digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















For other uses, see In Vivo (disambiguation).

Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English[1][2][3]) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms usually animals including humans, and plants as opposed to a partial or dead organism, or those done in vitro ("within the glass"), i.e., in a laboratory environment using test tubes, petri dishes etc. Examples of investigations in vivo include: the pathogenesis of disease by comparing the effects of bacterial infection with the effects of purified bacterial toxins; the development of antibiotics, antiviral drugs, and new drugs generally; and new surgical procedures. Consequently Animal testing and clinical trials are major elements of in vivo research. In vivo testing is often employed over in vitro because it is better suited for observing the overall effects of an experiment on a living subject.

The English microbiologist Professor Harry Smith and his colleagues in the mid-1950s showed the importance of in vivo studies. They found that sterile filtrates of serum from animals infected with Bacillus anthracis were lethal for other animals, whereas extracts of culture fluid from the same organism grown in vitro were not. This discovery of anthrax toxin through the use of in vivo experiments had a major impact on studies of the pathogenesis of infectious disease.

The maxim in vivo veritas ("in a living thing [there is] truth")[4] is used to describe this type of testing and is a play on in vino veritas, ("in wine [there is] truth") a well-known proverb.

In vivo vs. ex vivo research[edit]

In microbiology in vivo is often used to refer to experimentation done in live isolated cells rather than in a whole organism, for example, cultured cells derived from biopsies. In this situation, the more specific term is ex vivo. Once cells are disrupted and individual parts are tested or analyzed, this is known as in vitro.

Methods of use[edit]

According to Christopher Lipinski and Andrew Hopkins, "Whether the aim is to discover drugs or to gain knowledge of biological systems, the nature and properties of a chemical tool cannot be considered independently of the system it is to be tested in. Compounds that bind to isolated recombinant proteins are one thing; chemical tools that can perturb cell function another; and pharmacological agents that can be tolerated by a live organism and perturb its systems are yet another. If it were simple to ascertain the properties required to develop a lead discovered in vitro to one that is active in vivo, drug discovery would be as reliable as drug manufacturing."[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Merriam-Webster. 
  2. ^ Iverson, Cheryl, et al. (eds) (2007). "12.1.1 Use of Italics". AMA Manual of Style (10th ed.). Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517633-9. 
  3. ^ American Psychological Association (2010), "4.21 Use of Italics", The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), Washington, DC, USA: APA, ISBN 978-1-4338-0562-2. 
  4. ^ Life Science Technologies, Cell Signaling: In Vivo Veritas, Science Magazine, 2007
  5. ^ Lipinski C, Hopkins A (2004). "Navigating chemical space for biology and medicine". Nature 432 (7019): 855–61. doi:10.1038/nature03193. PMID 15602551. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_vivo — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
1000000 videos foundNext > 

IN VIVO - Gazda - (Official Video 2014) HD

Label and copyright: City Records -- IN VIVO YouTube distribution: http://www.kvzmusic.com/ Zabranjeno svako kopiranje video i/ili audio snimaka i postavljan...

IN VIVO ft. Boyant - Moje leto █▬█ █ ▀█▀ (2012)

Ma nema Svajcarska ni Australija, ono sto imamo draga ti i ja, to srce Balkansko i more Jadransko, svima cu pricati da moje leto si. Gde? Ti pokazi mi, na ma...

MC YANKOO & IN VIVO - Ruza (Official Video)

MC YANKOO & IN VIVO - Ruza Molimo vas da ne kačite na druge kanale! HVALA Ruza on iTunes Download NOW https://itunes.apple.com/at/album/ruza-radio-single/id6...

IN VIVO & Djomla KS feat. MARCONi - Meni je dobro (Official video 2013)

Label and copyright: (City Records - IN VIVO) You Tube distribution: http://www.kvzmusic.com/ Zabranjeno svako kopiranje video i/ili audio snimaka i postavlj...

IN VIVO - Marina - (Official Video 2014) HD

Label and copyright: City Records -- IN VIVO YouTube distribution: http://www.kvzmusic.com/ Zabranjeno svako kopiranje video i/ili audio snimaka i postavljan...

IN VIVO - Zivot unazad - (Official video 2013) HD

Label and copyright: City Records -- IN VIVO YouTube distribution: http://www.kvzmusic.com/ Zabranjeno svako kopiranje video i/ili audio snimaka i postavljan...

In Vivo - Marina // PINK MUSIC FESTIVAL 2014

Label and copyright: City records Zabranjeno svako kopiranje video i/ili audio snimaka i postavljanje na druge kanale! Num: „Marina" Text, muzika i aranžman:...

In Vivo - Tu Tu Tu

In Vivo - Tu Tu Tu.

In Vivo i Dado Polumenta - Partimanijak - (Official Video 2011)

Label and copyright: Svako Dobro Production Digital distribution: http://www.kvzmusic.com/


DOWNLOAD na http://www.FolkoTeka.com IN VIVO - Nijedna sad [OFFICIAL VIDEO] http://www.TekstoTeka.com.

1000000 videos foundNext > 

3735 news items

BioOptics World

BioOptics World
Fri, 01 Aug 2014 08:15:05 -0700

Researchers have demonstrated for the first time that noninvasive, low-power light therapy can prompt stem cells inside the body to reconstruct tissue.1 The research promises a broad range of clinical applications in restorative dentistry and ...
Thu, 31 Jul 2014 03:16:34 -0700

In this report, we demonstrate the superior tumor suppressor activity of p53-CC and its ability to cause tumor regression of the MDA-MB-468 aggressive p53-dominant negative breast cancer tumor model in vivo. In addition, we illustrate the profound ...

DARKDaily.com - Laboratory News

DARKDaily.com - Laboratory News
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 03:07:30 -0700

About the size of a jumbo paper clip, the instrument is called MEDIC, which stands for Microfluidic Electrochemical Detector for In vivo Concentrations. In a story about these research findings, the UCSB Current reported that the MEDIC device can ...


Mon, 21 Jul 2014 05:11:15 -0700

The problem is that after a test is accepted, individual labs must check the method works for each drug, which is a requirement that may be delaying “the implementation of methods that have the potential to replace, reduce and refine routine in vivo ...
Marketwired (press release)
Wed, 23 Jul 2014 05:00:00 -0700

The paper presents positive in vivo data demonstrating the feasibility and versatility of multivalent drug display through XTENylation using the approved anti-HIV drug T-20 (enfuvirtide or Fuzeon) as a model therapeutic payload. XTEN, a protein-based ...
7thSpace Interactive (press release)
Mon, 28 Jul 2014 08:45:00 -0700

PTP1B is a prototypic enzyme of the superfamily protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) which are critical regulators of tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent signaling events. It is a highly plausible candidate for designing therapeutic inhibitors of ...
Fri, 18 Jul 2014 12:48:58 -0700

Volunteers tell NewsChannel 3 that once a horse is taken off the beach, it cannot be returned to the wild herd. In Vivo's case, he has been handled so much by humans that he is virtually tame. That's why the horse needs to be protected. The rules for ...
Wed, 30 Jul 2014 07:37:30 -0700

ST LOUIS (LALATE) – La Copa MX Apertura 2014 en vivo resultados continue today with more futbol partidos. La Copa MX A14 Table heads to Univision Deportes, Galavision and EPSN3 with live streaming video and live broadcast feeds, with respective ...

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About In vivo

You can talk about In vivo with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!