digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

This article is about the day in the Roman calendar. For events that occurred on 15 March, see 15 March. For the 2011 film directed by George Clooney, see The Ides of March (film). For other uses, see Ides of March (disambiguation).
The Death of Caesar (1798) by Vincenzo Camuccini

The Ides of March (Latin: Idus Martii or Idus Martiae) is a day on the Roman calendar that corresponds to 15 March. It was marked by several religious observances, and became notorious as the date of the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC. The death of Caesar made the Ides of March a turning point in Roman history, as one of the events that marked the transition from the historical period known as the Roman Republic to the Roman Empire.[1]

Although March (Martius) was the third month of the Julian calendar, in the oldest Roman calendar it was the first month of the year. The holidays observed by the Romans from the first through the Ides often reflect their origin as new year celebrations.

Ides[edit]

The Romans did not number days of a month sequentially from the first through the last day. Instead, they counted back from three fixed points of the month: the Nones (5th or 7th, depending on the length of the month), the Ides (13th or 15th), and the Kalends (1st) of the following month. The Ides occurred near the midpoint, on the 13th for most months, but on the 15th for March, May, July, and October. The Ides were supposed to be determined by the full moon, reflecting the lunar origin of the Roman calendar. On the earliest calendar, the Ides of March would have been the first full moon of the new year.[2]

Religious observances[edit]

Panel thought to depict the Mamuralia, from a mosaic of the months in which March is positioned at the beginning of the year (first half of the 3rd century AD, from El Djem, Tunisia, in Roman Africa)

The Ides of each month was sacred to Jupiter, the supreme deity of the Romans. The Flamen Dialis, Jupiter's high priest, led the "Ides sheep" (ovis Idulius) in procession along the Via Sacra to the arx, where it was sacrificed.[3]

In addition to the monthly sacrifice, the Ides of March was also the occasion of the Feast of Anna Perenna, a goddess of the year (Latin annus) whose festival originally concluded the ceremonies of the new year. The day was enthusiastically celebrated among the common people with picnics, drinking, and revelry.[4] One source from late antiquity also places the Mamuralia on the Ides of March.[5] This observance, which has aspects of scapegoat or ancient Greek pharmakos ritual, involved beating an old man dressed in animal skins and perhaps driving him from the city. The ritual may have been a new year festival representing the expulsion of the old year.[6]

In the later Imperial period, the Ides began a "holy week" of festivals[7] for Cybele and Attis. The Ides was the day of Canna intrat ("The Reed enters"), when Attis was born and exposed as an infant among the reeds of a Phrygian river.[8] He was discovered—depending on the version of the myth—by either shepherds or the goddess Cybele, who was also known as the Magna Mater, "Great Mother".[9] A week later, on 22 March, the day of Arbor intrat ("The Tree enters") commemorated the death of Attis under a pine tree. A college of priests called "tree bearers" (dendrophoroi) cut down a tree,[10] suspended from it an image of Attis,[11] and carried it to the temple of the Magna Mater with lamentations. The day was formalized as part of the official Roman calendar under Claudius.[12] A three-day period of mourning followed,[13] culminating with the rebirth of Attis on 25 March, the date of the vernal equinox on the Julian calendar.[14]

Assassination of Caesar[edit]

Reverse side of a coin issued by Caesar's assassin Brutus in the fall of 42 BC, with the abbreviation EID MAR (Ides of March) under a "cap of freedom" between two daggers

In modern times, the Ides of March is best known as the date on which Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC. Caesar was stabbed to death at a meeting of the senate. As many as 60 conspirators, led by Brutus and Cassius, were involved. According to Plutarch,[15] a seer had warned that harm would come to Caesar no later than the Ides of March. On his way to the Theatre of Pompey, where he would be assassinated, Caesar passed the seer and joked, "The ides of March have come," meaning to say that the prophecy had not been fulfilled, to which the seer replied "Aye, Caesar; but not gone."[15] This meeting is famously dramatised in William Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar, when Caesar is warned by the soothsayer to "beware the Ides of March."[16][17] The Roman biographer Suetonius[18] identifies the "seer" as a haruspex named Spurinna.

Caesar's death was a closing event in the crisis of the Roman Republic, and triggered the civil war that would result in the rise to sole power of his adopted heir Octavian (later known as Augustus).[19] Writing under Augustus, Ovid portrays the murder as a sacrilege, since Caesar was also the Pontifex Maximus of Rome and a priest of Vesta.[20] On the anniversary of Caesar's death in 40 BC, after achieving a victory at the siege of Perugia, Octavian executed 300 senators and knights who had fought against him under Lucius Antonius, the brother of Mark Antony.[21] The executions were one of a series of actions taken by Octavian to avenge Caesar's death. Suetonius[22] and the historian Cassius Dio[23] characterised the slaughter as a religious sacrifice, noting that it occurred on the Ides of March at the new altar to the deified Julius.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Forum in Rome" entry in Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome (Oxford University Press, 2010), p. 215.
  2. ^ H.H. Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic (Cornell University Press, 1981), pp. 42–43.
  3. ^ Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic, p. 43.
  4. ^ Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic, p. 90.
  5. ^ John Lydus (6th century), De mensibus4.36. Other sources place it on 14 March.
  6. ^ Michele Renee Salzman, On Roman Time: The Codex-Calendar of 354 and the Rhythms of Urban Life in Late Antiquity (University of California Press, 1990), pp. 124 and 128–129; William Warde Fowler, The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic (London, 1908), pp. 44–50.
  7. ^ Maria Grazia Lancellotti, Attis, Between Myth and History: King, Priest, and God (Brill, 2002), p. 81; Bertrand Lançon, Rome in Late Antiquity (Routledge, 2001), p. 91; Philippe Borgeaud, Mother of the Gods: From Cybele to the Virgin Mary, translated by Lysa Hochroth (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004), pp. 51, 90, 123, 164.
  8. ^ Gary Forsythe, Time in Roman Religion: One Thousand Years of Religious History (Routledge, 2012), p. 88; Lancellotti, Attis, Between Myth and History, p. 81.
  9. ^ Michele Renee Salzman, On Roman Time: The Codex Calendar of 354 and the Rhythms of Urban Life in Late Antiquity (University of California Press, 1990), p. 166.
  10. ^ Jaime Alvar, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis and Mithras, translated by Richard Gordon (Brill, 2008), p. 288–289.
  11. ^ Firmicus Maternus, De errore profanarum religionum, 27.1; Rabun Taylor, "Roman Oscilla: An Assessment", RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics 48 (Autumn 2005), p. 97.
  12. ^ Lydus, De Mensibus 4.59; Suetonius, Otho 8.3; Forsythe, Time in Roman Religion, p. 88.
  13. ^ Forsythe, Time in Roman Religion, p. 88.
  14. ^ Macrobius, Saturnalia 1.21.10; Forsythe, Time in Roman Religion, p. 88; Salzman, On Roman Time, p. 168..
  15. ^ a b Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Caesar 63
  16. ^ "William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act 1, Scene II". The Literature Network. Jalic, Inc. 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2010. 
  17. ^ "William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act 3, Scene I". The Literature Network. Jalic, Inc. 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2010. 
  18. ^ Suetonius, Divus Julius 81.
  19. ^ "Forum in Rome," Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, p. 215.
  20. ^ Ovid, Fasti 3.697–710; A.M. Keith, entry on "Ovid," Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, p. 128; Geraldine Herbert-Brown, Ovid and the Fasti: An Historical Study (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994), p. 70.
  21. ^ Melissa Barden Dowling, Clemency and Cruelty in the Roman World (University of Michigan Press, 2006), pp. 50–51; Arthur Keaveney, The Army in the Roman Revolution (Routledge, 2007), p. 15.
  22. ^ Suetonius, Life of Augustus 15.
  23. ^ Cassius Dio 48.14.2.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ides_of_March — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
150500 videos foundNext > 

The Ides of March Trailer 2011 Movie - Official [HD]

The Ides of March Trailer 2011 Official movie trailer A young communications director works for a fast-rising presidential candidate. During the course of th...

Ides of March - Vehicle

Ides of March featuring Jim Peterik, current concert footage of their #1 single, "Vehicle".

The Ides Of March - "Vehicle"

Record reached Billboards Top 40 on April 11, 1970.

"A Vehicle Through Time" The Ides Of March 40th Anniversary Concert

The full concert as it appears on DVD, filmed at the Arcada Theatre in St. Charles, IL in 2004. The Ides in 2004 were: Jim Peterik, Larry Millas, Bob Berglan...

Vehicle - The Ides Of March

The Ides Of March singing their only hit song Vehicle in 1970. Music in stereo.

Blackmail's Better (The Ides of March)

This's the scene in 'The Ides of March' where the character of Philip Seymour Hoffman admonishes Ryan Gosling's for the naïve mistake of 'meeting with the en...

THE IDES OF MARCH - Official Trailer - In Theaters 10/7

The Ides of March takes place during the frantic last days before a heavily contested Ohio presidential primary, when an up-and-coming campaign press secreta...

Ides of March "LA Goodbye"

The Ides of March featuring Jim Peterik, current live footage of "L.A. Goodbye"

The Ides of March + Wrathchild

Music ripped with iTunes Apple Lossless Encoder, and error correction settings. High res cover art found on google. Information sources include Ironmaiden.co...

Ides Of March - You Wouldn't Listen

Original hit single from 1966.

150500 videos foundNext > 

1768 news items

VVN Music

VVN Music
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 15:18:45 -0700

The Ides of March will officially be fifty years old on October 16 and they are celebrating with a new box set and a special anniversary show. The band formed on October 16, 1964 as The Shon-Dels and released their first record, Like It or Lump It, the ...
 
WFJA Classic Hits and Oldies 105.5 FM
Sun, 03 Aug 2014 04:00:56 -0700

He was just 15 when he joined The Ides of March, who scored a #2 hit in 1970 with “Vehicle,” a song written and sung by Jim. Later in the '70s, he founded Survivor, for whom he co-wrote the chart-topping 1982 smash “Eye of the Tiger,” which served as ...

Sydney Morning Herald

Sydney Morning Herald
Fri, 29 Aug 2014 07:15:00 -0700

The Herald warned the Swans before that game that it was the Ides of March; that the Giants team included Shane Mumford, whom the Swans traded to GWS to make way for Buddy; and that the Giants had never played at home before more than 12,000.

Variety (blog)

Variety (blog)
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 11:36:12 -0700

Minghella has appeared in “The Social Network” as well as “The Ides of March.” He will next be seen in Alexandre Aja's “Horns” alongside Daniel Radcliffe. Rennie has worked in television, appearing in “24,” “The Killing” and “Californication.” His ...

We Got This Covered

We Got This Covered
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:16:32 -0700

His co-star in this ground-breaking effort is Academy Award winner Marisa Tomei (recently seen in The Ides Of March), who here fills the inter-changeable role of 'woman who looks doe-eyed at bumbling Brit while he makes a declaration of love in front ...
 
Bloomington Pantagraph
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:00:00 -0700

What does fall sound like, beyond the crisp rustle of falling leaves and their subsequent scrunching under heel? It sounds like, well, the sound of music, which is never far from us, but which seems to ramp up a bit every autumn as schools reconvene ...

The Irish Film Television Network

The Irish Film Television Network
Fri, 29 Aug 2014 02:56:15 -0700

Alexandre Aja ('Horns') will direct from a script by actor Max Minghella ('The Internship', 'The Ides of March') in his feature screenwriting debut. Minghella will also produce with Tim Bricknell ('The No. 1 Ladies' Detective Agency') of Antcolony ...

HitFix

Flickering Myth (blog)
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 04:15:00 -0700

Horns is set for release on October 29th with a cast that also includes Juno Temple (Sin City: A Dame to Kill For), David Morse (The Hurt Locker), Heather Graham (Boogie Nights) and Max Minghella (The Ides of March). Watch the latest trailer here.
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Ides of March

You can talk about Ides of March with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!