digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

For other uses, see Interdict (disambiguation).

In Roman Catholic canon law, an interdict /ˈɪntərdɪkt/ is an ecclesiastical censure that prohibits certain active Church individuals or groups from participating in certain rites.[1]

Distinctions in canon law[edit]

Before 1983, interdicts were either personal, if applied directly to people, wherever they were, or local, if applied directly to a locality and only indirectly to the people in that place whether permanently or only on a visit.[2] Only the Holy See was empowered to impose a general interdict on a diocese or state or a personal interdict on the people of a diocese or country, but bishops too could impose a general interdict on a parish or on the people of a parish or a particular interdict on a place (such as a church or oratory, an altar or a cemetery) or a person.[3]

Effects under pre-1983 canon law[edit]

A local interdict forbade in general the public celebration of sacred rites. Exceptions were made for the dying, and local interdicts were almost entirely suspended on five feasts of the year: Christmas Day, Easter Sunday, Pentecost, Corpus Christi and the feast of the Assumption of Mary.[4] Besides, in the case of a general local interdict, it remained permissible to celebrate in the cathedral or the only church in a town, but without any solemnity such as the ringing of bells and the playing of music, Mass, baptism, confession, and marriage.

Those who were under personal interdict were forbidden to be present at any religious rite except the preaching of the word of God. While mere attendance ("passive assistance," with "assistance" being an obsolete translation of Latin adsistere/assistere ["be present"; cf. the modern Italian equivalent and its Spanish cognate asistir]) by them did not require that they be expelled, if they were well known to be under interdict they were to be prevented from taking an active part.[5]

1983 Code of Canon Law[edit]

An interdict today has the effect of forbidding the person concerned to celebrate or receive any of the sacraments, including the Eucharist, or to celebrate the sacramentals. One who is under interdict is also forbidden to take any ministerial part (e.g., as a reader if a layperson or as a deacon or priest if a clergyman) in the celebration of the Eucharist or of any other ceremony of public worship.[6]

These are the only effects for those who have incurred a latae sententiae interdict, namely, one incurred automatically at the moment of committing the offence for which canon law imposes that penalty. For instance, a priest may not refuse Communion publicly to those who are under merely automatic interdict, even if he knows that they have incurred this kind of interdict.[7]

However, in the case of a ferendae sententiae interdict, one incurred only when imposed by a legitimate superior or declared as the sentence of an ecclesiastical court,[8] those affected are not to be admitted to Holy Communion[9] (see canon 915), and if they violate the prohibition against taking a ministerial part in celebrating the Eucharist or some other ceremony of public worship, they are to be expelled or the sacred rite suspended, unless there is a grave reason to the contrary.[6] In the same circumstances, local ordinaries and parish priests lose their right to assist validly at marriages.[10]

Automatic (latae sententiae) interdict is incurred by anyone using physical violence against a bishop,[11] as also by a person who, not being an ordained priest, attempts to celebrate Mass, or who, though unable to give valid sacramental absolution, attempts to do so, or hears a sacramental confession.[12] Automatic interdict is also incurred by anyone falsely accusing a priest of soliciting sexual favours in connection with confession[13] or attempting to marry while having a perpetual vow of chastity.[14]

An interdict is also the censure that canon law says should be imposed on someone who, because of some act of ecclesiastical authority or ministry publicly incites to hatred against the Holy See or the Ordinary, or who promotes or takes up office in an association that plots against the Church,[15] or who commits the crime of simony.[16]

Notable local canonical interdicts[edit]

Norway[edit]

  • Pope Innocent III placed the Kingdom of Norway under interdict in October 1198. Although King Sverre forged letters to show that the interdict had been lifted, he and his subjects remained under interdict until Sverre's death in 1202.

England[edit]

  • Pope Innocent III also placed the kingdom of England under an interdict for six years between 1208 and 1214, after King John refused to accept the pope's appointee Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury.

Scotland[edit]

Italy[edit]

Malta[edit]

Interdiction featured in 20th century Maltese politics. Between 1930 and 1933, those who voted for the progressive Compact parties (Constitutional Party, Labour Party) were interdicted and refused burial in sacred grounds.[22]

Once again, between 1961 and 1969, the National Executive of the Malta Labour Party was interdicted and voting Labour became a mortal sin.[23][24] Among other sanctions, Labour voters were refused absolution, last rites and burial in sacred grounds. During this period, most Labour rallies were disturbed by members of Catholic organisations (that formed the "Diocesan Junta") and the ringing of church bells. A large number of labourites left the Maltese Islands during this period, partly due to the fact that at the time a reference letter from the local parish priest was commonly requested by employers. The 1969 Peace Agreement between the Labour Party and the local Catholic authorities stipulates that the interdiction should not be imposed in the future.

France[edit]

United States[edit]

  • In 1955, after white parishioners had refused to let a black priest enter a chapel situated about 20 miles from New Orleans, Archbishop Joseph Rummel placed the chapel under interdict.[25]

Notable personal canonical interdicts[edit]

In Malta between 8 April 1961 and 4 April 1969 the leadership of the Malta Labour Party, readers, advertisers and distributors of Party papers as well as its voters were interdicted by the local bishop.[26] Previously, between 1930 and 1933 interdiction was imposed on the Constitutional Party and Labour. In both cases, the Nationalist Party won elections while its opponents were interdicted.[27]

Bishop René Henry Gracida of Corpus Christi, Texas interdicted a Roman Catholic politician in the late 20th century for supporting legal abortion; the unnamed individual died while under interdict.[28]

Anglican canon law[edit]

In Anglican canon law, bishops in the Anglican Communion may still in theory possess the power of interdict, but seem not to have exercised it since the English Reformation.

Scottish civil law[edit]

In Scottish law, "an interdict is a civil court order that tells a person not to do something or to stay away from you, your children or a specific place, such as your house. If a person doesn't stick to an interdict, the police might be able to arrest them if the interdict gives them the power to do so"[29] similar to an injunction.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1917 Code of Canon Law, canon 2268 §1
  2. ^ 1917 Code of Canon Law, canons 2268 §2 and 2269 §2
  3. ^ 1917 Code of Canon Law, canons 2269 §1 and 2272
  4. ^ 1917 Code of Canon Law, canon 2270
  5. ^ 1917 Code of Canon Law, canon 2275
  6. ^ a b 1983 Code of Canon Law, canon 1332
  7. ^ Edward McNamara, "Denying Communion to Someone"
  8. ^ "Code of Canon Law, canon 1314". Vatican.va. Retrieved 2012-04-03. 
  9. ^ 1983 Code of Canon Law, canon 915
  10. ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 1109
  11. ^ 1983 Code of Canon Law, canon 1370 §2
  12. ^ 1083 Code of Canon Law. canon 1378 §2
  13. ^ 1983 Code of Canon Law, canon 1390 §1
  14. ^ 1983 Code of Canon Law, canon 1394 §2
  15. ^ Code of Canon Law, canons 1373-1374
  16. ^ 1983 Code of Canon Law, canon 1380
  17. ^ The Encyclopaedia Britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, and ..., Volume 5 By Thomas Spencer Baynes
  18. ^ Scotland in the Hundred Years' War
  19. ^ David Chambers, Brian Pullan, Jennifer Fletcher (editors), Venice: A Documentary History, 1450-1630 (University of Toronto Press 2001 ISBN 978-0-8020-8424-8), pp. 219-220
  20. ^ Seattle Catholic - The Venetian Interdict of 1606-1607
  21. ^ CNS STORY: Holding public figures accountable to church: centuries of precedent
  22. ^ Sciberras, S. (2010). "Maltese History : Church - State Relations" (PDF). stbenedictcollege.org. Retrieved 13 March 2013. 
  23. ^ Grech, Herman; Sansone, Kurt (10 April 2011). "Bricked by interdiction". Times of Malta. Retrieved 13 March 2013. 
  24. ^ "Interdict for Church Critics". Catholic Herald. 1961. Retrieved 27 February 2014. 
  25. ^ R. Bentley Anderson, Black, White, and Catholic (Vanderbilt University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-8265-1483-7), p. 146
  26. ^ "The Unholy War" (PDF). Malta Today,. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 7, 2006. Retrieved March 13, 2005. 
  27. ^ Church and State in Malta, Jon P. Mitchell
  28. ^ Catholic World News : US bishop imposed interdict on pro-abortion politician
  29. ^ Interdicts for antisocial behaviour

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interdict — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

40655 news items

Eyewitness News

Eyewitness News
Tue, 09 Feb 2016 21:12:41 -0800

JOHANNESBURG – Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) leader Julius Malema has instructed his legal teams to appeal an interdict preventing him from inciting violence against the Gupta family, saying he strongly believes the party has not said anything which ...

Times LIVE

Times LIVE
Tue, 26 Jan 2016 08:27:14 -0800

"The said branch wants to place it on record that irrespective of the court interdict that was served... we shall solider on until every employee of the service provider is hired permanently by TUT," it said in a statement. The Student Command also ...

Times LIVE

Times LIVE
Sat, 16 Jan 2016 00:07:16 -0800

The interdict prevents them from participating in or instigate disruptive or violent behaviour that results in damage to Unisa property‚ the infringement of rights and assault of any Unisa employee‚ contract worker‚ service provider‚ student and. The ...

CNBCAfrica.com

CNBCAfrica.com
Fri, 15 Jan 2016 07:56:15 -0800

The University of the Witwatersrand (WITS) was granted a court interdict on Friday restraining six respondents and other students from participating in protests at the university. The interdict states that no protestors are to, in anyway, disrupt the ...

The Register

The Register
Tue, 12 Jan 2016 15:47:26 -0800

Volkswagen has suffered yet another setback, with California rejecting its proposed fix (a catalytic converter retrofit) and the US Environmental Protection Agency chiming in to agree. It's not yet game-over, though: California's Air Resources Board ...

News24

News24
Mon, 18 Jan 2016 09:55:46 -0800

Registration of first-year students was disrupted by a protest for “free education” at the North West University's Mafikeng Campus, forcing management to seek a court interdict preventing any further disruption from tomorrow. University spokesperson ...

Eyewitness News

Eyewitness News
Tue, 02 Feb 2016 00:41:37 -0800

Eskom appeals interdict stopping it from cutting off defaulting municipalities. Eskom disconnected the municipalities for several hours saying they owed large amounts of money. Power lines leaving Eskom's Duvha power station, 15km east of Witbank ...

Independent Online

Independent Online
Tue, 26 Jan 2016 09:48:45 -0800

Interdict against Glebelands 'warlords'. news/crime-courts /. 26 January 2016 at 19:51pm. By: NOELENE BARBEAU. Durban - The eThekwini Municipality secured a high court order on Monday against the “warlords” in control of the troubled Glebelands ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight