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International sanctions are actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally.

There are several types of sanctions.

Economic sanctions are distinguished from trade sanctions, which are applied for purely economic reasons, and typically take the form of tariffs or similar measures, rather than bans on trade.

Types[edit]

Reasons for sanctioning[edit]

Sanctions formulations are designed into three categories. The categories are used to differentiate between the political contexts due to the global nature of the act. First, Sanctions are designed to force cooperation with international Law.[1] This can be seen in the sanctions placed on Iraq in Resolution No. 661 on August 6, 1990 after the initial invasion of neighboring Kuwait. The United Nations placed an Embargo on the nation in an attempt to prevent armed conflict. Resolution 665 and Resolution 670 were further added creating both naval and air blockade on Iraq.[2] The purpose of the initial sanctions was to coerce Iraq into following international law, which included the recognized sovereignty of Kuwait. The second category of design is those sanctions with the purpose to contain a threat to peace within a geographical boundary.[3] The 2010 Iran nuclear proliferation debate is a contemporary example. The current United Nations Security Council passed on June 9, Resolution 1929 providing restrictions on missile and weaponry materials that could be used for the creation of destructive weapons.[4] This principle of restriction is to contain the possibility of Iranian aggression with in the neighboring region. The third category involves the United Nations Security Councils condemnation of actions of a specific action or policy of a member/non-member nation.[5] The white minority declared a declaration of Rhodesian Independence on November 11, 1965.[6] The General assemble and United Nations in a 107 to 2 vote took to condemning Rhodesia on all military economic as well as oil and petroleum products.[7] The international display of disapproval forced sanctions onto the Rhodesian people but without a clear goal as to a remedy for the economic sanctions. The three categories are a blanket explanation on the reasons sanctions are applied to nations but it does not go as far to say that voting members share the same political reasons. It is often the case for many nations to apply self-interests with one or more of the categories when voting whether or not to implement sanctions.

Diplomatic sanctions[edit]

Diplomatic sanctions are political measures taken to express disapproval or displeasure at a certain action through diplomatic and political means, rather than affecting economic or military relations. Measures include limitations or cancellations of high-level government visits or expelling or withdrawing diplomatic missions or staff.

Economic sanctions[edit]

Main article: Economic sanctions

Economic sanctions can vary from imposing import duties on goods from, or blocking the export of certain goods to the target country, to a full naval blockade of its ports in an effort to verify, and curb or block specified imported goods.

Well known examples of economic sanctions include the United Nations sanctions against South Africa, United Nations sanctions against Zimbabwe, United Nations sanctions against Iraq (1990–2003) and the United States embargo against Cuba (1962–present). Since 1993 many countries have imposed trade sanctions on Burma (Myanmar). South Africa is the typical case study used for giving sanctions credibility, though that is a contentious claim itself.

On May 13, 1998, the United States and Japan imposed economic sanctions on India, following its second round of nuclear tests. However, these have since been lifted.

In 2001/2002, the United States imposed economic sanctions against the state of Zimbabwe, through the Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act of 2001 or ZDERA, S. 494, restricting access to financing, debt relief and rescheduling, forcing the government to operate on a cash only basis.

Military sanctions[edit]

Similarly, military sanctions can range from carefully targeted military strikes to degrade a nation's conventional or non-conventional capabilities, to the less aggressive form of an arms embargo to cut off supplies of arms or dual-use items.

Sport sanctions[edit]

Sport sanctions are used as a way of psychological warfare, intended to crush the morale of the general population of the target country. The only instance where sports sanctions were used were the international sanctions against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 1992–1995, enacted by UN Security Council by resolution 757. The Gleneagles Agreement approved by the Commonwealth of Nations in 1977, committed member nations to discourage contact and competition between their sportsmen and sporting organisations, teams or individuals from South Africa. However, it was not binding and unable to stop events such as the 1980 British Lions tour to South Africa or the 1981 South Africa rugby union tour of New Zealand

Sanctions on individuals[edit]

The United Nations Security Council can implement sanctions on political leaders or economic individuals. These persons usually find ways of evading their sanction because of political connections within their nation.[8]

Sanctions in international law[edit]

Entities favorable to the target of another government's sanctions may claim that sanctions imposed by single countries or by an intergovernmental body like the United Nations are "illegal" or "criminal" due to, in the case of economic sanctions, the Right to development or, in the case of military sanctions, the Right of self-defense.

A 1996 report by International Progress Organization criticized sanctions as "an illegitimate form of collective punishment of the weakest and poorest members of society, the infants, the children, the chronically ill, and the elderly.[9]"

Dissolution of sanctions[edit]

There are several ways to remove and dissolve sanctions that have been implemented on a nation(s). In some cases such as those implemented on Iraq in 1990, only a reverse resolution can be used to remove the sanctions.[10] This is done when no provision is put in the resolution for the removal of sanctions. This is generally only done if the sanctioned party has shown willingness to adopt certain conditions of the Security Council.[11] Another way sanctions can be removed is when time limits are implemented with the initial sanction. After an extended duration the sanction will eventually be lifted off the nation despite cooperation. Additional sanctions may be placed however if the Security Council deems it necessary. The practice of time limitations has grown over the years and allows for gradual removal of restrictions on nations conforming to at least partial conditions imposed by the Security Council .

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chesterman, S., & Pouligny, B. (2003). Are Sanctions Meant to Work? The Politics of Creating and Implementing Sanctions Through the United Nations. Global Governance, 9(4), 503-518. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
  2. ^ Conforti. B (1991). Non-Coercive Sanctions in the United Nations Charter: Some Lessons from the Gulf War. The European Journal of International Law, 2(1), 110-113.
  3. ^ Chesterman, S., & Pouligny, B. (2003). Are Sanctions Meant to Work? The Politics of Creating and Implementing Sanctions Through the United Nations. Global Governance, 9(4), 503-518. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
  4. ^ Should the United Nations Security Council Impose Additional Sanctions on Iran Due to Its Nuclear Program? CONS. (2010). International Debates, 8(9), 41-48. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
  5. ^ Chesterman, S., & Pouligny, B. (2003). Are Sanctions Meant to Work? The Politics of Creating and Implementing Sanctions Through the United Nations. Global Governance, 9(4), 503-518. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
  6. ^ McDougal, M. & Reismen, M. (1968). Rhodesia and the United Nations: The Lawfulness of International Concern. The American Journal of International Law, 62(1), 1-19.
  7. ^ McDougal, M. & Reismen, M. (1968). Rhodesia and the United Nations: The Lawfulness of International Concern. The American Journal of International Law, 62(1), 1-19.
  8. ^ Chesterman, S., & Pouligny, B. (2003). Are Sanctions Meant to Work? The Politics of Creating and Implementing Sanctions Through the United Nations. Global Governance, 9(4), 503-518. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
  9. ^ "Appeal against sanctions: COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS: Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, Forty-eighth session (5–30 August 1996) - Agenda item 13: International peace and security as an essential condition for the enjoyment of human rights, above all the right to life". 15 August 1996. 
  10. ^ Lopez, G. A., & Cortright, D. (2004). Containing Iraq: Sanctions Worked. Foreign Affairs, 83(4), 90-103. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
  11. ^ Chesterman, S., & Pouligny, B. (2003). Are Sanctions Meant to Work? The Politics of Creating and Implementing Sanctions Through the United Nations. Global Governance, 9(4), 503-518. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

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