In historical linguistics, the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law (also called the Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic nasal spirant law) is a description of a phonological development in some dialects of West Germanic, which is attested in Old English, Old Frisian, and Old Saxon. In this sound change, in certain combinations vowel + nasal + fricative, the nasal disappeared, with compensatory lengthening of the vowel. ("Spirant" is an older term for "fricative".) The sequences in question are -ns-, -mf-, and -nþ-. The sequence -nh- had undergone a similar change in late Proto-Germanic several hundred years earlier, so this is not unique to the Ingvaeonic languages.
Compare the first person plural pronoun "us" in various old Germanic languages:
Gothic represents East Germanic, and its correspondence to German and Standard Dutch shows it retains the more conservative form. The /n/ has disappeared in English, Frisian, Low German, and dialectal Dutch with compensatory lengthening of the /u/. This phenomenon is therefore observable throughout the "Ingvaeonic" languages. It does not affect High German, East Germanic or North Germanic. The absence of a nasal in Old Norse oss is a separate development, as can be seen by the lack of compensatory lengthening of the vowel.
- Germanic *tanþs → English tooth, North Frisian tôs, toss (vs. Low German Tähn, Dutch and Swedish tand, German Zahn, Icelandic tönn).
- Germanic *anþeraz → English other, Icelandic aðrir, West Frisian oar, West Flemish (Frans-Vlaams) aajer, Old Saxon ōðar, āthar (vs. Low German anner, German/Dutch ander [þ→d], Icelandic: annað/annar/önnur, Swedish annat/annan/andre/andra).
- Germanic *gans → English goose, West Frisian goes, guos, Low German Goos, Faroese gás, Swedish gås (vs. Dutch gans, German Gans).
- Germanic *fimf → English five, West Frisian fiif, East Frisian fieuw, Dutch vijf, Low German fiev, fief (vs. German fünf, Icelandic fimm, Swedish fem).
- Germanic *samftō, -ijaz → English soft, West Frisian sêft, Low German sacht, Dutch zacht [ft→xt] (vs. German sanft).
English shows the results of the shift consistently throughout its repertoire of native lexemes. One consequence of this is that English has very few words ending in -nth; those that exist must have entered the vocabulary subsequent to the productive period of the nasal spirant law:
- month - derives from Old English monaþ (cf. German Monat); the intervening vowel rendered the law inapplicable here.
- tenth - from Middle English tenthe. The original Germanic *tehundô, which was regularised to *tehunþô in early Ingvaeonic, was affected by the law, producing Old English teogoþa, tēoþa (Modern English tithe). But the force of analogy with the cardinal number ten caused Middle English speakers to recreate the regular ordinal and re-insert the nasal consonant.
- plinth - a loanword in Modern English from Greek (πλίνθος "brick, tile").
Likewise, the rare occurrences of the combinations -nf-, -mf- and -ns- have similar explanations.
- answer - originally had an intervening dental: Old English andswaru.
- unfair - the prefix un- is still productive.
Although it is based mostly on the coastal dialect of South Holland, which in turn was influenced by Frisian, it was also heavily influenced by the Brabantian dialect which tends to not show a shift. As a result, the shift is generally not applied but is still applied to some words. For example Dutch vijf vs. German fünf, zacht vs. sanft. Coastal dialects of Dutch tend to have more examples, e.g. standard Dutch mond "mouth" vs. Hollandic mui (earlier muide) "slit between sandbanks where tidal streams flow into". Brabantian dialects tend to have less examples, having unshifted examples in a few cases where standard Dutch has the shift, as in the toponym Zonderwijk (Veldhoven) which is cognate to standard Dutch zuid "south".
(Original) Met uitzondering van brocht → bracht kan mogelijke invloed van de noordoostelijke dialecten hier niet ingeroepen worden, want die vertoonden ook vrij veel ingweoonse trekken. Gedacht dient te worden aan een gebied zonder ingweoonse kenmerken en in het licht van de immigratiestromen in die tijd ligt dan veeleer Brabantse invloed voor de hand.
(Translation) "Except for brocht → bracht "brought", the possible influence of the northeastern dialects [Low German] cannot be cited as evidence, since they also show quite a lot of ingvaeonic traits. One must instead think of a region without ingvaeonic traits, and given the direction of immigration of that time [into Holland's larger southern cities following the fall of Antwerp in 1585], Brabantine influence is a straightforward explanation."—Johan Taeldeman, "De opbouw van het AN: meer zuidelijke dan oostelijke impulsen", in Tijdschrift voor de Nederlandse Taal- en Letterkunde, deel 123 (2007), afl. 2, p. 104.
Modern Standard German is based on High German varieties, which are not affected by the shift, but contains some words from North German dialects that do reflect it. So for example, alongside sanft German also has sacht, both meaning "soft", "gentle".
- Bremmer Jr, Rolf H. An Introduction to Old Frisian. History, Grammar, Reader, Glossary. (Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2009.)
- Markey, Thomas L. Germanic dialect grouping and the position of Ingvæonic.(Inst. f. Sprachwissenschaft d. Univ. Innsbruck, 1976.) ISBN 3-85124-529-6
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