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An Internet protocol camera, or IP camera, is a type of digital video camera commonly employed for surveillance, and which unlike analog closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras can send and receive data via a computer network and the Internet. Although most cameras that do this are webcams, the term "IP camera" or "netcam" is usually applied only to those used for surveillance. The first centralized IP camera was Axis Neteye 200, released in 1996 by Axis Communications.

There are two kinds of IP cameras:


The first centralized IP camera was released in 1996 by Axis Communications.[1] It was called the Axis Neteye 200 and was developed by the team of Martin Gren and Carl-Axel Alm. It used a custom web server internal to the camera. In late 1999, the company started using embedded Linux to operate its cameras. Axis also released documentation for its low-level API called "VAPIX", which builds on the open standards of HTTP and real time streaming protocol (RTSP). This open architecture was intended to encourage third-party software manufacturers to develop compatible management and recording software.

The first decentralized IP camera was released in 1999 by Mobotix.[citation needed] The camera's Linux system contained video, alarm, and recording management function, thus the camera system did not require licensed video management software to manage the recording event, or video management.

The first IP camera with onboard video content analytics (VCA) was released in 2005 by Intellio.[citation needed] This camera was able to detect a number of different events, such as if an object was stolen, a human crossed a line, a human entered a predefined zone, or if a car moved in the wrong direction.

IP cameras are available at resolutions from 0.3 (VGA resolution) to 29 megapixels.[2] As in the consumer TV business, in the early 21st century, there has been a shift towards high-definition video resolutions, e.g. 720p or 1080i and 16:9 widescreen format.

A network IP camera.


Analog closed circuit television uses established broadcast television formats (e.g. Common Intermediate Format (CIF), NTSC, PAL, and SECAM). Generally speaking, each make of IP camera will differ in its features and functions, video encoding (compression) schemes, available network protocols, and the API to be used by video management software.

In order to address issues of standardization of IP video surveillance, two industry groups were formed in 2008: the Open Network Video Interface Forum (ONVIF) and the Physical Security Interoperability Alliance (PSIA). While the PSIA was founded by 20 member companies including Honeywell, GE Security and Cisco, and ONVIF was founded by Axis Communications, Bosch and Sony, each group now has numerous members. As of January 2009, each group had released version 1.0 of their specification.

Potential advantages[edit]

  • Two-way audio via a single network cable allows users to communicate with what they are seeing (e.g. gas station clerk assisting a customer on how to use the prepay pumps)
  • Flexibility: IP cameras can be moved around anywhere on an IP network (including wireless).
  • Distributed intelligence: with IP cameras, video analytics can be placed in the camera itself allowing scalability in analytics solutions.[3]
  • Transmission of commands for PTZ (pan, tilt, zoom) cameras via a single network cable.
  • Encryption & authentication: IP cameras offer secure data transmission through encryption and authentication methods such as WEP, WPA, WPA2, TKIP, AES.
  • Remote accessibility: live video from selected cameras can be viewed from any computer, anywhere, and also from many mobile smartphones and other devices.
  • IP cameras are able to function on a wireless network.[citation needed]
  • PoE - Power over Ethernet: Modern IP cameras have the ability to operate without an additional power supply. They can work with the PoE-protocol which gives power via the Ethernet cable.

Potential disadvantages[edit]

  • Higher initial cost per camera, except where cheaper webcams are used.[citation needed]
  • High network bandwidth requirements: a typical CCTV camera with resolution of 640x480 pixels and 10 frames per second (10 frame/s) in MJPEG mode requires about 3 Mbit/s.[citation needed]
  • As with a CCTV/DVR system, if the video is transmitted over the public Internet rather than a private IP LAN, the system becomes open to a wider audience of hackers and hoaxers. Criminals can hack into a CCTV system to observe security measures and personnel, thereby facilitating criminal acts and rendering the surveillance counterproductive.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Axis Communications - History". Axis Communications. Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  2. ^ "Avigilon Launches Powerful 29 MP HD Surveillance Camera". Avigilon Corporate. 
  3. ^ Alexandr Lytkin. IP Video Surveillance. An Essential Guide, 2012, ISBN 978-5-600-00033-9.

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IP_camera — Please support Wikipedia.
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Virtual-Strategy Magazine (press release)
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Today, Best CCTV System, a leading CCTV camera manufacturer and wholesaler, announced its new IP cameras. (PRWEB) April 24, 2014. Today, Best CCTV System, a leading CCTV camera manufacturer and wholesaler, announced its new IP cameras.


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This ultra-reliable 1.3 Megapixel IP camera is the perfect complement to AVer's NVRs and hybrid DVRs offering a truly first-class surveillance solution. AVer's new speed dome camera comes with a customisable group patrol function allowing users to set ...
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Business Wire (press release)
Mon, 31 Mar 2014 05:00:00 -0700

SANTA CLARA, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Ambarella, Inc. (NASDAQ: AMBA), a leading developer of low-power, HD video compression and image processing semiconductors, today introduced S2L, a family of Full HD camera System on Chips (SoCs) ...
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VIVOTEK is honoured to announce its achievement in “IP Camera Excellence Award " at Secutech Taipei 2014, the international exhibition and conference for electronic security, info security, fire, and safety held in the Taipei from the 19th to the 21st ...
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