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Simplified map of part of the border area, near 26°15′43″N 88°45′6″E / 26.26194°N 88.75167°E / 26.26194; 88.75167, showing some of the larger Indian enclaves in Bangladesh. There are many smaller enclaves in this region which are not shown.
More complete map of the exclaves. Top of the map is east, India is orange and Bangladesh is cyan.
One third-order enclave exists, called Dahala Khagrabari #51: a piece of India within Bangladesh, within India, within Bangladesh. It is less than 7000 square meters, or 1.7 acres, in size and was the site of a jute field. It is the world's only third-order enclave. 28 other enclaves within the overall complex each are smaller. (Maps)

The Indo-Bangladesh enclaves, also known as the chitmahals (Bengali: ছিটমহল chitmôhol), sometimes called pasha enclaves,[1] are the enclaves along the Bangladesh–India border, in Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.

There are 106 Indian enclaves and 92 Bangladeshi enclaves. Inside the main part of Bangladesh, 102 of these are first-order Indian enclaves, while inside the main part of India, 71 of these are Bangladeshi first-order enclaves. Further inside these enclaves are an additional 24 second order- or counter-enclaves (21 Bangladeshi, 3 Indian) and one Indian counter-counter-enclave, called Dahala Khagrabari #51. They have an estimated combined population between 50,000 and 100,000.[2]

In September 2011, the Prime Ministers of the two countries (Manmohan Singh of India and Sheikh Hasina of Bangladesh) signed an accord on border demarcation and exchange of adversely held enclaves; however, the Indian parliament has yet to ratify it. Under this intended agreement, the enclave residents could continue to reside at their present location or move to the country of their choice.[3]

History[edit]

According to an unverified popular legend, the enclaves were used as stakes in card or chess games centuries ago between two regional kings, the Raja of Koch Bihar and the Maharaja of Rangpur.[2] As far as history records, the little territories were apparently the result of a confused outcome of a 1713 treaty between the Kingdom of Koch Bihar and the Mughal Empire. Possibly, the Kingdom and the Mughals ended a war without determining a single boundary for what territories had been gained or lost.[4]

After the partition of India in 1947, Rangpur was joined to East Pakistan, and Koch Bihar was merged in 1949 with India. The desire to "de-enclave" most of the enclaves was manifested in a 1958 agreement for an exchange between India and Pakistan, but the matter then worked into a Supreme Court case in India.[2] With that agreement unratified, the negotiations had to restart after East Pakistan became independent as Bangladesh in 1971. In 1974, both countries agreed either to exchange the enclaves or at least to provide easy access to the enclaves; Bangladesh quickly ratified, but in India the matter was rife with political sensitivity, and little materialised.[2] Talks between the two countries on the issue resumed in 2001, but the lack of a concrete time frame relegated the issue to the back burner.

The residents of the enclaves live in abysmal conditions, with a lack of water, roads, electricity, schools and medicines. Crime also is rampant, as complaining would mean crossing the international boundary due to the lack of law enforcement resources. Residents of the enclaves may go to their respective countries only on the production of an identity card, after seeking permission from the border guards, causing much resentment. Recently the countries have moved towards an agreement to absorb the enclaves, but the resulting nationality of the current residents remains an impediment, as it could have implications for border disputes in other parts of the region.[5]

In September 2011, the governments of India and Bangladesh announced an intention to resolve the issue by means of swapping 162 enclaves, giving residents a choice of nationality.[6][7] India will receive 51 enclaves (out of 74 Bangladeshi chhits inside India proper) of 7,110 acres, while Bangladesh will get 111 enclaves (out of the 119 Indian chhits inside Bangladesh proper) of 17,149 acres.[8] Apparently Bangladesh would retain the 4617 acres of its Dahagram-Angarpota exclave. India planned to submit a constitutional amendment to Parliament to approve the agreement in August 2013.[9] Bangladesh has already ratified the agreement.[10] The bill was submitted to the India's Rajya Sabha on 18 December 2013.[11] There is opposition to the agreement in the Indian state of Assam, which would give up some territory, with the state parties Asom Gana Parishad and Bharatiya Janata Party not in favour of the swap.[12]

Notable enclaves[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

DahagramAngarpota: The largest Bangladeshi composite enclave (combining the first- and third-largest Bangladeshi chhits by area), administered as part of Patgram upazila in Lalmonirhat zila, lies within the Indian province of West Bengal. It is separated from the contiguous area of Bangladesh at its closest point by less than 200 meters. The enclave has an area of 25.95 km2 (10 sq mi) with a resident population of 20,000 people. The enclave lacks all facilities. The lone health complex remains virtually useless for lack of power supply, as India refused to allow Bangladesh to run power lines to the enclave.

The Tin-Bigha Corridor, the 178 x 85 meter strip of Indian territory separating the Dahagram–Angarpota composite enclave from other Bangladeshi territory, was leased to Bangladesh for 999 years for access to the enclave. It is available for use by the residents of Dahagram–Angarpota during specified hours of the day.[2]

India[edit]

Dasiar Chhara, the fourth largest Indian chhit by area, is the largest stand-alone Indian enclave (i.e., not a composite of adjoining chhits). It lies 3 km (2 mi) from the main part of India and has an area of 6.65 km² (3 sq mi).

According to the Census Report issued by Bharat Bangladesh Enclave Exchange Co-ordination Committee (31 July 2010), the total population of 9510 includes: male 4941, female 4569; Hindu 640, Muslim 8870; cultivator 2426, non-cultivator 840; literate 4148; disabled 6; with Indian EPIC 193, with BD EPIC 1173; under 5 years 378; 6 to 18 years 1072.

Dahala Khagrabari, the world's only third-order enclave (counter-counter-enclave, India in Bangladesh in India in Bangladesh).

List of enclaves and exclaves[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

In order to distinguish chhits having the same names, serial numbers established by Banerjee (1966)[13] are shown in parentheses, as (#). The Bangladesh series is separate from the India series.

With 4 exceptions (Chhat Tilai, Baikunthapur Teldhar (#3, #4, #5)), the first-order enclaves, including the 3 composite enclaves, lie entirely within the Cooch Behar District of West Bengal state, India. All 21 counter-enclaves lie within the Rangpur Division of Bangladesh.

Bangladeshi Chhits Within Indian Territory[2] Area (km2) Notes
Bangladesh Dahagram-Angarpota 18.684 Largest composite exclave of Bangladesh within India, comprises the contiguous Dahagram and Angarpota chhits.
Bangladesh Dahagram❋ 15.690 Largest chhit of Bangladesh, part of the Dahagram-Angarpota composite exclave within India.
Bangladesh Nalgram 7.705 Composite exclave of Bangladesh within India, comprises the contiguous Falnapur and Nalgram (#52) chhits.
Bangladesh Nalgram (#52)❋ 5.655 Part of the Nalgram composite exclave within India (area includes 2 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Nalgram (#53, #54)). Surrounds the Indian counter-enclave, Nalgram Chhit (#111).
Bangladesh Nalgram (#53) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Nalgram (#52).
Bangladesh Nalgram (#54) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Nalgram (#52).
Bangladesh Angarpota❋ 2.994 Part of the Dahagram-Angarpota composite exclave within India.
Bangladesh Dakshin Masaldanga <2.797 Composite exclave of Bangladesh within India, comprises the contiguous Kachua and Dakshin Masaldanga (#74) chhits.
Bangladesh Poaturkuthi 2.387 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Batrigach (#59) 2.337 First-order enclave within India (area includes the smaller Batrigach (#60), itself an exclave and true enclave). Surrounds the Indian counter-enclave, Madnakura Chhit in Bhoti Nath Batrigach.
Bangladesh Batrigach (#60) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Batrigach (#59).
Bangladesh Dakshin Masaldanga (#74)❋ 2.312 Part of the Dakshin Masaldanga composite exclave (along with Kachua chhit) within India; area includes 6 other smaller chhits, each also named Dakshin Masaldanga (#73, 75, 76, 77, 78 & 90), each itself an exclave and true enclave.
Bangladesh Dakshin Masaldanga (#73) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Bangladesh Dakshin Masaldanga (#75) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Bangladesh Dakshin Masaldanga (#76) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Bangladesh Dakshin Masaldanga (#77) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Bangladesh Dakshin Masaldanga (#78) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Bangladesh Dakshin Masaldanga (#90) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Bangladesh Falnapur❋ 2.050 Part of the Nalgram composite exclave within India.
Bangladesh Sibprasad Mustafi (#67) 1.510 First-order enclave within India (area includes the smaller Sibprasad Mustafi (#68), itself an exclave and true enclave).
Bangladesh Sibprasad Mustafi (#68) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Sibprasad Mustafi (#67).
Bangladesh Chhit Kuchlibari 1.500 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Bala Pukhari 1.342 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Karala (#63) 1.092 First-order enclave within India (area includes 2 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Karala (#64, #65)).
Bangladesh Karala (#64) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Karala (#63).
Bangladesh Karala (#65) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Karala (#63).
Bangladesh Kismat Batrigach 0.850 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Dhabalsati Mirgipur 0.704 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 111 0.685 Counter-exclave surrounded by and sharing borders with two contiguous Indian chhits, Balapara Khagrabari (#42) and Kothajni (#43) (both within the composite exclave named "Balapara Khagrabari" in the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh).
Bangladesh Purba Masaldanga (#87) 0.623 First-order enclave within India (area includes the smaller Purba Masaldanga (#86), itself an exclave and true enclave). A map from the 1930s and a 1940 source[14] imply that Purba Masaldanga (#86) and (#87) form a single enclave. However, topographic mapping and other sources suggest two enclaves, as listed here, but if joined, they are connected across the narrowest gap separating them, along a beel (marshy former river course).[2]
Bangladesh Purba Masaldanga (#86) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Purba Masaldanga (#87).
Bangladesh Paschim Bakalir Chhara 0.615 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Madhya Masaldanga 0.553 First-order enclave within India. Surrounds the Indian counter-enclave, Chhit Seoruguri.
Bangladesh Mahishmari 0.497 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Kachua❋ 0.485 Part of the Dakshin Masaldanga composite exclave (along with Dakshin Masaldanga #74) within India.
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 110 0.449 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Dahala Khagrabari (#47), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. It surrounds the only counter-counter-enclave in the world, Dahala Khagrabari (#51).
Bangladesh Chhit Panbari 0.439 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Jote Nijjama 0.354 First-order enclave within India; although not definite, it possibly forms an international quadripoint (one point in common with four different areas) of Bangladesh and India: two parts of Patgram thana (main part and the Jote Nijjama enclave itself) in Lalmonirhat District and two parts of Mekhliganj thana in Mekhliganj subdivision, Cooch Behar District, India.
Bangladesh Chhat Tilai 0.330 First-order enclave within India, straddling the border of Cooch Behar District (West Bengal) and Dhubri District (Assam).
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 22 0.292 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Dahala Khagrabari (#47), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Jagatber No. 3 0.283 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Dhabalsati 0.269 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Dhabalsati (#32) 0.245 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Baikunthapur Teldhar (#4) 0.210 First-order enclave within Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India (area includes 2 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Baikunthapur Teldhar (#3, #5)).
Bangladesh Baikunthapur Teldhar (#3) see above First-order enclave within Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India (area combined with that shown for the larger Baikunthapur Teldhar (#4)).
Bangladesh Baikunthapur Teldhar (#5) see above First-order enclave within Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India (area combined with that shown for the larger Baikunthapur Teldhar (#4)).
Bangladesh Chhit Nalgram (#55) 0.200 First-order enclave within India (area includes Chhit Nalgram (#56), itself an exclave and true enclave).
Bangladesh Chhit Nalgram (#56) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for Chhit Nalgram (#55).
Bangladesh Uttar Bansjani 0.191 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Bhandardaha 0.162 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 113 0.148 Counter-exclave surrounded by and sharing a border with two contiguous Indian exclaves, Balapara Khagrabari (#42) and Kothajni (#43) (both within the composite exclave named "Balapara Khagrabari" in the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh).
Bangladesh Purba Chhit Masaldanga (#84) 0.142 First-order enclave within India (area includes the smaller Purba Chhit Masaldanga (#83), itself an exclave and true enclave).
Bangladesh Purba Chhit Masaldanga (#83) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Purba Chhit Masaldanga (#84).
Bangladesh Bara Saradubi 0.141 First-order enclave within India; forms an international quadripoint (one point in common with four different areas) of Bangladesh and India: two parts of Hatibandha thana (main part and the Bara Saradubi enclave itself) in Lalmonirhat District and two parts of Sitalkuchi thana in Mathabhanga subdivision, Cooch Behar District, India.
Bangladesh Chandrakhan 0.140 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Dasiar Chhara (#117), located within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Madhya Bakalir Chhara 0.132 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Jagatber No. 1 0.124 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Kokoabari 0.1193 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Paschim Masaldanga (#79) 0.1193 First-order enclave within India (area includes Paschim Masaldanga (#80), itself an exclave and true enclave).
Bangladesh Paschim Masaldanga (#80) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for Paschim Masaldanga (#79).
Bangladesh Uttar Masaldanga 0.1104 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Jagatber No. 2 0.1096 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Dhabalguri No. 2 0.1086 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Bansua Khamar Gitaldaha 0.0993 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Uttar Dhaldanga (#93) 0.0966 First-order enclave within India (area includes 2 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Uttar Dhaldanga (#92, #94)).
Bangladesh Uttar Dhaldanga (#92) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Uttar Dhaldanga (#93).
Bangladesh Uttar Dhaldanga (#94) see above First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Uttar Dhaldanga (#93).
Bangladesh Chhit Dhabalguri 0.0903 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Durgapur 0.0848 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Nazirganj (#10) 0.0799 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Bewladanga (#39), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Teldhar (#1) 0.0586 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Garati (#1), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh (area includes the smaller Teldhar (#2), itself an exclave and true enclave).
Bangladesh Teldhar (#2) see above Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Garati (#1), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Teldhar (#1).
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 112 0.0571 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Kothajni (#43), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Dhabalguri No. 1 0.0565 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Dhabalguri 0.0506 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Purba Bakalir Chhara 0.0495 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Madhya Chhit Masaldanga 0.0480 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Jongra 0.0334 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Banskata (#93), located within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Paschim Chhit Masaldanga 0.0308 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Debi Doba 0.0302 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Dahala Khagrabari (#47), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Nazirganj −29 0.0265 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Nazirganj (#27), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Debottar Saldanga 0.0247 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Bewladanga (#39), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Dhabalguri No. 4 0.0184 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Dhabalguri No. 5 0.0167 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Bamandal 0.0089 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Kuchlibari 0.0074 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 99 0.0071 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Kothajni (#43), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Dhabalsati (#33) 0.0065 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Bara Khangir (#66), located within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Nazirganj (#8) 0.0062 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Shalbari (#35), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 13 0.0054 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Kothajni (#43), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Dhabalguri No. 3 0.0054 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Amjhol 0.0051 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Panbari No. 2 0.0046 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Nazirganj −30 0.0046 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Nazirganj (#19), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Srirampur 0.0042 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 15 0.0041 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Dahala Khagrabari (#47), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Nazirganj (#9) 0.00291 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Shalbari (#35), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 24 0.00287 Smallest known chhit of Bangladesh, a counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Kothajni (#43), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
❋ This chhit is part of a composite enclave and by itself is neither an enclave nor an exclave.
Stated size may not be exact.[2]

India[edit]

The 102 first-order enclaves (including the 6 composite enclaves) and the 1 counter-counter enclave lie within the Rangpur Division of Bangladesh. The 3 counter-enclaves lie within the Cooch Behar District of West Bengal state, India. In order to distinguish chhits having the same names, serial numbers established by Banerjee (1966)[13] are shown in parentheses, as (#). The India series is separate from the Bangladesh series.

Indian Chhits Within Bangladeshi Territory[2] Area (km2) Notes
India Balapara Khagrabari 25.952 Composite exclave of India, bordering the Panchagarh and Nilphamari Districts, Bangladesh, comprises the contiguous Dahala Khagrabari (#47), Kothajni (#43) and Balapara Khagrabari (#42) chhits (area includes 6 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave: 3 also named Dahala Khagrabari (#48, #49, #50) and 3 also named Kothajni (#44, #45, #46)).
India Shalbari 14.091 Composite exclave of India within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, comprises the contiguous Shalbari (#35), Bewladanga (#39), Kajal Dighi, Daikhata Chhat, Nataoka (#37) and Nataoka (#38) chhits.
India Dahala Khagrabari (#47)❋ 10.717 Largest chhit of India, part of Balapara Khagrabari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh (area includes 3 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Dahala Khagrabari (#48, #49, #50)).
India Dahala Khagrabari (#48) see above First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Dahala Khagrabari (#47).
India Dahala Khagrabari (#49) see above First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Dahala Khagrabari (#47).
India Dahala Khagrabari (#50) see above First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Dahala Khagrabari (#47).
India Kothajni (#43)❋ 8.143 Part of Balapara Khagrabari composite exclave, bordering the Panchagarh and Nilphamari Districts, Bangladesh (area includes 3 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Kothajni (#44, #45, #46)).
India Kothajni (#44) see above First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Kothajni (#43).
India Kothajni (#45) see above First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Kothajni (#43).
India Kothajni (#46) see above First-order exclave bordering the Panchagarh and Nilphamari Districts, Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Kothajni (#43).
India Balapara Khagrabari (#42)❋ 7.092 Part of Balapara Khagrabari composite exclave, bordering the Panchagarh District and Nilphamari Districts, Bangladesh.
India Dasiar Chhara 6.651 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Shalbari (#35)❋ 4.811 Part of Shalbari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Garati (#1) 3.920 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Bewladanga (#39)❋ 3.479 Part of Shalbari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Kajal Dighi❋ 3.122 Part of Shalbari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Daikhata Chhat❋ 2.020 Part of Shalbari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#33) 1.758 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#93) 1.675 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Kamat Changrabandha 1.626 Composite exclave of India within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh, comprises the contiguous Bhotbari (#74), Panisala (#77) and Kamat Changrabandha (#75, #76) chhits.
India Banskata (#97) 1.275 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Lotamari (#83) 1.147 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Kharkharia 0.904 Composite exclave of India within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh, comprises the contiguous Lotamari (#73), Kharkharia (#71) and Kharkharia (#72) chhits.
India Bans Pachai 0.879 First-order exclave bordering the Lalmonirhat and Kurigram Districts, Bangladesh.
India Bhotbari (#74)❋ 0.831 Part of Kamat Changrabandha composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Natatoka (#37)❋ 0.657 Part of Shalbari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Panisala (#77)❋ 0.557 Part of Kamat Changrabandha composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bara Khangir 0.523 Composite exclave of India within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh, comprises the contiguous Bara Khangir (#66) and Chhat Bagdokra chhits.
India Gotamuri Chhit (#112) 0.512 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Putimari 0.497 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Lotamari (#73)❋ 0.449 Part of Kharkharia composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Lotamari (#84) 0.400 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bara Khangir (#66)❋ 0.354 Part of Bara Khangir composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bans Pachai Bhitarkuthi 0.331 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja 0.309 Composite exclave of India within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, comprises the contiguous Najirgonja (#28, #29, #30, #31) chhits.
India Garati (#3) 0.298 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#27) 0.297 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Panisala (#81) 0.262 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Kharkharia (#71)❋ 0.246 Part of Kharkharia composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Ratanpur 0.238 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#32) 0.236 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Garati (#6) 0.236 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#96) 0.234 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Chhat Bhothat 0.227 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Balapukhari 0.226 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#19) 0.219 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#31)❋ 0.216 Part of Najirgonja composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Kharkharia (#72)❋ 0.209 Part of Kharkharia composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Panisala (#82) 0.208 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bara Khangir (#65) 0.204 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#25) 0.198 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. Najirgonja (#25) and (#26) are shown joined as one in pre-1947 maps, but as separate in 1991 Indian census maps.[15][2]
India Dwarikamari (#86) 0.185 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Seotikursa 0.185 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Uponchowki Kuhlibari (#62) 0.178 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Kamat Changrabandha (#75)❋ 0.173 Part of Kamat Changrabandha composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Chhat Bagdokra❋ 0.169 Part of Bara Khangir composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bara Gaochulka 0.162 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Dwarikamari (#85) 0.160 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bhotbari (#63) 0.149 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bara Khanki Kharija Gitaldaha (#54) 0.149 First-order enclave within the Nilphamari District of Bangladesh.
India Dwarikamarikhasbash 0.148 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Chhoto Guraljhara I 0.145 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Madnakura Chhit in Bhoti Nath Batrigach 0.144 Counter-enclave surrounded by a Bangladeshi true enclave/exclave, Batrigach (#59), located within Cooch Behar District of West Bengal state, India.
India Nagarjikabari 0.135 First-order enclave within the Nilphamari District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#100) 0.134 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Shahebganj 0.128 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#104) 0.125 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#94) 0.1244 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Barakhangir 0.1236 First-order enclave within the Nilphamari District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#99) 0.1182 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bagdokra 0.1032 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#109) 0.0986 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#88) 0.0904 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Kalamati 0.0858 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#90) 0.0853 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Gotamuri Chhit (#113) 0.081 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Panisala (#80) 0.0729 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Garati (#4) 0.0728 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. Garati (#4) and (#5) are shown joined as one enclave in pre-1947 topographic maps, in which the smaller (#5) adjoins the northern boundary of the larger (#4). Later sources (1991 Indian census maps[15] and Banerjee, 1966[13]) depict them as separate.[2]
India Najirgonja (#29)❋ 0.0726 Part of Najirgonja composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Chhoto Guraljhara II 0.0722 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#108) 0.0686 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Kamat Changrabandha (#76)❋ 0.0648 Part of Kamat Changrabandha composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Dakurhat Dakinir Kuthi 0.0577 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#16) 0.0575 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#101) 0.0515 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Dighaltari I 0.0498 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#26) 0.0493 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. Najirgonja (#25) and (#26) are shown joined as one in pre-1947 maps, but as separate in 1991 Indian census maps.[15][2]
India Banskata (#95) 0.0492 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#89) 0.0484 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Gaochulka I 0.0361 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Dighaltari II 0.0357 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#17) 0.0335 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Chenakata 0.0316 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bara Khanki Kharija Gitaldaha (#53) 0.0312 First-order enclave within the Nilphamari District of Bangladesh.
India Shingimari Part I 0.0246 ± 0.0013 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Kuchlibari (#57) 0.0234 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Jamaldaha Balapukhari 0.0212 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#24) 0.0204 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Nalgram Chhit 0.0191 Counter-enclave surrounded by a Bangladeshi exclave, Nalgram (#52), located within Cooch Behar District of West Bengal state, India.
India Bara Kuchlibari 0.0176 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#28)❋ 0.01574 Part of Najirgonja composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#20) 0.01566 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Bewladanga (#40) 0.01097 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#103) 0.01032 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Chhit Seoruguri 0.01016 Smallest Indian counter-enclave, surrounded by a Bangladeshi true enclave/exclave, Madhya Masaldanga, located within Cooch Behar District of West Bengal state, India.
India Banskata (#102) 0.00943 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Kuchlibari (#58) 0.00826 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Garati (#2) 0.00704 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Dahala Khagrabari (#51) 0.00688 Dahala Khagrabari (#51) is the only counter-counter enclave in the world. It is surrounded by Upanchowki Bhajni 110, a Bangladeshi counter-enclave within the Indian composite exclave named Balapara Khagrabari, which is surrounded by the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. Dahala Khagrabari (#51) is not part of the Balapara Khagrabari composite exclave, as it is not contiguous to it and borders only Bangladesh.
India Bhogramguri 0.00583 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#106) 0.00563 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#107) 0.00554 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja Chhit (#30)❋ 0.00433 Part of Najirgonja composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#22) 0.00421 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#21) 0.00413 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Gaochulka II 0.00364 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Fulker Dabri 0.00356 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bewladanga Chhat (#41) 0.00336 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Garati (#5) 0.00320 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. Garati (#4) and (#5) are shown joined as one enclave in pre-1947 topographic maps, in which the smaller (#5) adjoins the northern boundary of the larger (#4). Later sources (1991 Indian census maps[15] and Banerjee, 1966[13]) depict them as separate.[2]
India Najirgonja (#23) 0.00312 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#98) 0.00312 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#105) 0.00259 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#15) 0.00210 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Dahala Khagrabari (#52) 0.00178 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Uponchowki Kuchlibari (#61) 0.00129 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#110) 0.00113 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Panisala (#79) 0.00109 The smallest Indian true enclave; located within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Natatoka (#38)❋ 0.00105 Smallest known chhit of India, part of Shalbari composite exclave; located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh; borders Bangladesh and Shalbari (#35).
❋ This chhit is part of a composite enclave and by itself is neither an enclave nor an exclave.
Stated size may not be exact.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "India and Bangladesh discuss 'pasha' enclaves: Recognition of landlocked areas won in card games to be raised during India PM's visit". 6 September 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Whyte, Brendan R. (2002). "Waiting for the esquimo: An historical and documentary study of the Cooch Behar enclaves of India and Bangladesh". The School of Anthropology, Geography and Environmental Studies, The University of Melbourne. Retrieved 2011-09-11. 
  3. ^ Sougata Mukhopadhyay (7 September 2011). "India-Bangladesh sign pact on border demarcation". CNN-IBN. Retrieved 2011-09-20. 
  4. ^ Evgeny Vinokurov, "Theory of Enclaves" (2005) – Chapter 6: Enclave stories and case studies, page 117: Cooch Behar
  5. ^ "The land that maps forgot". The Economist. 15 February 2011. 
  6. ^ "Bangladesh, India to swap 162 land parcels". AFP. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  7. ^ "Hope for Indo-Bangladesh enclaves". NDTV. 12 September 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2011. 
  8. ^ "Proposed enclave exchange with Bangladesh will be national loss: BJP". Daily News. 2013-05-11. Retrieved 2013-08-17. 
  9. ^ Bagchi, Indrani (2013-08-15). "India-Bangladesh border pact constitutional amendment bill to be tabled in Parliament next week". Times of India. Retrieved 2013-08-17. 
  10. ^ Chakrabarty, Rakhi (2013-08-15). "Mahanta canvassing support to stall exchange of enclaves bill in Parliament". Times of India. Retrieved 2013-08-17. 
  11. ^ "Bangladesh land swap bill tabled in Rajya Sabha". Times of India. 2013-12-19. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  12. ^ "AGP plea to Modi on land-swap deal". The Telegraph. 2014-05-29. Retrieved 2014-06-19. 
  13. ^ a b c d Banerjee, R. (1966). "An Account of Exclaves – Origin and Development". Census 1961, West Bengal, District Census Handbook, Cooch Behar (West Bengal Government, India). 
  14. ^ Hartley, A. C. (1940). Final Report of the Rangpur Survey and Settlement Operations, 1931–1938. Bengal Govt. 
  15. ^ a b c d Census of India District Census Handbooks, for Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri, for 1991 census (West Bengal Government, India). 

External links[edit]


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