Speedbird logo, commissioned by Imperial Airways who rarely used it on their own planes prior to 1939
|Fate||Merged with British Airways Ltd.|
|Successor(s)||British Overseas Airways Corporation|
|Founded||31 March 1924|
|Defunct||24 November 1939|
Imperial Airways was the early British commercial long range air transport company, operating from 1924 to 1939 and serving parts of Europe but principally the Empire routes to South Africa, India and the Far East, including Malaya and Hong Kong. There were local partnership companies; Qantas (Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Ltd) in Australia and TEAL (Tasman Empire Airways Ltd) in New Zealand.
The establishment of Imperial Airways occurred in the context of British hopes of prolonging and modernizing their Empire that had been based around ocean shipping. The hope was that the new technology of aviation would facilitate overseas settlement by making travel to and from the colonies quicker, and that flight would also speed up colonial government and trade. The launch of the airline followed a burst of air route survey in the British Empire after the First World War, and after some experimental (and sometimes dangerous) long-distance flying to the margins of Empire.
Imperial Airways was created against a background of stiff competition from the heavily government subsidised French and German airlines and following the advice of the UK government 'Hambling Committee' (formally known as the 'C.A.T Subsidies Committee'). The committee produced a report in February 1923 recommending that four of the largest existing aircraft companies, The Instone Air Line Company, owned by shipping magnate Samuel Instone, Noel Pembertin-Billing's British Marine Air Navigation (part of the Supermarine flying-boat company), The Daimler Airway, under the management of George Edward Woods and Handley Page Transport Co Ltd., should be merged. It was hoped that this would create a company which could stand up to French and German competition and would be strong enough to develop Britain's external air services. With this in view, a £1m subsidy over ten years was offered to encourage the merger. Agreement was made between the President of the Air Council and the British, Foreign and Colonial Corporation on 3 December 1923 for the company, under the title of the 'Imperial Air Transport Company' to acquire existing air transport services in the UK. The agreement set out the government subsidies for the new company: £137,000 in the early years diminishing to £32,000 in the tenth year as well as minimum mileages to be achieved and penalties for failure to achieve these.
Imperial Airways Limited was formed on 31 March 1924 with the following stock from each contributing concern. British Marine Air Navigation Company Ltd (three flying boats), the Daimler Airway (five aircraft), Handley Page Transport Ltd (three aircraft) and the Instone Air Line Ltd (two aircraft). The government had appointed two directors Hambling himself (who was also President of the Institute of Bankers) and Major J. W. Hills a former Financial Secretary to the Treasury.
The land operations were based at Croydon Airport to the south of London. IAL immediately discontinued its predecessors' service to points north of London, the airline not being interested in serving what they regarded as the 'provinces'. Thereafter only IAL aircraft operating ad hoc charter flights deigned to fly 'North of Watford'.
Industrial troubles with the pilots delayed the operation of services until 26 April 1924, when a daily London-Paris service was opened with a DH34. Thereafter began the task of expanding the routes between England and the Continent, Southampton-Guernsey on 1 May 1924, London-Brussels-Cologne on 3 May, London-Amsterdam 2 June 1924, and a summer service from London-Paris-Basle-Zürich on 17 June 1924. The first new airliner commissioned by Imperial Airways, was the Handley Page W8F City of Washington on the 3rd November 1924.
In the first year of operation the company carried 11,395 passengers and 212,380 letters. In April 1925, The Lost World was shown to the passengers on the London-Paris route. This was the first time that a film had been screened for passengers on a plane.
Empire Services 
Route Proving 
From 16 November 1925 to 13 March 1926 Alan Cobham made an Imperial Airways’ route survey flight from UK to Cape Town and back in the Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar-powered DH50J G-EBFO. The outward flight was London-Paris-Marseille-Pisa-Taranto-Athens-Sollum-Cairo-Luxor-Assuan-Wadi Halfa-Atbara-Khartoum-Malakal-Mongalla-Jinja-Kisumu-Tabora-Abercorn-Ndola-Broken Hill-Livingstone-Bulawayo-Pretoria-Johannesburg-Kimberley-Blomfontein-Cape Town. On his return Cobham was awarded the Air Force Cross for his services to aviation.
On 30 June 1926 Alan Cobham left the Medway at Rochester in the DH50 G-EBFO on a commercial route survey for Imperial Airways to Melbourne, arriving on 15 August. He left Melbourne on 29 August and after completing 28,000 miles in 78 days with 320 hours flying the DH50 alighted on the Thames at Westminster on 1 October. Cobham was met on arrival by the Secretary of State for Air, Sir Samuel Hoare, and was subsequently knighted by HM King George V.
27 December 1926 Imperial Airways de Havilland DH.66 Hercules G-EBMX left Croydon for a survey flight to India. The flight reached Karachi on 6 January and Delhi on 8 January. The aircraft was named City of Delhi by Lady Irwin, wife of the Viceroy, on 10 January 1927. The return flight left on 1 February 1927 and arrived at Heliopolis, Cairo on 7 February. The flying time from Croydon to Delhi was 62 hours 27 minutes and Delhi to Heliopolis 32 hours 50 minutes.
The Eastern Route 
Regular services began on 12 January 1927 using DH.66 aircraft on the Cairo to Basra route, replacing the established RAF mail flight. The service was extended to Karachi when 2 years of negotiations with the Persian authorities were successfully completed granting Imperial Airways regular overflight rights. The first London to Karachi service departed on 30 March 1929 and took 7 days. The route from London was by air to Basle, and then by rail to Genoa. The flight from Genoa to Alexandria was by new Short S.8 Calcutta flying boats. After travelling by rail to Cairo passengers boarded a DH.66 to fly the Cairo to Karachi sector. The route across Europe and the Mediterranean changed many times over the next few years but almost always involved a rail journey. Later in the year the route was extended, with a flight departing London for Delhi on 29 December 1929.
In April 1931 an experimental London-Australia air mail flight took place; the mail was transferred at the Dutch East Indies, and took 26 days in total to reach Sydney. For the passenger flight leaving London on 1 October 1932, the Eastern route was switched from the Persian to the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf, and Handley Page HP 42 airliners were introduced on the Cairo to Karachi sector.
On 29 May 1933 an England to Australia survey flight took off, operated by Imperial Airways Armstrong Whitworth XV Atalanta G-ABTL Astraea. Major H G Brackley, Imperial Airways’ Air Superintendent, was in charge of the flight. Astraea flew Croydon-Paris-Lyons-Rome-Brindidsi-Athens-Alexandria-Cairo where it followed the normal route to Karachi then onwards to Jodhpur-Delhi-Calcutta-Akyab-Rangoon-Bangkok-Prachuab-Alor Star-Singapore-Palembang-Batavia-Sourabaya-Bima-Koepang-Bathurst Island-Darwin-Newcastle Waters-Camooweal-Cloncurry-Longreach-Roma-Toowoomba reaching Eagle Farm, Brisbane on 23 June. Sydney was visited on 26 June, Canberra on 28 June and Melbourne on 29 June.
There followed a rapid eastern extension. The first London to Calcutta service departed on 1 July 1933, the first London to Rangoon service on 23 September 1933, the first London to Singapore service on 9 December 1933, and the first London to Brisbane service on 8 December 1934, with QANTAS responsible for the Singapore to Brisbane sector. (The 1934 start was for mail; passenger flights to Brisbane began the following April.) The first London to Hong Kong passengers departed London on 14 March 1936 following the establishment of a branch from Penang to Hong Kong.
The Africa Route 
On 28 February 1931 a weekly service began between London and Mwanza on Lake Victoria in Tanganyika as part of the proposed route to Cape Town. On 9 December 1931 the Imperial Airways’ service for Central Africa was extended experimentally to Cape Town for the carriage of Christmas mail. The aircraft used on the last sector, DH66 G-AARY City of Karachi arrived in Cape Town on 21 December 1931. On 20 January 1932 a mail-only route to London to Cape Town was opened. On 27 April this route was opened to passengers and took 10 days. In early 1933 Atalantas replaced DH66s on the Kisumu to Cape Town sector of the London to Cape Town route. On 9 February 1936 the trans-Africa route was opened by Imperial Airways between Khartoum and Kano in Nigeria. This route was extended to Lagos on 15 October 1936.
Short Empire Flying Boats 
In 1937 with the introduction of 'Empire class' flying boats designed and built at the Short Brothers factory, Imperial Airways could offer a real through-service from Southampton to the Empire. The journey to the Cape consisted of flights via Marseille, Rome, Brindisi, Athens, Alexandria, Khartoum, Port Bell, Kisumu and onwards by land-based craft to Nairobi, Mbeya and eventually Cape Town. Survey flights were also made across the Atlantic and to New Zealand. By mid-1937 Imperial had completed its thousandth service to the Empire. Starting in 1938 Empire flying boats also flew between Britain and Australia via India and the Middle East.
Imperial's aircraft were small, most seating fewer than twenty passengers; about 50,000 passengers used Imperial Airways in the 1930s. Most passengers on intercontinental routes or on services within and between British colonies were men doing colonial administration, business or research. To begin with only the wealthy could afford to fly, but passenger lists gradually diversified. Travel experiences related to flying low and slow, and were reported enthusiastically in newspapers, magazines and books. There was opportunity for sightseeing from the air and at stops.
Imperial Airways stationed its all-male flight deck crew, cabin crew and ground crew along the length of its routes. Specialist engineers and inspectors - and ground crew on rotation or leave - traveled on the airline without generating any seat revenue. Several air crew lost their lives in accidents. At the end of the 1930s crew numbers approximated 3,000. All crew were expected to be ambassadors for Britain and imperialism.
Air Mail 
In 1934 the Government began negotiations with Imperial Airways to establish a service (Empire Air Mail Scheme) to carry mail by air on routes served by the airline. Indirectly these negotiations led to the dismissal in 1936 of Sir Christopher Bullock, the Permanent Under-Secretary at the Air Ministry, who was found by a Board of Inquiry to have abused his position in seeking a position on the board of the company while these negotiations were in train.
The Empire Air Mail Programme began in July 1937, delivering anywhere for 1½ d./oz. By mid-1938 a hundred tons of mail had been delivered to India and a similar amount to Africa. In the same year, construction was started on the Empire Terminal in Victoria, London, designed by A. Lakeman and with a statue by Eric Broadbent, Speed Wings Over the World gracing the portal above the main entrance. From the terminal there were train connections to Imperial's flying boats at Southampton and coaches to its landplane base at Croydon Airport. The terminal operated as recently as 1980.
To help promote use of the Air Mail service, in June and July 1939, Imperial Airways participated with Pan American Airways in providing a special "around the world" service; Imperial carried the souvenir mail from Foynes, Ireland, to Hong Kong, out of the eastbound New York to New York route. Pan American provided service from New York to Foynes (departing 24 June, via the first flight of Northern FAM 18) and Hong Kong to San Francisco (via FAM 14), and United Airlines carried it on the final leg from San Francisco to New York, arriving on 28 July.
Captain H.W.C. Alger was the pilot for the inaugural air mail flight carrying mail from England to Australia for the first time on the Short Empire flyingboat Castor for Imperial Airways' Empires Air Routes, in 1937.
Accidents and incidents 
- On 24 December 1924, de Havilland DH.34 G-EBBX crashed and caught fire shortly after take-off from Croydon Airport, killing the pilot and all seven passengers.
- On 21 October 1926, Handley Page W.10 G-EBMS ditched in the English Channel 18 nautical miles (33 km) off the English coast. All 12 people on board were rescued by FV Invicta.
- On 13 July 1928, Vickers Vulcan G-EBLB crashed at Purley whilst on a test flight, killing four of the six people on board.
- On 17 June 1929, Handley Page W.10 G-EBMT City of Ottawa ditched in the English Channel whilst on a flight from Croydon to Paris with the loss of seven lives.
- On 6 September 1929, de Havilland Hercules G-EBMZ crashed on landing at Jask, Iran due to the pilot misjudging the altitude and stalling the aircraft, killing three of five on board.
- On 26 October 1929, Short Calcutta G-AADN City of Rome force-landed off Spezia, Italy in poor weather, killing all seven on board; the flying boat sank during attempts to tow it to shore.
- On 30 October 1930, Handley Page W.8g G-EBIX City of Washington struck high ground in fog and crashed at Boulogne, Paris, France, killing three of six on board.
- On 8 August 1931, Handley Page H.P.42 G-AAGX Hannibal was operating an international scheduled passenger flight from Croydon to Paris when the port lower engine failed. Flying debris from the failed engine struck the propeller of the port upper engine causing it to vibrate so severely that it had to be shut down. A forced landing was made at Five Oak Green, Kent where the aircraft suffered further damage to a wing and another propeller and the tail was ripped off against a tree stump. There were no injuries amongst the 20 passengers and crew. The aircraft was dismantled and taken to Croydon by road for rebuild.
- On 28 March 1933, Armstrong Whitworth Argosy G-AACI City of Liverpool crashed at Dixmude, Belgium following an in-flight fire. This is suspected to be the first case of sabotage in the air. All fifteen people on board were killed.
- On 30 December 1933, Avro Ten G-ABLU Apollo collided with a radio mast at Ruysselede, Belgium and crashed. All ten people on board were killed.
- On 31 December 1935, Short Calcutta G-AASJ City of Khartoum crashed off Alexandria, Egypt due to fuel exhaustion; twelve of 13 on board drowned when the flying boat sank.
- On 22 August 1936, Short Kent G-ABFA Scipio sank at Mirabella, Crete after a heavy landing, killing two of 11 on board.
- On 24 March 1937, Short Empire G-ADVA crashed in the Beaujolois Mountains near Ouroux, France, killing five.
- On 31 May 1937, Handley Page H.P.45 (former H.P.42) G-AAXE Hengist was destroyed in a hangar fire at Karachi, India.
- On 1 October 1937, Short Empire G-ADVC Courtier crashed on landing in Phaleron Bay, Greece due to poor visibility, killing two of 15 on board.
- On 5 December 1937, Short Empire G-ADUZ crashed on takeoff from Brindisi, Italy due to incorrect flap settings, killing two.
- On 27 July 1938, Armstrong Whitworth Atalanta G-ABTG flew into a hillside near Kisumu, Kenya, killing all four on board.
- On 27 November 1938, Short Empire G-AETW Calpurnia crashed in Lake Habbaniyah, Iraq in bad weather after the pilot attempted to determine the aircraft's position, killing four.
- On 21 January 1939, Short Empire G-ADUU Cavalier ditched in the Atlantic 285 mi off New York due to carburator icing and loss of engine power; three drowned while the ten survivors were picked up by the tanker Esso Baytown.
- On 1 May 1939, Short Empire G-ADVD crashed in the Lumbo lagoon after attempting to land at Lumbo Airport, killing two of six on board.
- On 1 Mar 1940, H.P.42 "Hannibal", crashed in the Gulf of Oman killing everyone aboard. The plane was travelling between Jiwani, in Baluchistan to Sharjah
Imperial Airways operated many types of aircraft
- Armstrong Whitworth Argosy (1926 - )
- Three aircraft from 1926, City of Glasgow, City of Birmingham and City of Wellington (later named City of Arundel). Birmingham crashed in 1931 and Arundel in 1934, Glasgow was retired in 1934. In 1929 four Argosy Mk IIs were introduced City of Edinburgh, City of Liverpool, City of Manchester and City of Coventry.
- Armstrong Whitworth Atalanta (1932 - )
- Eight aircraft from 1932. The Atlanta were ordered for use on the Nairobi to Cape Town part of the trunk route to South Africa and the Karachi to Singapore section of the Australia route. In particular the aircraft had to cope with the high-altitude airfields in Africa. It was a four-engine high-wing monoplane and operated the tropical routes for eight years, the three survivors being impressed into service with the Indian Air Force in 1941.
- Armstrong Whitworth Ensign (1938 - )
- Twelve aircraft from 1938. Following a decision by the British government in 1934 that first-class air mail to the Empire was to be carried by air, Imperial Airways ordered 12 Ensign aircraft from Armstrong Whitworth. The Ensign was a large four-engined high-wing monoplane and had different seating configuration for different routes. Those on the distant Empire routes had seating for 27 in three cabins and the four variants for European routes had seats for 40. At the outbreak of the Second World War some aircraft were used to carry supplies to the British forces in France. All the aircraft were transferred to BOAC in April 1940.
- Avro 618 Ten (1930)
- Avro 652 (1936 -1938)
- Two from 1936, passed to Air Service Training in 1938.
- Boulton Paul P.71A (1934)
- Two from 1934, Bodiciea and Britomart, both destroyed in crashes (1935 and 1936).
- de Havilland DH.34 (1924 - 1926)
- Seven aircraft operated from formation in 1924, four inherited from Instone Air Line and three from Daimler Airways. Two destroyed in accidents and the others retired by 1926.
- De Havilland DH.50 (1924)
- Three aircraft from 1924, one was used for survey work and later fitted with twin floats until sold in Australia in 1929.
- One aircraft from 1930, crashed in Australia in 1930.
- de Havilland DH.66 Hercules (1926)
- Nine aircraft introduced in 1926, City of Cairo, City of Delhi, City of Bagdhad, City of Jerusalem, City of Tehran, City of Basra, City of Karachi,City of Jodhpur and City of Cape Town.
- de Havilland DH.86 (1934)
- Twelve aircraft from 1934.
- de Havilland DH.91 Albatross (1938)
- Five passenger aircraft from 1938, operated as the Frobisher class One as long range mail carrier.
- Handley Page H.P.42 and H.P.45 (1931)
- Four of each type from 1931, Hannibal, Horatius, Hanno, Hadrian, Heracles, Horatius, Hengist and Helena. The H.P.42 also known as HP.42E (24 passengers) operated on the long distance routes and the H.P.45 also known as HP.42W (38 passengers) on the European routes
- Handley Page W8B (1924)
- Three operated from formation in 1924 inherited from Handley Page Transport, named Princess Mary, Princess George and Princess Henry. Princess Mary was destroyed in an accident.
- Handley Page W8F (1924 - 1930)
- One aircraft City of Washington operated from 1924 until it crashed in 1930.
- Handley Page W9 (1926 - 1929)
- One aircraft City of New York from 1926 until sold in 1929.
- Handley Page W10 (1926 - 1933)
- Four aircraft from 1926 named City of Melbourne, City of Pretoria, City of London and City of Ottawa. London crashed in 1926 and Ottawa in 1929, the other two were sold in 1933.
- Short S.23 Empire (1936)
- Thirty-one aircraft from 1936.
- Short S.26 (1939)
- Three trans-Atlantic flying-boats as the "G-Class" from 1939. Built with a subsidisy for possible military use all were passed to the Royal Air Force in 1940.
- Short S.30 Empire (1938)
- Nine aircraft from 1938.
- Short S.8 Calcutta (1928)
- Five flying boats from 1928, City of Alexander, City of Athens (later City of Stonehaven), City of Rome, City of Khartoum and City of Salonica (later City of Swanage).
- Short Kent (1931)
- Three flying boats from 1931, Scipio, Sylvanus and Satyrus.
- Short Scylla (1934)
- Two aircraft from 1934, both passed to the Royal Air Force in 1940.
- Short Mayo Composite (1938)
- Long range flying boat combination. Both operated from 1938, Mercury the upper component was scrapped in 1941 and Maia the lower component was destroyed in a German bombing raid in 1942.
- Supermarine Sea Eagle (1924)
- Supermarine Southampton (1929)
- One flying boat loaned from the Air Ministry in 1929.
- Supermarine Swan (1925 - 1927)
- Single flying boat built for possible RAF use, but not adopted and loaned for cross-Channel service.
- Vickers Velox (1934 - 1936)
- One aircraft from 1936 used for cargo and experimental flights. Crashed at Croydon airport in August that year killing the pilots and two wireless operators.
- Vickers Vimy Commercial (1924)
- One aircraft from formation in 1924 inherited from Instone Air Line and named City of London.
- Vickers Vulcan (1924 - 1928)
- Two from 1924, although one was not used and the other destroyed in 1928. One additional aircraft loaned from the Air Ministry for the 1925 Empire Exhibition Display.
- Westland Wessex (1931)
- Two aircraft from 1931.
Compared to other operators of that time (Air France, KLM, Deutsche Luft Hansa), Imperial Airways was lagging behind in Europe and it was suggested that all European operations be handed over to its competitor British Airways Ltd (founded in 1935) which had more modern aircraft and better organisation. However in November 1939 both Imperial and British Airways Ltd were merged into a new state-owned national carrier: British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC). The new carrier adopted the Imperial Speedbird logo, which has evolved into the present British Airways Speedmarque, and the term (Speedbird) continues to be used as BA's call sign.
Related lists 
- Pirie, G.H. Air Empire: British Imperial Civil Aviation 1919-39 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2009) ISBN 978-0-7190-4111-2
- Ord-Hume, Arthur W. J. G.. (2010). Imperial Airways, From Early Days to BOAC. Catrine, Ayrshire: Stenlake Publishing. pp. 7–9. ISBN 9781840335149.
- Ord-Hume, Arthur W. J. G. (2010). Imperial Airways, From Early Days to BOAC. Catrine, Ayrshire: Stenlake Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 9781840335149.
- Terms of Agreement Published Flight 1924
- and received a baronetage
- "Appointment of Government Directors" Flight 1923
- Pirie, G.H. Cultures and Caricatures of British Imperial Aviation: Passengers, Pilots, Publicity. (Manchester: Manchester University Press, July 2012). ISBN 978-0-7190-8682-3.
- Pirie, G.H. Incidental tourism: British imperial air travel in the 1930s. Journal of Tourism History, 1 (2009) 49-66.
- Pirie, Cultures and Caricatures of British Imperial Aviation.
- "Air Disaster at Croydon". Flight (1 January 1925): p4.
- "ACCIDENT DETAILS". Plane Crash Info. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
- Accident description for G-EBMZ at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 18 January 2013.
- Accident description for G-AADN at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 18 January 2013.
- Accident description for G-EBMZ at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 18 January 2013.
- "Accident To Air Liner. Damaged In Forced Landing" The Times (London). Monday, 10 August 1931. Issue 45897, col G, p. p10.
- Accident description for G-AASJ at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 18 January 2013.
- Accident description for G-ABFA at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 18 January 2013.
- Accident description for G-ADVA at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 18 January 2013.
- Accident description for G-ADVC at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 18 January 2013.
- Accident description for G-ADUZ at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 18 January 2013.
- Accident description for G-ABTG at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 18 January 2013.
- Accident description for G-AETW at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 18 January 2013.
- Accident description for G-ADVD at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 18 January 2013.
- Bluffield 2009, pp. 211-213
- Jackson 1973, pp. 52-54
- Jackson 1973, pp. 55-57
- Jackson, A. J. (1973). British Civil Aircraft since 1919, Volume 2 (2nd edition ed.). Putnam. ISBN 0-370-10010-7.
- "Commercial Aviation" Flight 13 August 1936 p181
- www.imperial-airways.co.uk - Website for historical information on the airline
- www.imperial-airways.gb.com - Website for the Imperial Airways Museum
- Bluffield, Robert. 2009. Imperial Airways - The Birth of the British Airline Industry 1914-1940. Ian Allan. ISBN 978-1-906537-07-4.
- Budd, Lucy "Global Networks Before Globalisation: Imperial Airways and the Development of Long-Haul Air Routes" Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Research Bulletin 253, 5 December 2007.
- Cluett, Douglas; Nash, Joanna; Learmonth Bob. 1980. Croydon Airport 1928 - 1939, The Great Days. London Borough of Sutton ISBN 0-9503224-8-2
- Doyle, Neville. 2002. The Triple Alliance: The Predecessors of the first British Airways. Air-Britain. ISBN 0-85130-286-6
- Moss, Peter W. October 1974. British Airways. Aeroplane Monthly.
- Pirie, G.H. Passenger traffic in the 1930s on British imperial air routes: refinement and revision. Journal of Transport History, 25 (2004) 66–84.
- Pirie, G.H. Air Empire: British Imperial Civil Aviation 1919-39. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-7190-4111-2.
- Pirie, G.H. Incidental tourism: British imperial air travel in the 1930s. Journal of Tourism History, 1 (2009) 49-66.
- Pirie, G.H. Cultures and Caricatures of British Imperial Aviation: Passengers, Pilots, Publicity. Manchester: Manchester University Press, July 2012. ISBN 978-0-7190-8682-3.
- Bluffield, Robert (2009). Imperial Airways - The Birth of the British Airline Industry 1914-1940. Hersham, Surrey, England: Ian Allen Publishing. ISBN 978-1-906537-07-4.
- Jackson, A.J. (1973). British Civil Aircraft since 1919 Volume 1. London: Putnam. ISBN 0-370-10006-9.
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