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See also: Chavchavadze
Ilia Chavchavadze
Ilia Chavchavadze by Alexander Roinashvili (digitally colorized).png
Ilia Chavchavadze by Alexander Roinashvili (digitally colorized illustration)
Born (1837-11-08)8 November 1837
Kvareli, Tiflis Governorate, Russian Empire (present-day Kakheti, Georgia)
Died 12 September 1907(1907-09-12) (aged 69)
Tsitsamuri, outside Mtskheta
Resting place Mtatsminda Pantheon, Tbilisi
Occupation jurist, poet, novelist, humanist, publisher, philosopher
Nationality Georgian
Literary movement Realism, Historical fiction


Prince Ilia Chavchavadze (Georgian: ილია ჭავჭავაძე; 8 November 1837 — 12 September 1907) was a Georgian politician, lawyer, journalist, writer and poet who spearheaded the revival of the Georgian national movement in the second half of the 19th century, during the Russian rule of Georgia. He is Georgia's "most universally revered hero."[1]

Inspired by the contemporary liberal movements in Europe, as a writer and a public figure, Chavchavadze directed much of his efforts toward awakening national ideals in Georgians and to the creation of a stable society in his homeland. His most important literary works were: The Hermit, The Ghost, Otaraant Widow, Kako The Robber, Happy Nation, Latters of a Traveller and Is a man a human?!. He was editor-in-chief of the periodicals Sakartvelos Moambe (1863–77) and Iveria (1877–1905), and authored numerous articles for journals. He was a devoted protector of the Georgian language and culture from Russification.

Chavchavadze was fatally wounded in Tsitsamuri, outside Mtskheta, by a gang of assassins. His legacy earned him the broad admiration of the Georgian people. In 1987 he was canonized as Saint Ilia the Righteous (წმინდა ილია მართალი, tsminda ilia martali) by the Georgian Orthodox Church. Today, Georgians revere Chavchavadze as The Uncrowned King (უგვირგვინო მეფე, ugvirgvino mepe) and the "Father of Nation."[2]


Ancestry and early life[edit]

Chavchavadze in 1st Gymnasium of Tbilisi, 1848

Ilia Chavchavadze was born in Qvareli, a village in Kvareli,[3] located in the Alazani Valley, in the Kakheti province of Georgia, which was part of the Russian Empire at that time. Ilia was a tavadi, the Georgian title of prince. It is thought that the noble Chavchavadze family came from the Pshav-Khevsureti region of Georgia, and, in 1726, King Constantine II granted the Chavchavadze family the rank of Prince in recognition of their knighthood and valor to the nation. This resulted in the family moving and settling in the Alazani Gorge in Kakheti. According to King Erekle II's order, Ilia's great grandfather, Bespaz Chavchavadze was knighted when he defeated twenty thousand Persian invaders in Kvareli in 1755.

Ilia was the third son of Grigol Chavchavadze and Mariam Beburishvili. Grigol, like his father and his famous ancestors, had a military background. He, along with the local militiamen protected the village from numerous Dagestani invasions. This can be seen in the architecture of the Ilia Chavchavadze museum house in Kvareli, incorporating a Medieval castle style in the two-storey castle in the yard, which was designed to protect the house during invasions.

Chavchavadze was educated at the elementary level by the deacon of the village before he moved to Tbilisi where he attended the prestigious Academy for Nobility in 1848. However, from an early age, Ilia was influenced by his parents who were highly educated in classical literature, Georgian history and poetry. From his parents, Ilia learned the inspiring stories of Georgian heroism in classical historical novels. In his autobiography, Ilia refers to his mother, Princess Mariam Chavchavadze, who knew most Georgian novels and poems by heart and encouraged her children to study them. Ilia also described the influence of the deacon's storytelling, which gave him an artistic inspiration, later applied in his novel writing.

Ilia's mother, Mariam, died on 4 May 1848, when Ilia was ten years old, and his father asked his sister, Makrine, to help bring up the children. Aunt Makrine had a significant impact on Ilia's life, because, after 1852, when Ilia's father Grigol died, she was the only remaining caretaker of the family.[3]

In 1848, after the death of Princess Chavchavadze, Ilia was sent to Tbilisi by his father to begin his secondary education.[3] Ilia attended a private school for three years before he entered the 1st Academy of Tbilisi in 1851. Soon after, Ilia's father died and Aunt Makrine looked after the family. His secondary school years were very stressful, due to his father's death. However, the Chavchavadze family suffered another devastating blow when Ilia's brother, Constantine, was killed during the Dagestani raid on Kakheti. Ilia expressed his anguish and grief in one of his first short-poems called Sorrow of a Poor Man. In addition to his personal problems, the political situation in Georgia worsened under the harsh authority of the Russian Empire, which played a destructive role to the nation and its culture.

Student years[edit]

Ilia Chavchavadze during his studies at the university in Saint Petersburg, 1860

After graduating from the academy, Ilia decided to continue his education at the University of St. Petersburg, Russia. Before leaving for St. Petersburg, Ilia composed one of his most remarkable poems, To the Mountains of Kvareli in the village of Kardanakhi on 15 April 1857, where he expressed his lifelong admiration for the Greater Caucasus Mountains and his sorrow at leaving his homeland.

That same year, Ilia was admitted to the University of St. Petersburg. During his student years, numerous revolutions sprang up in Europe which Ilia observed with great interest. Ilia's attention focused on the events in Italy and the struggle of Giuseppe Garibaldi, whom he admired for many years. While in St.Petersburg, Ilia met Princess Catherine Chavchavadze, from whom he learned about the poetry and lyrics of the Georgian romantic Prince Nik'oloz Baratashvili. Due to the harsh climate in St Petersburg, Ilia became very ill and returned to Georgia for several months in 1859.

Ilia finally returned to Georgia after the completion of his studies in 1861. During his journey back, Ilia wrote one of his greatest masterpieces, The Travelers' Diaries, where he outlines the importance of nation-building and provides an allegorical comparison of Mt. Kazbegi and the Tergi River in the Khevi region of Georgia.

Political life[edit]

Chavchavadze's house in Tbilisi.
Newspaper "Iveria" (Iberia) founded and edited by Chavchavadze during his political career. The newspaper focused on the national liberation movement of Georgia in the late 1800s.

Ilia's main political and social goals were based on Georgian patriotism. He radically advocated the revival of the use of the Georgian language, the cultivation of Georgian literature, the revival of autocephalous status for the Georgian national church, and, finally, the revival of Georgian statehood, which had ended when the country became part of the Russian Empire. As the number of supporters for his ideas grew, so did opposition among the leading Social Democrats like the Menshevik Noe Zhordania; their main aims were focused on battling the Tsarist autocracy and a democratic transformation of the Russian empire. This did not include the revival of a Georgian state or of a Georgian self-identity. Ilia was viewed as bourgeois and as an old aristocrat who failed to realize the importance of the revolutionary tide.

In addition to his works described above, he was also the founder and chairman of many public, cultural and educational organizations (Society for the Spreading of Literacy Among Georgians, "The Bank of the Nobility", "The Dramatic Society", "The Historical-Ethnographical Society of Georgia", etc.). He was also a translator of British literature. His main literary works were translated and published in French, English, German, Polish, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Russian and other languages. Between 1906 and 1907, he was a member of the State Council (Gosudarstvennaya Duma) in Russia. His eclectic interests also led him to be a member of, among others, the Caucasian Committee of the Geographical Society of Russia, the Society of Ethnography and Anthropology of Moscow University, the Society of Orientalists of Russia and the Anglo-Russian Literary Society (London).

Prince Chavchavadze briefly acted as a literary mentor to a young Joseph Stalin, who was then an Orthodox seminarian in Tbilisi. According to historian Simon Sebag Montefiore,

"The Prince was sufficiently impressed to show the teenagers work to his editors. He admired Stalin's verse, choosing five poems to publish – quite an achievement. Prince Chavchavadze called Stalin the, 'young man with the burning eyes.'"[4]


Prince Chavchavadze's funeral in Tbilisi

After serving as a member of the Upper House in the first Russian Duma, Ilia decided to return to Georgia in 1907. On 28 August 1907 Ilia Chavchavadze was murdered by a gang of six assassins who ambushed him and his wife Olga while traveling from Tbilisi to Saguramo, near Mtskheta.


The assassination of Ilia Chavchavadze remains controversial today. Based on recent discoveries in archives, the plot to assassinate Ilia is believed to have been a joint operation by both the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks wings of Social Democrats, due to Ilia's condemnation of their revolutionary views, his socially conservative vision for Georgian nationalism, and his tremendous popularity among the public.

Author and historian Simon Sebag Montefiore suspects that a young Joseph Stalin may have been involved in planning the Prince's murder. According to Montefiore,

"The Bolshevik position in Georgia was undermined by the assassination of the hugely popular Prince Ilya Chavchavadze. in August 1907. The Bolsheviks had attacked his patriarchal vision of Georgian culture and, it was widely believed, had decided to kill him. There is some evidence that Stalin's friend Sergo Ordzhonikidze organized or took part in the assassination. It may be that the SDs took no part in the murder at all. Stalin always praised Chavchavadze's poetry in his old age and there is no evidence that he ordered the hit, but he was very close to Sergo and he was certainly more than capable of separating literary merit from cruel necessity: politics always came first."[5]

During World War II, an old man confessed to having been hired by the Tsarist Okhrana to assassinate Ilia. During the Soviet period, an investigation was launched by the Soviet authorities which later concluded that the Tsarist secret police and administration had been involved in the assassination.

Either way, the Prince's murder was seen as a national tragedy which was mourned by all strata of Georgian society. Prince Akaki Tsereteli, who was suffering from serious health problems at the time, spoke at the funeral and dedicated an outstanding oration to Ilia: "Ilia's inestimable contribution to the revival of the Georgian nation is an example for future generations".[6]


Monument to Chavchavadze (l) and Tsereteli (r) in front of the first Gymnasium in Tbilisi
Monument on the tomb of Ilia Chavchavadze in Mtatsminda Pantheon.

As a result of Chavchavadze's death, the Georgian Social Democrats, especially the Mensheviks, started to gain significant power and support among the population. Eventually, after the temporary disengagement of Russia from Transcaucasia, Georgian Mensheviks decided to revive Georgian statehood and proclaimed the independence on 26 May 1918. After the Bolshevik occupation of Georgia and integration into the Soviet Union in 1921, Chavchavadze became for Georgian nationalists the symbol of Georgian freedom and national liberation.

In 1987, Prince Chavchavadze was formally canonized by the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church, as "Saint Ilia the Righteous."[3]

In 1989, during the anti-Soviet protests in Tbilisi, the poems, novels and political life of Chavchavadze became a driving force behind the Georgian struggle for independence.

The idea of national revival, which Chavchavadze preached and advocated in various Georgian societies throughout his life, gained in momentum in 1990. In 2002, Mikheil Saakashvili created the United National Movement party which claimed the political legacy of Ilia Chavchavadze's party, and which played a major role in the so-called Rose Revolution of 2003 which ousted President Eduard Shevardnadze.

In 1998 Stephen Kinzer wrote about the widespread admiration of Chavchavadze across political spectrum: "Today leftists in Georgia embrace Chavchavadze for his hatred of injustice, centrists love him for his nonviolent humanism, and right-wing nationalists have adopted his slogan Homeland, Language, Religion."[1]

Publications of Chavchavadze's works[edit]

  • Georgische Dichter. Translated and compiled by Arthur Leist, Dresden-Leipzig, 1887 (Poems of Ilia Chavchavadze and other Georgian poets, in German)
  • The Hermit by Prince Ilia Chavchavadze. Translated from the Georgian by Marjory Wardrop, London, 1895

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Kinzer, Stephen (7 May 1998). "Saguramo Journal; On the Tallest Pedestal, a Man for All Georgians". The New York Times. 
  2. ^ Kekelia, Tatia (2015). "Building Georgian national identity". In Agadjanian, Alexander; Jödicke, Ansgar; van der Zweerde, Evert. Religion, Nation and Democracy in the South Caucasus. Routledge. p. 123. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Martyr Ilia Chavchavadze of Georgia". Orthodox Church in America. 
  4. ^ Simon Sebag Montefiore, "Young Stalin," page 57.
  5. ^ Simon Sebag Montefiore, "Young Stalin," page 179.
  6. ^ David Marshal Lang, History of Modern Georgia, p. 176.


  • Baron de Baie: Au nord de la chaine du Caucase souvenirs d'une mission", Paris, 1899 (in French)
  • Baron de Baie: Tiflis souvenirs d'une mission, Paris, 1900 (in French)
  • Companjen, Françoise J., "Between Tradition and Modernity". Amsterdam 2004, pp. 167–171 (in English)
  • Leist, Arthur: Das georgische Volk, Dresden, 1903 (in German)
  • Lehman-Haupt, C.F. : Reisen und Forschungen, Berlin, 1910, pp. 106–111 (in German)
  • Reisner, Oliver: The Tergdaleulebi: Founders of Georgian National Identity. In: Ladislaus Löb, István Petrovics, György E. Szonyi (eds.): Forms of Identity: Definitions and Changes. Attila Jozsef University, Szeged 1994, pp. 125–37
  • Wardrop, Oliver The Kingdom of Georgia, London, 1888, pp. 150–152

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ilia_Chavchavadze — Please support Wikipedia.
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73 news items


Sun, 08 Nov 2015 04:41:12 -0800

Cultural centres, Government officials and ordinary citizens across Georgia are celebrating the 178th birthday of Georgia's highly-esteemed public figure, writer, poet and 19th Century journalist Ilia Chavchavadze. Today the 178th birthday of the late ...

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Fri, 13 Nov 2015 12:03:45 -0800

The 20-lari note will be bright red and have the portrait of the writer and public figure Ilia Chavchavadze on its face while the back shows a plan of Tbilisi, capital of Georgia, created by Vakhushti Batonishvili in 1735, along with the monument to ...
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Thu, 12 Nov 2015 10:22:30 -0800

Akaki Tsereteli (1840-1915) was a prominent Georgian poet and national liberation movement figure who was born in the village of Skhvitori, Imereti region, West Georgia, to a prominent Georgian aristocratic family. He was a good friend of Ilia ...

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Thu, 29 Oct 2015 11:33:45 -0700

I went to one of these stores, Corsair World Georgia (CWG) - a vape shop located on Ilia Chavchavadze Avenue in Tbilisi - and spoke with its owner, Paata Tsivadze. “Corsair World Georgia strives to provide a healthier alternative to smoking,” Tsivadze ...

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Democracy & Freedom Watch
Thu, 05 Nov 2015 06:37:30 -0800

The three banknotes will, as before, bear portraits of poet Shota Rustaveli, Queen Tamar and writer Ilia Chavchavadze, but with more vivid colors. NBG launched a website which offers a comparison between the new and old versions of the banknotes.


Tue, 26 May 2015 11:22:30 -0700

Ghia Nodia, a political scientist and director of the International School of Caucasus Studies at Ilia Chavchavadze State University in Tbilisi, Georgia, warns that “Putin looks like a strong guy who's getting his way, so people think, What exactly are ...

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Mon, 19 Oct 2015 07:47:28 -0700

She translated Shota Rustaveli's The Knight in the Panther's Skin, Ilia Chavchavadze's The Hermit and Georgian Folk Tales into English. Through the efforts of Wardrops, the richest Kartvelological library in Europe was created. The statue of the ...


Tue, 20 Oct 2015 05:25:56 -0700

She translated and published Georgian Folk Tales in London in 1894 and The Hermit by Ilia Chavchavadze in London in 1895. She is most remembered for translating into English the 12th Century Georgian epic The Knight in the Panther's Skin by Shota ...

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