digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Humerus
Humerus - anterior view.png
Position of humerus (shown in red). Anterior view.
Details
Latin Humerus
Identifiers
Gray's p.209
MeSH A02.835.232.087.090.400
TA A02.4.04.001
FMA 13303
Anatomical terms of bone

The humerus (/ˈhjmərəs/, Plural: humeri) is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. It connects the scapula and the two bones of the lower arm, which consists of the radius and ulna, and consists of three sections. The upper extremity consists of a rounded head, a narrow neck, and two short processes (tubercles, sometimes called tuberosities). Its body is cylindrical in its upper portion, and more prismatic below. The lower extremity consists of 2 epicondyles, 2 processes (trochlea & capitulum), and 3 fossae (radial fossa, coronoid fossa, and olecranon fossa). As well as its true anatomical neck, the constriction below the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus is referred to as its surgical neck due to its tendency to commonly get fractured, thus often becoming the focus of surgeons.

Structure[edit]

Articulations[edit]

At the shoulder, the head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula. More distally, at the elbow, the capitulum of the humerus articulates with the head of the radius, and the trochlea of the humerus articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna.

Diagram of the human shoulder joint 
The left shoulder and acromioclavicular joints, and the proper ligaments of the scapula. 
Head of humerus 
The supinator

Nerves[edit]

The axillary nerve is located at the proximal end, against the shoulder girdle. Dislocation of the humerus's glenohumeral joint, has the potential to injure the axillary nerve or the axillary artery. Signs and symptoms of this dislocation include a loss of the normal shoulder contour and a palpable depression under the acromion.

The radial nerve follows the humerus closely. At the midshaft of the humerus, the radial nerve travels from the posterior to the anterior aspect of the bone in the spiral groove. A fracture of the humerus in this region can result in radial nerve injury.

The ulnar nerve at the distal end of the humerus near the elbow is sometimes referred to in popular culture as 'the funny bone'. Striking this nerve can cause a tingling sensation ("funny" feeling), and sometimes a significant amount of pain. It lies posterior to the medial epicondyle, and is easily damaged in elbow injuries.[1]

Horizontal section at the middle of upper arm
Horizontal section of upper arm. 
Humerus 

Function[edit]

Muscular attachment[edit]

The deltoid originates on the lateral third of the clavicle, acromion and the crest of the spine of the scapula. It is inserted on the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus and has several actions including abduction, extension, and circumduction of the shoulder. The supraspinatus also originates on the spine of the scapula. It inserts on the greater tubercle of the humerus, and assists in abduction of the shoulder.

The pectoralis major, teres major, and latissimus dorsi insert at the intertubercular groove of the humerus. They work to adduct and medially, or internally, rotate the humerus.

The infraspinatus and teres minor insert on the greater tubercle, and work to laterally, or externally, rotate the humerus. In contrast, the subscapularis muscle inserts onto the lesser tubercle and works to medially, or internally, rotate the humerus.

The biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis (which attaches distally) act to flex the elbow. (The biceps do not attach to the humerus.) The triceps brachii and anconeus extend the elbow, and attach to the posterior side of the humerus.

The four muscles of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis form a musculo-ligamentous girdle called the rotator cuff. This cuff stabilizes the very mobile but inherently unstable glenohumeral joint. The other muscles are used as counterbalances for the actions of lifting/pulling and pressing/pushing.

Left humerus. Anterior view.
Humerus ant (mirroed).png Left humerus - anterior view.png Left humerus - close-up - animation - stop at anterior view.gif HumerusFront.png Human left humerus - anterior view - muscles.svg A. Supraspinatus muscle
B. Latissimus dorsi muscle
C. Pectoralis major muscle
D. Deltoid muscle
E. Brachioradialis
F. Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle
G. Common extensor tendon
H. Subscapularis muscle
I. Teres major muscle
J. Coracobrachialis muscle
K. Brachialis muscle
L. Pronator teres muscle
M. Common flexor tendon


Left humerus. Posterior view.
Humerus post (mirroed).png Left humerus - posterior view.png Left humerus - close-up - animation - stop at posterior view.gif HumerusBack.png Gray208.png


Clinical significance[edit]

Fracture[edit]

Main article: Humerus fracture

Other animals[edit]

Primitive fossil amphibians had little, if any, shaft connecting the upper and lower extremities, making their limbs very short. In most living tetrapods, however, the humerus has a similar form to that of humans. In many reptiles and some primitive mammals, the lower extremity includes a large foramen, or opening, into which nerves and blood vessels pass.[2]

History[edit]

The word "humerus" is derived from Latin: humerus, umerus meaning upper arm, shoulder, and is linguistically related to Gothic ams shoulder and Greek ōmos.[3]

Additional images[edit]

References[edit]

This article incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy.

  1. ^ "The Humerus". TeachMeAnatomy.net. 
  2. ^ Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 198–199. ISBN 0-03-910284-X. 
  3. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Humerus". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 November 2014. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humerus — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
23700 videos foundNext > 

SKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMY: Bones of the arm- Humerus

Short video describing the skeletal structures of the humerus Structural markings identified: Head Anatomical neck Surgical neck Greater tubercle Lesser tube...

Humerus - 3D Anatomy

www.SalmonellaPlace.com This is a tutorial/lecture on anatomy of the Humerus. We cover some topics important for classes such as anatomy, college and medical...

Humerus.mov

Gross anatomy of the humerus including greater and lesser tubercles, deltoid tuberosity, trochlea, capitulum, medial and lateral epicondyles, olecranon fossa...

Features of the Humerus - Anatomy Tutorial

http://www.anatomyzone.com 3D anatomy tutorial on the features of the humerus using the BioDigital Human Browser (http://www.biodigitalhuman.com). Just reali...

Humerus and Scapula - Human Anatomy | Kenhub

Find more videos at: https://www.kenhub.com Subscribe to our YouTube channel: http://bit.ly/VOEG2I This is an Anatomy video tutorial covering the Humerus and...

Human Anatomy Video: Humerus

A description of the humerus with all of its major landmarks such as major and minor tubercles and their respective crests, deltoid tuberosity, trochlea, cap...

Proximal Humerus

humerus

Humerus comparative Course 205 Dr.Fouad Farag Anatomy and Embryology dept. Faculty of veterinary medicine Cairo university.

Humerus Anterolateral Approach

Dr. Fabian Identifying Parts of the Humerus

Dr. Fabian Identifying Parts of the Humerus.

23700 videos foundNext > 

6713 news items

 
Lompoc Record
Thu, 29 Jan 2015 20:11:33 -0800

Erin Williams, a junior midfielder who was a returning All-League player for us and verbally committed to UC Santa Barbara, tore her humerus the day before our first workout. If she was out there, you would see a completely different team." Both teams ...
 
U-T San Diego
Mon, 12 Jan 2015 16:17:27 -0800

Hurting humerus not so humorous. By Irv Erdos4:13 p.m.Jan. 12, 2015Updated4:02 p.m.. ⎙. Print. 💬. Comments 0.  ·  · Reddit; ✉; 0 Comments. I have an appointment at Scripps Clinic to discuss my impending surgery. An MRI indicates I have a tear in the ...
 
Healio
Tue, 27 Jan 2015 09:15:00 -0800

Results showed rotator cuff tear and arthritis and proximal humerus fracture were common diagnoses for reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). In 93% of cases, the researchers found total shoulder arthroplasty was performed for osteoarthritis, whereas ...

Western Daily Press

Western Daily Press
Fri, 30 Jan 2015 00:26:15 -0800

The Gloucester wing came on as a second-half replacement at Stade Amedee Domenech but lasted just 12 minutes after suffering a blow at the breakdown. It is now understood that the Irish 27-year-old suffered a fractured humerus bone in the victory and a ...

Truthdig

Truthdig
Wed, 28 Jan 2015 03:03:45 -0800

The Pentagon has identified pieces of Kelder's skull, his left humerus, right fibula, and left tibia. Eakin is concerned that more of Kelder's skeleton could be identified but the Pentagon is avoiding doing so because it would reveal that past ...

Gloucester Citizen

Gloucester Citizen
Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:05:14 -0800

It is now understood that the Irish 27-year-old suffered a fractured humerus bone in the victory ansd a recovery time has not yet been clarified. Monahan is out of contract at the end of the season and could now have played his last game for the club.
 
News24
Wed, 28 Jan 2015 11:41:15 -0800

So high powered was shot, that the bullet shattered both her bone (Humerus) and the actual bullet itself. There was nothing my vet could do. Elli immediately got referred on an emergency consult to Panorama Veterinary Clinic to see Dr Michael Grey a ...

University Herald

Futurity: Research News
Mon, 26 Jan 2015 06:26:15 -0800

These fluctuations correlated with sea temperatures at Laniakea, indicating that sea turtles bask more when waters are cooler. Scientists then compared these fluctuations in temperature and basking to growth marks in the humerus bone of several green ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight