digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests; extraction without permission or from a protected area; the cutting of protected species; or the extraction of timber in excess of agreed limits (see Box 1).

Illegalities may also occur during transport, such as illegal processing and export; fraudulent declaration to customs; and the avoidance of taxes and other charges.

Overview[edit]

Box 1. Logging in national parks: the case of Korindo (Indonesia)
In March 2004, Greenpeace carried out of actions against a cargo ship transporting timber from the Indonesian company Korindo, which was being imported into France, UK, Belgium and the Netherlands.

Korindo is known to be using illegal timber from the last rainforests of Indonesia. In May 2003, an Indonesian Government investigation confirmed that Korindo was receiving illegal timber from notorious timber barons known to obtain timber from an orang-utan refuge – the Tanjung Puting National Park.[1] Tanjung Puting National Park is a 4,000 square kilometre conservation area of global importance. It is recognised as a world biosphere reserve by the United Nations and forms the largest protected area of swamp forest in South-East Asia.

Illegal logging is a pervasive problem, causing enormous damage to forests, local communities and to the economies of producer countries. Despite the economic importance of trade in timber and forest products, major international timber consumer countries, such as the EU, have no legal means to halt the import of illegally sourced forest products,[2] because the identification of illegally logged or traded timber is technically difficult. Therefore, a legal basis for normative acts against timber imports or other products manufactured out of illegal wood is missing. Scientific methods to pinpoint the geographic origin of timber are currently under development.[3] Possible actions to restrict imports cannot meet with WTO regulations of non-discrimination. They must instead be arranged in bilateral agreements. TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network strives to monitor the illegal trade of timber and provide expertise in policy and legal reviews.[4]

Scale[edit]

It is estimated that illegal logging in public lands alone causes losses in assets and revenue in excess of 10 billion USD annually.[5] Although exact figures are difficult to state, given the illegal nature of the activity, decant estimates show that most of the logging, more than half, that is done in the world is illegal most especially in open and vulnerable areas – the Amazon Basin, Central Africa, Southeast Asia, the Russian Federation – is illegal.[6]

Available figures and estimations must be dealt with cautiously. Governments may tend to underestimate the situation. High estimates of illegal logging may constitute an embarrassment as these hint at ineffective enforcement of legislation or, even worse, bribery and corruption. On the other hand, environmental NGOs publish alarming figures to raise awareness and to emphasise the need for stricter conservation measures. For companies of the forest sector, publications providing high estimations can be regarded as potentially threatening for their reputation and their market perspective, including the competitiveness of wood in comparison to other materials. However, for many countries, NGOs are the only source of information apart from state institutions that probably clearly underestimate the situation. For example, the Republic of Estonia calculated an amount of 1% illegally harvested timber in 2003, whereas it is estimated to reach a maximum of 50% by the ENGO "Estonian Green Movement".[7] In Latvia, the situation is comparable; anecdotal evidence points towards 25%[8] of logging being illegal.

Consequences[edit]

Illegal logging continues in Thailand. This photograph was taken from the roadside in Mae Wang District, Chiang Mai Province, in March 2011

Illegal logging contributes to deforestation and by extension global warming, causes loss of biodiversity and undermines the rule of law. These illegal activities undermine responsible forest management, encourage corruption and tax evasion and reduce the income of the producer countries, further limiting the resources producer countries can invest in sustainable development. Illegal logging has serious economic and social implications for the poor and disadvantaged with millions of dollars worth of timber revenue being lost each year.[9]

Furthermore, the illegal trade of forest resources undermines international security, and is frequently associated with corruption, money laundering, organized crime, human rights abuses and, in some cases, violent conflict. In the forestry sector, cheap imports of illegal timber and forest products, together with the non-compliance of some economic players with basic social and environmental standards, destabilise international markets. This unfair competition affects those European companies, especially the small and medium sized companies that are behaving responsibly and ready to play by fair rules.

Statistics on illegal logging[edit]

Box 2. Loss of revenue to governments of producer countries
The scale of illegal logging represents a major loss of revenue to many countries and can lead to widespread associated environmental damage. A senate committee in the Philippines estimated that the country lost as much as US$1.8bn per year during the 1980s.[10] The Indonesian government estimated in 2002 that costs related to illegal logging are US$3bn each year.[11] The World Bank[12] estimates that illegal logging costs timber-producing countries between 10 and 15 billion euros per year. This compares with 10 billion euros disbursed as EC aid in 2002.[13]
  • A joint UK-Indonesian study of the timber industry in Indonesia in 1998 suggested that about 40% of throughput was illegal, with a value in excess of $365 million.[14] More recent estimates, comparing legal harvesting against known domestic consumption plus exports, suggest that 88% of logging in the country is illegal in some way.[15] Malaysia is the key transit country for illegal wood products from Indonesia.[16]
  • In Brazil, 80% of logging in the Amazon violates government controls.[17] At the core of illegal logging is widespread corruption. Often referred to as ‘green gold’, mahogany can fetch over US$1,600 m-3. Illegal mahogany opens the door for illegal logging of other species, and for widespread exploitation of the Brazilian Amazon. Recent Greenpeace investigations in the Brazilian state of Pará reveal just how deeply rooted the problem remains. No reliable legal chain of custody exists for mahogany, and the key players in its trade are ruthless.[18]
  • The World Bank estimates that 80% of logging operations are illegal in Bolivia and 42% in Colombia,[19] 10 while in Peru, illegal logging equals 80% of all activities.[20]
  • Research carried out by WWF International [21] in 2002 shows that in Africa, rates of illegal logging vary from 50% for Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea to 70% in Gabon and 80% in Liberia – where revenues from the timber industry also fuelled the civil war.
  • WWF estimates that illegal logging in Russia is at least 20%, reaching up to 50% in its far eastern regions.[22]
  • Between 50% and 90% of logging from the key countries in these regions is being carried out by organised criminal entities.[24]

Political processes[edit]

East Asia[edit]

Signs of illegal timber poaching on the boundary of the protected area around the Cagua Volcano.

The East Asia Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (FLEG) Ministerial Conference took place in Bali in September 2001. The Conference brought together nearly 150 participants from 20 countries, representing government, international organizations, NGOs, and the private sector. The event was co-hosted by the World Bank and the Government of Indonesia.

The meeting included detailed technical discussions of forest law enforcement in relation to governance, forest policy and forest management as well as ministerial engagement.

The Conference's primary aims were to share analysis on forest law enforcement; explore priority issues of forest law enforcement, including illegal logging in the East Asia region, among senior officials from forest and related ministries, NGOs and industry representatives; and commit to action at the national and regional level.

European Union[edit]

In May 2003 the European Commission presented the EU Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan. This marked the beginning of a long process by which the EU aims to develop and implement measures to address illegal logging and related trade. The primary means of implementing the Plan is through Voluntary Partnership Agreements with timber producing countries.

Africa[edit]

The Africa Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (AFLEG) Ministerial Conference was held in Yaoundé, Cameroon in October 2003. The meeting drew together ministers and stakeholders from Africa, Europe and North America to consider how partnerships between producers, consumers, donors, civil society and the private sector could address illegal forest exploitation and associated trade in Africa.

The AFLEG conference, the second regional forest law enforcement and governance meeting after East Asia, resulted in endorsement of a ministerial declaration and action plan as well as a variety of informal implementation initiatives.

Saint Petersburg Declaration[edit]

The Europe and North Asia Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (ENA FLEG) Ministerial Conference was held in Saint Petersburg, Russia on 22–25 November 2005. In May 2004, the Russian Federation announced its intention to host the ENA FLEG process, supported by the World Bank. A preparatory conference was held in Moscow in June 2005.

The Saint Petersburg conference brought together nearly 300 participants representing 43 governments, the private sector, civil society and international organisations. It agreed to the Saint Petersburg Declaration on Forest Law Enforcement and Governance in Europe and North Asia. The Declaration includes an indicative list of actions, intended to serve as a general framework for possible actions to be undertaken by governments as well as civil society.

The conference took place as the United Kingdom prepared to pass the G8 Presidency to Russia. As Valery Roshchupkin, Head of the Federal Forestry Agency of the Russian Federation, confirmed, illegal logging would be of special importance for Russia as the G8 President and for the following G8 Summit, also held in Saint Petersburg.

United States[edit]

In response to growing concerns over illegal logging and advice from TRAFFIC and other organisations,[25] on May 22, 2008 the U.S. amended the Lacey Act, when the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 expanded its protection to a broader range of plants and plant products (Section 8204. Prevention of Illegal Logging Practices).[26]

The requirements under the new Amendments are two-fold. First, the Lacey Act now makes it illegal to import into the United States plants that have been harvested contrary to any applicable Federal Law, State Law, Indian Tribal Law, or Foreign Law. If a plant is found to have been harvested in violation of the laws of the country where it was harvested, that plant would be subject to seizure and forfeiture if imported into the U.S. The Lacey Act also makes it unlawful, beginning December 15, 2008, to import certain plants and plant products without a Plant and Plant Product import declaration.[27]

This Plant and Plant Product Declaration must contain (among other things) the Genus, Species, and Country of Harvest of every plant found in commercial shipments of certain products, a list of applicable products (along with other requirements and guidance) can be found on the USDA APHIS website.[28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Environmental Investigation Agency (2000) Illegal Logging in Tanjung Puting National Park See: http://www.eia-international.org ; Greenpeace (2003) Partners in Crime: A Greenpeace investigation of the links between the UK and Indonesia’s timber barons. See:www.saveordelete.com ; Greenpeace (2004) Protect Life on Earth Today : Tanjung Puting National Park under siege. see: http://www.saveordelete.com
  2. ^ With the exception of CITES which is only partly applicable.
  3. ^ Kagawa A, Leavitt SW (2010). "Stable carbon isotopes of tree rings as a tool to pinpoint the geographic origin of timber". Journal of Wood Science 56 (3): 175–183. doi:10.1007/s10086-009-1085-6. 
  4. ^ http://www.traffic.org/timber-trade
  5. ^ "Havocscope Illegal Logging Market Value". Retrieved April 14, 2010. 
  6. ^ For further details on illegal logging, see: Duncan Brack and Gavin Hayman (2001) Intergovernmental Actions on Illegal Logging. Royal Institute of International Affairs; Duncan Brack, Gavin Hayman and Kevin Gray (2002) Controlling the International Trade in Illegally Logged Timber and Wood Products. Royal Institute of International Affairs.
  7. ^ Estonian Green Movement (2004) Illegal forestry and Estonian timber exports
  8. ^ WWF Latvia (2003)</rev> The features of illegal logging and related trade in Baltic Sea region; WWF International (2002) The Timber Footprint of the G8 and China
  9. ^ http://www.traffic.org/home/2007/5/25/tanzanias-disappearing-timber-revenue.html
  10. ^ Debra Callister (1992) Illegal tropical timber trade: Asia Pacific. TRAFFIC International
  11. ^ ICG (2001) Natural Resources and Law Enforcement in Indonesia
  12. ^ World Bank (2002) Revised Forest Strategy’’
  13. ^ Annual report 2003 from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on the EC Development Policy and the implementation of External Assistance in 2002
  14. ^ Indonesia-UK Tropical Forestry Management Programme (1999) Illegal Logging in Indonesia. ITFMP Report No. EC/99/03
  15. ^ Greenpeace (2003) Partners in Crime: A Greenpeace investigation of the links between the UK and Indonesia’s timber barons. See http://www.saveordelete.com
  16. ^ Environmental Investigation Agency and Telapak (2004) Profiting from Plunder: How Malaysia Smuggles Endangered Wood.
  17. ^ WWF International (2002) The Timber Footprint of the G8 and China
  18. ^ Greenpeace (2001) Partners in Mahogany Crime: Amazon at the mercy of gentlemen’s agreements.
  19. ^ World Bank (2004) Forest Law Enforcement
  20. ^ The Peruvian Environmental Law Society (2003) Case Study on the Development and Implementation of Guidelines for the Control of Illegal Logging with a view to Sustainable Forest Management in Peru.
  21. ^ WWF International (2002) The Timber Footprint of the G8 and China.
  22. ^ WWF press release, 30 March 2004.
  23. ^ Illegal Logging Trade Decimates Forests, Africa: AllAfrica.com, 2012, retrieved 18 October 2012 
  24. ^ Central Africa: Organized Crime Trade Worth Over U.S. $30 Billion, Responsible for Up to 90 Percent of Tropical Deforestation, Africa: AllAfrica.com, 2012, retrieved 18 October 2012 
  25. ^ http://www.traffic.org/timber-trade
  26. ^ Khatchadourian, Rafi. (October 6, 2008.) "The Stolen Forests: Inside the covert war on illegal logging". The New Yorker. Retrieved on July 7, 2010.
  27. ^ USDA APHIS. (October 26, 2011 .) "U.S. Department of Agriculture Lacey Act Guidance".
  28. ^ USDA APHIS. (October 26, 2011 .) "U.S. Department of Agriculture Lacey Act Guidance".

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

European Union
America
Asia

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illegal_logging — Please support Wikipedia.
A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
250104 videos foundNext > 

Illegal Logging: The Problem

Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Illegal logging: the problem Illegal logging and its impacts, assuring legality and involving stakeholde...

Cambodia: ILLEGAL LOGGING BY CAMBODIA's ELITE (1of4) [EN&KH]

The Green Deal Illegal logging and the stripping of public assets by Cambodia's elite. Well they are only Cambodian in appearances but they are all Yuon who ...

Illegal logging: African stories

Illegaal gekapt hout komt nog steeds massaal op de Europese markt: eenvijfde van de totale import is illegaal of verdacht. In deze video horen we van inwoner...

Illegal logging in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

This video shows how the logging (legal and illegal) causes deforestation and degradation of the peat forest in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The Central Ka...

Stop Illegal Logging

The Illegal logging prohibition bill 2011 aims to stop the importation of illegal timber into Australia, but how well will this work, how can you play a role...

The Harmful Effects of Illegal Logging

A short informational video about some of the negative effects of illegal logging and associated trade, using footage from EIA's field investigations into th...

Illegal Logging Animation Ads by Logics DeGraphics

test animasi iklan layanan masyarakat Illegal logging 1st project 2005 by : Logics Degraphics.

Illegal Logging Investigation

Made by WWF-France Forest Programme.

Greenpeace reports illegal logging in Indonesia

The environmental group, Greenpeace, says it has uncovered widespread illegal logging by one of the world's largest timber mills. The organisation is accusin...

Fighting for their Forests: Illegal Logging in Cameroon

The Baka indigenous people used to freely roam the immense rainforests of the Congo Basin, living entirely off the land. Today, their isolated communities ar...

250104 videos foundNext > 

2408 news items

 
Jakarta Post
Fri, 18 Apr 2014 18:07:30 -0700

Military prosecutors are demanding a 10-year prison sentence for an Indonesian Military (TNI) soldier, Chief Sgt. Sudikdo, for his alleged involvement in illegal logging in Riau. During an initial hearing at the I- 03 Military Court in Padang, West ...
 
Nature.com
Thu, 17 Apr 2014 07:21:51 -0700

The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US–Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to ...

The Guardian

The Guardian
Thu, 17 Apr 2014 09:42:47 -0700

The majority of logging concessions are enabling illegal logging outside the approved concession area. OSINFOR cited over 55% of the supervised concessions with timber extraction outside of the concession limits. . . Our analysis indicates that logging ...
 
Republica
Fri, 18 Apr 2014 05:45:00 -0700

Five saw mill owners arrested over illegal logging. RAMESH KHATIWADA. DOLAKHA, April 18: District Forest Office (DFO) on Friday arrested five saw mills and veneer factories proprietors, charging them of illegal logging and smuggling of the forest products.
 
Mongabay.com
Thu, 17 Apr 2014 11:22:30 -0700

“Our new study presents evidence that the legal logging concession system is in reality enabling an illegal logging crisis in the Peruvian Amazon despite important reform efforts,” he said in a statement. “As a consequence, logging is not contained to ...

Inquirer.net

Inquirer.net
Tue, 15 Apr 2014 23:33:45 -0700

Checkpoints and monitoring stations set up by the Anti-Illegal Logging Task Force and other partner agencies will be in operation on a 24/7 basis from Maundy Thursday through Easter Sunday, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources said.
 
Huffington Post
Thu, 03 Apr 2014 13:28:32 -0700

Deforestation, which is driven in part by illegal logging, is one of the largest sources of climate-disrupting pollution. Each year deforestation accounts for roughly 1.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide, around 17 percent of global climate-disrupting ...
 
Radio Australia
Wed, 16 Apr 2014 00:07:30 -0700

I mean I've examined some of the most poor countries in the world which suffer from illegal logging, including countries which are really just only recovering from complex situations, civil wars and so on, and yet PNG was really probably the worst ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Illegal logging

You can talk about Illegal logging with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!