digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

For the Iranian band, see Hypernova (band). For the The Browning album, see Hypernova (album).
NASA's artist impression of SN 2006gy, one of the most luminous hypernovae seen.

A hypernova (pl. hypernovae or hypernovas) is a type of star explosion with an energy substantially higher than that of standard supernovae. An alternative term for most hypernovae is "superluminous supernovae" (SLSNe). Such explosions are believed to be the origin of long-duration gamma-ray bursts.[1]

Just like supernovae in general, hypernovae are produced by several different types of stellar explosion: some well modelled and observed in recent years, some still tentatively suggested for observed hypernovae, and some entirely theoretical. Numerous hypernovae have been observed corresponding to supernovae type Ic and type IIn, and possibly also at least one of type IIb.[2]

The word collapsar, short for collapsed star, was formerly used to refer to the end product of stellar gravitational collapse, a stellar-mass black hole. The word is now sometimes used to refer to a specific model for the collapse of a fast-rotating star, as discussed below.

History of the term[edit]

Before the 1990s, the term "hypernova" was used sporadically to describe the theoretical extremely energetic explosions of extremely massive population III stars. It has also been used to describe other extreme energy events, such as mergers of supermassive black holes.

In 1998, a paper suggesting a link between gamma-ray bursts and young massive stars[3] formally proposed to use the term "hypernova" for the visible after-glow from those gamma-ray bursts. The energy of such events was speculated to be up to several hundred times that of known supernovae.

Almost simultaneously, various over-luminous supernovae were being discovered and investigated.[4][5][6][7] These events were described as hypernovae and varied from less than five to around 50 times as energetic as other supernovae and up to 20 times as luminous as a standard type Ia supernova at its peak. This definition has become standard for the term "hypernova", although not all of them are associated with gamma-ray bursts.

Investigation of these types of luminous supernovae suggests that some of them are due to explosions of extremely massive low metallicity stars by the pair instability mechanism, although not with the energies that were speculated for them decades earlier.[8][9]

Gamma-ray bursts[edit]

Main article: Gamma-ray burst

Gamma-ray bursts are some of the most energetic events observed in the universe, but their origin was entirely speculative[10] until around the year 2000. Now, hypernova explosions are known to cause at least some gamma-ray bursts, although some gamma-ray bursts are likely from completely different events and not all hypernovae are necessarily associated with gamma-ray bursts.

A gamma-ray burst from a nearby hypernova could destroy life on Earth; however, no likely candidate progenitors are close enough to be a danger. Some have suggested that a hypernova may have caused the Ordovician–Silurian mass extinction on Earth 440 million years ago, but no categorical evidence for this hypothesis exists.[11]

Causes of hypernovae[edit]

A wide variety of models have been proposed to explain events an order of magnitude or more greater than standard supernovae. The collapsar and CSM models are widely accepted and a number of events are well-observed. Other models are still only tentatively observed or entirely theoretical.

Collapsar model[edit]

For a completely collapsed star, see stellar black hole.
Light curves compared to normal supernovae

The collapsar model is a type of hypernova that produces a gravitationally collapsed object, or black hole. When core collapse occurs in a star with a core at least around fifteen times the sun's mass (M)—though chemical composition and rotational rate are also significant—the explosion energy is insufficient to expel the outer layers of the star, and it will collapse into a black hole without producing a visible supernova outburst.

A star with a core mass slightly below this level—in the range of 5–15 M—will undergo a supernova explosion, but so much of the ejected mass falls back onto the core remnant that it still collapses into a black hole. If such a star is rotating slowly, then it will produce a faint supernova, but if the star is rotating quickly enough, then the fallback to the black hole will produce relativistic jets. The energy that these jets transfer into the ejected shell renders the visible outburst substantially more luminous than a standard supernova. The jets also beam high energy particles and gamma rays directly outward and thereby produce x-ray or gamma-ray bursts; the jets can last for several seconds or longer and correspond to long-duration gamma-ray bursts, but they do not appear to explain short-duration gamma-ray bursts.

A star with a 5–15 M core has an approximate total mass of 25–90 M if the star has not undergone mass loss. Such a star will still have a hydrogen envelope and will explode as a type II supernova. Faint type II supernovae have been observed, but no definite candidates for a type II hypernova (except type IIn, which are not thought to be jet supernovae). Only the very lowest metallicity population III stars will reach this stage of their life with little mass loss. Other stars, including most of those visible to us, will have had most of their outer layers blown away by their high luminosity to become a Wolf-Rayet star and will explode as type Ib or type Ic supernovae. Many observed hypernovae are type Ic and those associated with gamma-ray bursts are almost all type Ic, and these are very good candidates for having relativistic jets produced by fallback to a black hole. Not all type Ic hypernovae correspond to observed gamma-ray bursts but the burst would only be visible if one of the jets were aimed towards us.

In recent years a great deal of observational data on long-duration gamma-ray bursts has significantly increased our understanding of these events and made clear that the collapsar model produces explosions that differ only in detail from more or less ordinary supernovae and have energy ranges from approximately normal to around 100 times larger. Nevertheless, they continue sometimes to be referred to in the literature as hypernovae. The word hypernova itself was coined by S.E. Woosley.[12]

A good example of a collapsar hypernova is Sn1998bw,[13] which was associated with the gamma-ray burst GRB 980425. It is classified as a type Ic supernova due to its distinctive spectral properties in the radio spectrum, indicating the presence of relativistic matter.

CSM model (circumstellar material)[edit]

Almost all observed hypernovae have had spectra similar to either a type Ic or type IIn supernova. The type Ic hypernovae are thought to be produced by jets from fallback to a black hole, but type IIn hypernovae have significantly different light curves and are not associated with gamma-ray bursts. Type IIn supernovae are all embedded in a dense nebula probably expelled from the progenitor star itself, and this circumstellar material (CSM) is thought to be the cause of the extra luminosity.[14] When material expelled in an initial normal supernova explosion meets dense nebular or material or dust close to the star, the shockwave converts kinetic energy efficiently into visible radiation. Thus we see an extremely luminous supernova of extended duration even though the initial explosion energy was the same as that of a normal supernova.

Although any supernova type could potentially produce a type IIn hypernova, given suitable surrounding CSM, the constraints on the size and density of the CSM mean that it will almost always be produced from the star itself immediately prior to the supernova explosion. Such stars are hypergiants and LBVs undergoing substantial mass loss due to Eddington instability, for example SN2005gl.[15]

Pair-instability supernova[edit]

Another type of hypernova is a pair-instability supernova, of which SN 2006gy[16] may possibly be the first observed example. This supernova event was observed in a galaxy about 238 million light years (73 megaparsecs) from Earth.

The theoretical basis for pair-instability collapse has been known for many decades[17] and was suggested as a dominant source of higher mass elements in the early universe as super-massive population III stars exploded. In a pair-instability supernova, the pair production effect causes a sudden pressure drop in the star's core, leading to a rapid partial collapse. Gravitational potential energy from the collapse causes runaway fusion of the core which entirely destroys the star, leaving no remnant.

Current models show that this phenomenon only happens in stars with extreme low metallicity and masses between about 140 and 260 times the sun, making observing them in the local universe extremely unlikely. Although originally expected to produce hypernova explosions hundreds of times greater than a supernova, they actually produce luminosities ranging from about the same as a normal core collapse supernova to perhaps 50 times brighter, although remaining bright for much longer.[18]

Magnetar energy release[edit]

Models of the creation and subsequent spin down of a magnetar yield much higher luminosities than regular supernova[19][20] events and match the observed properties[21][22] of at least some hypernova. In cases where pair-instability supernova may not be a good fit for explaining a hypernova,[23] a magnetar explanation is more plausible.

Other models[edit]

There are still models for hypernova explosions produced from binary systems, white dwarf or neutron stars in unusual arrangements or undergoing mergers, and some of these are proposed to account for gamma-ray bursts.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "A Hypernova: The Super-charged Supernova and its link to Gamma-Ray Bursts". Imagine the Universe!. NASA. Retrieved 9 December 2011. 
  2. ^ Hamuy, M.; Deng, J.; Mazzali, P. A.; Morrell, N. I.; Phillips, M. M.; Roth, M.; Gonzalez, S.; Thomas-Osip, J.; Krzeminski, W.; Contreras, C.; Maza, J.; González, L.; Huerta, L.; Folatelli, G. N.; Chornock, R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Persson, S. E.; Freedman, W. L.; Koviak, K.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Krisciunas, K. (2009). "Supernova 2003bg: The First Type IIb Hypernova" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal 703 (2): 1612–1623. arXiv:0908.1783. Bibcode:2009ApJ...703.1612H. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/703/2/1612.  edit
  3. ^ Paczyński, B. (1998). "Are Gamma-Ray Bursts in Star-Forming Regions?" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal 494 (1): L45–L48. arXiv:astro-ph/9710086. Bibcode:1998ApJ...494L..45P. doi:10.1086/311148.  edit
  4. ^ Iwamoto, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nomoto, K. I.; Mazzali, P. A.; Danziger, I. J.; Garnavich, P.; Kirshner, R.; Jha, S.; Balam, D.; Thorstensen, J. (2000). "The Peculiar Type Ic Supernova 1997ef: Another Hypernova" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal 534 (2): 660–669. Bibcode:2000ApJ...534..660I. doi:10.1086/308761.  edit
  5. ^ Nomoto, K.; Iwamoto, K.; Mazzali, P. A.; Umeda, H.; Nakamura, T.; Patat, F.; Danziger, I. J.; Young, T. R.; Suzuki, T.; Shigeyama, T.; Augusteijn, T.; Doublier, V.; Gonzalez, J. -F.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brewer, J.; Hainaut, O. R.; Lidman, C.; Leibundgut, B.; Cappellaro, E.; Turatto, M.; Galama, T. J.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Van Paradijs, J.; Pian, E.; Palazzi, E.; Frontera, F. (1998). "A Hypernova Model for the Supernova Associated with the Big γ-Ray Burst of 25 April 1998". Nature 395 (6703): 672–674. doi:10.1038/27155.  edit
  6. ^ Mazzali, P. A.; Deng, J.; Maeda, K.; Nomoto, K.; Umeda, H.; Hatano, K.; Iwamoto, K.; Yoshii, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.; Minezaki, T.; Doi, M.; Enya, K.; Tomita, H.; Smartt, S. J.; Kinugasa, K.; Kawakita, H.; Ayani, K.; Kawabata, T.; Yamaoka, H.; Qiu, Y. L.; Motohara, K.; Gerardy, C. L.; Fesen, R.; Kawabata, K. S.; Iye, M.; Kashikawa, N.; Kosugi, G.; Ohyama, Y.; Takada-Hidai, M.; Zhao, G. (2002). "The Type Ic Hypernova SN 2002ap" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal 572 (1): L61–L65. Bibcode:2002ApJ...572L..61M. doi:10.1086/341504.  edit
  7. ^ Mazzali, P. A.; Deng, J.; Pian, E.; Malesani, D.; Tominaga, N.; Maeda, K.; Nomoto, K. I.; Chincarini, G.; Covino, S.; Della Valle, M.; Fugazza, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Gal‐Yam, A. (2006). "Models for the Type Ic Hypernova SN 2003lw associated with GRB 031203" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal 645 (2): 1323–1330. arXiv:astro-ph/0603516. Bibcode:2006ApJ...645.1323M. doi:10.1086/504415.  edit
  8. ^ Gal-Yam, A.; Mazzali, P.; Ofek, E. O.; Nugent, P. E.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Quimby, R. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Cenko, S. B.; Chornock, R.; Waldman, R.; Kasen, D.; Sullivan, M.; Beshore, E. C.; Drake, A. J.; Thomas, R. C.; Bloom, J. S.; Poznanski, D.; Miller, A. A.; Foley, R. J.; Silverman, J. M.; Arcavi, I.; Ellis, R. S.; Deng, J. (2009). "Supernova 2007bi as a pair-instability explosion". Nature 462 (7273): 624–627. doi:10.1038/nature08579. PMID 19956255.  edit
  9. ^ Kasen, D.; Woosley, S. E.; Heger, A. (2011). "Pair Instability Supernovae: Light Curves, Spectra, and Shock Breakout" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal 734 (2): 102. arXiv:1101.3336. Bibcode:2011ApJ...734..102K. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/734/2/102.  edit
  10. ^ Higdon, J. C.; Lingenfelter, R. E. (1990). "Gamma-Ray Bursts". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 28: 401. Bibcode:1990ARA&A..28..401H. doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.28.090190.002153.  edit
  11. ^ Minard, Anne (April 3, 2009). "Gamma-Ray Burst Caused Mass Extinction?". National Geographic News. Retrieved 16 April 2010. 
  12. ^ Woosley, S. E.; Weaver, T. A. (1982). "Theoretical Models for Supernovae". In Rees, M. J.; Stoneham, R. J. Supernovae: A Survey of Current Research. NATO ASI Series C90. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing. p. 79. Bibcode:1982sscr.conf...79W. ISBN 9789027714428. 
  13. ^ Fujimoto, S. I.; Nishimura, N.; Hashimoto, M. A. (2008). "Nucleosynthesis in Magnetically Driven Jets from Collapsars" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal 680 (2): 1350–1358. arXiv:0804.0969. Bibcode:2008ApJ...680.1350F. doi:10.1086/529416.  edit
  14. ^ Smith, N.; Chornock, R.; Li, W.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Silverman, J. M.; Foley, R. J.; Filippenko, A. V.; Barth, A. J. (2008). "SN 2006tf: Precursor Eruptions and the Optically Thick Regime of Extremely Luminous Type IIn Supernovae" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal 686 (1): 467–484. arXiv:0804.0042. Bibcode:2008ApJ...686..467S. doi:10.1086/591021.  edit
  15. ^ Gal-Yam, A.; Leonard, D. C. (2009). "A Massive Hypergiant Star as the Progenitor of the Supernova SN 2005gl" (PDF). Nature 458 (7240): 865–867. doi:10.1038/nature07934. PMID 19305392.  edit
  16. ^ Smith, N.; Chornock, R.; Silverman, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Foley, R. J. (2010). "Spectral Evolution of the Extraordinary Type IIn Supernova 2006gy" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal 709 (2): 856–883. arXiv:0906.2200. Bibcode:2010ApJ...709..856S. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/709/2/856.  edit
  17. ^ Fraley, G. S. (1968). "Supernovae Explosions Induced by Pair-Production Instability" (PDF). Astrophysics and Space Science 2 (1): 96–114. Bibcode:1968Ap&SS...2...96F. doi:10.1007/BF00651498.  edit
  18. ^ Kasen, D.; Woosley, S. E.; Heger, A. (2011). "Pair Instability Supernovae: Light Curves, Spectra, and Shock Breakout" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal 734 (2): 102. arXiv:1101.3336. Bibcode:2011ApJ...734..102K. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/734/2/102.  edit
  19. ^ Woosley, S.E. (August 2010). "Bright Supernovae From Magnetar Birth". Astrophysical Journal Letters 719 (2). arXiv:0911.0698. Bibcode:2010ApJ...719L.204W. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/719/2/L204. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  20. ^ Kasen, Daniel; Bildsten, Lars (2010). "Supernova Light Curves Powered by Young Magnetars". Astrophysical Journal 717: 245–249. arXiv:0911.0680. Bibcode:2010ApJ...717..245K. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/717/1/245. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  21. ^ C.Inserra et al. (June 2013). "Super Luminous Ic Supernovae: catching a magnetar by the tail". The Astrophysical Journal 770 (2). arXiv:1304.3320. Bibcode:2013ApJ...770..128I. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/770/2/128. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  22. ^ D.A. Howell et al. (October 2013). "Two superluminous supernovae from the early universe discovered by the Supernova Legacy Survey". Astrophysical Journal 779 (2). arXiv:1310.0470. Bibcode:2013ApJ...779...98H. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/779/2/98. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  23. ^ M. Nicholl, et. al (October 2013). "Slowly fading super-luminous supernovae that are not pair-instability explosions". Nature 502 (7471). arXiv:1310.4446. Bibcode:2013Natur.502..346N. doi:10.1038/nature12569. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 

Further reading[edit]



Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypernova — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
89464 videos foundNext > 

The Hypernova of VY Canis Majoris

By popular request, here's my take on the hypergiant star VY Canis Majors Further reading: http://www.universetoday.com/13507/what-is-the-biggest-star-in-the-universe/ http://www.universetoday....

Hypernova

A hypernova explosion, the possible source of powerful gamma-ray bursts, is about 100 times more energetic than a supernova explosion and is thus the most energetic event known in the Universe...

The Browning - Hypernova (Full Album - HQ)

Invasion 01:32 - Save the World 02:52 - Gravedigger 05:36 - Industry 08:14 - Hypernova 11:53 - Fifth Kind 15:53 - Type 1A 19:02 - Slaves 23:31 - Black Hole 27:40 - Breaking Point 30:33...

The Hypernova of VY Canis Majoris

The Epic Battle Between Gravity and Fusion.

HYPERNOVA-"FAIRY TALES" (MUSIC VIDEO)

Debut album "Through The Chaos" out on iTunes HYPERNOVA MUSIC VIDEO "FAIRY TALES" Directed by: Ilya Gorovatsky. http://www.Myspace.com/hypernova http://www.Facebook....

Hypernova Explosion

National Geographic All Rights Reserved.

[D] Kirby Triple Deluxe - All Hypernova Kirby Levels/Bosses

Alpha Centauri 213 9x25 Was ist eine Hypernova Prof Harald Lesch Doku

In der Sendereihe Alpha Centauri im Bildungskanal BR-alpha des Bayerischen Rundfunks beantwortet Prof. Dr. Harald Lesch in jeweils ca. 15-minütigen Folgen Fragestellungen aus der Physik, ...

The Birth of a Black Hole (Hypernovas, Gamma-Ray burst etc.)

How the Universe Works is a mini-series that originally aired on the Discovery Channel April 25, 2010 to May 24, 2010. It was narrated by Mike Rowe. This is just a small part from my favorite...

【Minecraft】 Mineplex Server - Christmas Chaos with Hypernova的鄰居們

今天我和一班生存Server 上的鄰居一起到Mineplex 玩Christmas Chaos,幫聖誕老人打倒邪惡南瓜頭,及時把禮物送出:) Mineplex Server IP: US.MINEPLEX.COM EU.MINEPLEX...

89464 videos foundNext > 

1260 news items

South Whidbey Record (subscription)

South Whidbey Record (subscription)
Sat, 18 Apr 2015 06:07:30 -0700

Fletcher is a Seattle-based choreographer and owner of the contemporary dance company HyperNova. According to a press release from Whidbey Island Dance Theatre, Fletcher's work is “sharp, edgy and dramatic.” In “Giselle” Prince Albrecht will be played ...

National Rock Review

National Rock Review
Fri, 17 Apr 2015 07:37:30 -0700

Their latest album, Hypernova, is available now. Capture The Crown was up next. This Australian metalcore band was formed in 2010. The current lineup consists of Jeffrey Wellfare (vocals), Kyle Devaney (guitar), Mitch Rogers (rhythm guitar), Maurice ...

Tech Times

Tech Times
Sun, 12 Apr 2015 21:30:00 -0700

Rare gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays associated with energetic explosions and only happens when enormously high-mass stars go hypernova or supernova. The large stars' powerful electromagnetic fields direct most of the energy of the ...

Asian Scientist Magazine

Asian Scientist Magazine
Mon, 13 Apr 2015 02:22:30 -0700

This week alone, I learnt all sorts of new words: thagomizer, neutrino, hypernova, Eta Carinae, magnetar. Recently, he came home from school saying that while class was sometimes fun, it didn't teach him “anything really important.” “What do you mean?

RT

RT
Sun, 08 Jun 2014 16:06:00 -0700

A Texas observatory has captured a powerful gamma-ray burst – the violent death of a massive star – that happened relatively “soon'” after the Big Bang. Understanding such hard-to-spot events gives us insight into how the early universe developed.

The Daily Galaxy (blog)

The Daily Galaxy (blog)
Fri, 20 Mar 2015 07:11:51 -0700

Sagittarius A above, East (blue): a hypernova remnant, which was produced by a violent explosion only several tens of thousands of years ago. Its origin is unknown. Explanations range from a star disrupted by a black hole to a chain reaction of ...

The Slovak Spectator

The Slovak Spectator
Mon, 23 Mar 2015 22:26:15 -0700

The Dutch Ahold, which operated stores under the brand names Hypernova and Albert, withdrew from Slovakia and sold its outlets to the Slovak retail chain Diligentia. Since this time Lidl grew significantly. Now it operates 123 outlets and in 2013 it ...
 
NPR
Fri, 09 Apr 2010 00:00:00 -0700

I met Raam in 2007 when Hypernova first landed in the U.S. I profiled the band for NPR back then, because what's a better story than a rock band from the Islamic Republic of Iran, where it's illegal to rock? It was time to check back with Hypernova ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight