copper
use 745.5 1957.9 3555 5536 7700 9900 13400 16000 19200 22400 25600 35600 38700 42000 46700 50200 53700 61100 64702 163700 174100 184900 198800 210500 222700 239100 249660 1067358 1116105
WEL 745.5 1957.9 3555 5536 7700 9900 13400 16000 19200 22400 25600 35600 38700 42000 46700 50200 53700 61100 64702 163700 174100
CRC 7.72638 20.29240 36.841 57.38 79.8 103 139 166 199 232 265.3 369 401 435 484 520 557 633 670.588 1697 1804 1916 2060 2182 2308 2478 2587.5 11062.38 11567.617
30 Zn zinc
use 906.4 1733.3 3833 5731 7970 10400 12900 16800 19600 23000 26400 29990 40490 43800 47300 52300 55900 59700 67300 71200 179100
WEL 906.4 1733.3 3833 5731 7970 10400 12900 16800 19600 23000 26400 29990 40490 43800 47300 52300 55900 59700 67300 71200 179100
CRC 9.3942 17.96440 39.723 59.4 82.6 108 134 174 203 238 274 310.8 419.7 454 490 542 579 619 698 738 1856
31 Ga gallium
use 578.8 1979.3 2963 6180
WEL 578.8 1979.3 2963 6180
CRC 5.99930 20.5142 30.71 64
32 Ge germanium
use 762 1537.5 3302.1 4411 9020
WEL 762 1537.5 3302.1 4411 9020
CRC 7.8994 15.93462 34.2241 45.7131 93.5
33 As arsenic
use 947.0 1798 2735 4837 6043 12310
WEL 947.0 1798 2735 4837 6043 12310
CRC 9.7886 18.633 28.351 50.13 62.63 127.6
34 Se selenium
use 941.0 2045 2973.7 4144 6590 7880 14990
WEL 941.0 2045 2973.7 4144 6590 7880 14990
CRC 9.75238 21.19 30.8204 42.9450 68.3 81.7 155.4
35 Br bromine
use 1139.9 2103 3470 4560 5760 8550 9940 18600
WEL 1139.9 2103 3470 4560 5760 8550 9940 18600
CRC 11.81381 21.8 36 47.3 59.7 88.6 103.0 192.8
36 Kr krypton
use 1350.8 2350.4 3565 5070 6240 7570 10710 12138 22274 25880 29700 33800 37700 43100 47500 52200 57100 61800 75800 80400 85300 90400 96300 101400 111100 116290 282500 296200 311400 326200
WEL 1350.8 2350.4 3565 5070 6240 7570 10710 12138 22274 25880 29700 33800 37700 43100 47500 52200 57100 61800 75800 80400 85300
CRC 13.99961 24.35985 36.950 52.5 64.7 78.5 111.0 125.802 230.85 268.2 308 350 391 447 492 541 592 641 786 833 884 937 998 1051 1151 1205.3 2928 3070 3227 3381
37 Rb rubidium
use 403.0 2633 3860 5080 6850 8140 9570 13120 14500 26740
WEL 403.0 2633 3860 5080 6850 8140 9570 13120 14500 26740
CRC 4.17713 27.285 40 52.6 71.0 84.4 99.2 136 150 277.1
38 Sr strontium
use 549.5 1064.2 4138 5500 6910 8760 10230 11800 15600 17100 31270
WEL 549.5 1064.2 4138 5500 6910 8760 10230 11800 15600 17100
CRC 5.6949 11.03013 42.89 57 71.6 90.8 106 122.3 162 177 324.1
39 Y yttrium
use 600 1180 1980 5847 7430 8970 11190 12450 14110 18400 19900 36090
WEL 600 1180 1980 5847 7430 8970 11190 12450 14110 18400
CRC 6.2171 12.24 20.52 60.597 77.0 93.0 116 129 146.2 191 206 374.0
40 Zr zirconium
use 640.1 1270 2218 3313 7752 9500
WEL 640.1 1270 2218 3313 7752 9500
CRC 6.63390 13.13 22.99 34.34 80.348
41 Nb niobium
use 652.1 1380 2416 3700 4877 9847 12100
WEL 652.1 1380 2416 3700 4877 9847 12100
CRC 6.75885 14.32 25.04 38.3 50.55 102.057 125
42 Mo molybdenum
use 684.3 1560 2618 4480 5257 6640.8 12125 13860 15835 17980 20190 22219 26930 29196 52490 55000 61400 67700 74000 80400 87000 93400 98420 104400 121900 127700 133800 139800 148100 154500
WEL 684.3 1560 2618 4480 5257 6640.8 12125 13860 15835 17980 20190 22219 26930 29196 52490 55000 61400 67700 74000 80400 87000
CRC 7.09243 16.16 27.13 46.4 54.49 68.8276 125.664 143.6 164.12 186.4 209.3 230.28 279.1 302.60 544.0 570 636 702 767 833 902 968 1020 1082 1263 1323 1387 1449 1535 1601
43 Tc technetium
use 702 1470 2850
WEL 702 1470 2850
CRC 7.28 15.26 29.54
44 Ru ruthenium
use 710.2 1620 2747
WEL 710.2 1620 2747
CRC 7.36050 16.76 28.47
45 Rh rhodium
use 719.7 1740 2997
WEL 719.7 1740 2997
CRC 7.45890 18.08 31.06
46 Pd palladium
use 804.4 1870 3177
WEL 804.4 1870 3177
CRC 8.3369 19.43 32.93
47 Ag silver
use 731.0 2070 3361
WEL 731.0 2070 3361
CRC 7.5762 21.49 34.83
48 Cd cadmium
use 867.8 1631.4 3616
WEL 867.8 1631.4 3616
CRC 8.9938 16.90832 37.48
49 In indium
use 558.3 1820.7 2704 5210
WEL 558.3 1820.7 2704 5210
CRC 5.78636 18.8698 28.03 54
50 Sn tin
use 708.6 1411.8 2943.0 3930.3 7456
WEL 708.6 1411.8 2943.0 3930.3 7456
CRC 7.3439 14.63225 30.50260 40.73502 72.28
51 Sb antimony
use 834 1594.9 2440 4260 5400 10400
WEL 834 1594.9 2440 4260 5400 10400
CRC 8.6084 16.53051 25.3 44.2 56 108
52 Te tellurium
use 869.3 1790 2698 3610 5668 6820 13200
WEL 869.3 1790 2698 3610 5668 6820 13200
CRC 9.0096 18.6 27.96 37.41 58.75 70.7 137
53 I iodine
use 1008.4 1845.9 3180
WEL 1008.4 1845.9 3180
CRC 10.45126 19.1313 33
54 Xe xenon
use 1170.4 2046.4 3099.4
WEL 1170.4 2046.4 3099.4
CRC 12.1298 21.20979 32.1230
55 Cs caesium
use 375.7 2234.3 3400
WEL 375.7 2234.3 3400
CRC 3.89390 23.15745
56 Ba barium
use 502.9 965.2 3600
WEL 502.9 965.2 3600
CRC 5.21170 10.00390
57 La lanthanum
use 538.1 1067 1850.3 4819 5940
WEL 538.1 1067 1850.3 4819 5940
CRC 5.5769 11.060 19.1773 49.95 61.6
58 Ce cerium
use 534.4 1050 1949 3547 6325 7490
WEL 534.4 1050 1949 3547 6325 7490
CRC 5.5387 10.85 20.198 36.758 65.55 77.6
59 Pr praseodymium
use 527 1020 2086 3761 5551
WEL 527 1020 2086 3761 5551
CRC 5.473 10.55 21.624 38.98 57.53
60 Nd neodymium
use 533.1 1040 2130 3900
WEL 533.1 1040 2130 3900
CRC 5.5250 10.73 22.1 40.41
61 Pm promethium
use 540 1050 2150 3970
WEL 540 1050 2150 3970
CRC 5.582 10.90 22.3 41.1
62 Sm samarium
use 544.5 1070 2260 3990
WEL 544.5 1070 2260 3990
CRC 5.6436 11.07 23.4 41.4
63 Eu europium
use 547.1 1085 2404 4120
WEL 547.1 1085 2404 4120
CRC 5.6704 11.241 24.92 42.7
64 Gd gadolinium
use 593.4 1170 1990 4250
WEL 593.4 1170 1990 4250
CRC 6.1501 12.09 20.63 44.0
65 Tb terbium
use 565.8 1110 2114 3839
WEL 565.8 1110 2114 3839
CRC 5.8638 11.52 21.91 39.79
66 Dy dysprosium
use 573.0 1130 2200 3990
WEL 573.0 1130 2200 3990
CRC 5.9389 11.67 22.8 41.47
67 Ho holmium
use 581.0 1140 2204 4100
WEL 581.0 1140 2204 4100
CRC 6.0215 11.80 22.84 42.5
68 Er erbium
use 589.3 1150 2194 4120
WEL 589.3 1150 2194 4120
CRC 6.1077 11.93 22.74 42.7
69 Tm thulium
use 596.7 1160 2285 4120
WEL 596.7 1160 2285 4120
CRC 6.18431 12.05 23.68 42.7
70 Yb ytterbium
use 603.4 1174.8 2417 4203
WEL 603.4 1174.8 2417 4203
CRC 6.25416 12.1761 25.05 43.56
71 Lu lutetium
use 523.5 1340 2022.3 4370 6445
WEL 523.5 1340 2022.3 4370 6445
CRC 5.4259 13.9 20.9594 45.25 66.8
72 Hf hafnium
use 658.5 1440 2250 3216
WEL 658.5 1440 2250 3216
CRC 6.82507 14.9 23.3 33.33
73 Ta tantalum
use 761 1500
WEL 761 1500
CRC 7.5496
74 W tungsten
use 770 1700
WEL 770 1700
CRC 7.8640
75 Re rhenium
use 760 1260 2510 3640
WEL 760 1260 2510 3640
CRC 7.8335
76 Os osmium
use 840 1600
WEL 840 1600
CRC 8.4382
77 Ir iridium
use 880 1600
WEL 880 1600
CRC 8.9670
78 Pt platinum
use 870 1791
WEL 870 1791
CRC 8.9587 18.563 28 [1]
79 Au gold
use 890.1 1980
WEL 890.1 1980
CRC 9.2255 20.5 30 [2]
80 Hg mercury
use 1007.1 1810 3300
WEL 1007.1 1810 3300
CRC 10.43750 18.756 34.2
81 Tl thallium
use 589.4 1971 2878
WEL 589.4 1971 2878
CRC 6.1082 20.428 29.83
82 Pb lead
use 715.6 1450.5 3081.5 4083 6640
WEL 715.6 1450.5 3081.5 4083 6640
CRC 7.41666 15.0322 31.9373 42.32 68.8
83 Bi bismuth
use 703 1610 2466 4370 5400 8520
WEL 703 1610 2466 4370 5400 8520
CRC 7.2856 16.69 25.56 45.3 56.0 88.3
84 Po polonium
use 812.1
WEL 812.1
CRC 8.417
85 At astatine
use 899.003
WEL 920
CRC
talk [1]
Originally quoted as 9.31751(8) eV.
86 Rn radon
use 1037
WEL 1037
CRC 10.74850
87 Fr francium
use 380
WEL 380
CRC 4.0727
talk Andreev, S.V.; Letokhov, V.S.; Mishin, V.I., (1987). "Laser resonance photoionization spectroscopy of Rydberg levels in Fr". Phys. Rev. Lett. 59: 1274–76. Bibcode:1987PhRvL..59.1274A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.59.1274. PMID 10035190.  give 4.0712±0.00004 eV (392.811(4) kJ/mol)
88 Ra radium
use 509.3 979.0
WEL 509.3 979.0
CRC 5.2784 10.14716
89 Ac actinium
use 499 1170
WEL 499 1170
CRC 5.17 12.1
90 Th thorium
use 587 1110 1930 2780
WEL 587 1110 1930 2780
CRC 6.3067 11.5 20.0 28.8
91 Pa protactinium
use 568
WEL 568
CRC 5.89
92 U uranium
use 597.6 1420
WEL 597.6 1420
CRC 6.19405
93 Np neptunium
use 604.5
WEL 604.5
CRC 6.2657
94 Pu plutonium
use 584.7
WEL 584.7
CRC 6.0262
95 Am americium
use 578
WEL 578
CRC 5.9738
96 Cm curium
use 581
WEL 581
CRC 5.9915
97 Bk berkelium
use 601
WEL 601
CRC 6.1979
98 Cf californium
use 608
WEL 608
CRC 6.2817
99 Es einsteinium
use 619
WEL 619
CRC 6.42
100 Fm fermium
use 627
WEL 627
CRC 6.50
101 Md mendelevium
use 635
WEL 635
CRC 6.58
102 No nobelium
use 642
WEL
CRC 6.65
103 Lr lawrencium
use 470
WEL
CRC 4.9
104 Rf rutherfordium
use 580
WEL
CRC 6.0

Notes[edit]

  • Values from CRC are ionization energies given in the unit eV; other values are molar ionization energies given in the unit kJ/mol. The first of these quantities is used in atomic physics, the second in chemistry, but both refer to the same basic property of the element. To convert from "value of ionization energy" to the corresponding "value of molar ionization energy", multiply the former by 96.48534 kJ/(eV·mol).

References[edit]

WEL[edit]

As quoted at http://www.webelements.com/ from these sources:

  • J.E. Huheey, E.A. Keiter, and R.L. Keiter in Inorganic Chemistry : Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th edition, HarperCollins, New York, USA, 1993.
  • A.M. James and M.P. Lord in Macmillan's Chemical and Physical Data, Macmillan, London, UK, 1992.

CRC[edit]

As quoted from various sources in an online version of:

  • David R. Lide (ed), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, 2003; Section 10, Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics; Ionization Potentials of Atoms and Atomic Ions

External links[edit]

Further sources may be:

See also[edit]


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