digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Humerus
Humerus - anterior view.png
Position of humerus (shown in red). Anterior view.
Details
Latin Humerus
Identifiers
Gray's p.209
MeSH A02.835.232.087.090.400
TA A02.4.04.001
FMA 13303
Anatomical terms of bone

The humerus (/ˈhjmərəs/, Plural: humeri) is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. It connects the scapula and the two bones of the lower arm, which consists of the radius and ulna, and consists of three sections. The upper extremity consists of a rounded head, a narrow neck, and two short processes (tubercles, sometimes called tuberosities). Its body is cylindrical in its upper portion, and more prismatic below. The lower extremity consists of 2 epicondyles, 2 processes (trochlea & capitulum), and 3 fossae (radial fossa, coronoid fossa, and olecranon fossa). As well as its true anatomical neck, the constriction below the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus is referred to as its surgical neck due to its tendency to commonly get fractured, thus often becoming the focus of surgeons.

History[edit]

The word "humerus" is derived from Latin: humerus, umerus meaning upper arm, shoulder, and is linguistically related to Gothic ams shoulder and Greek ōmos.[1]

Structure[edit]

Articulations[edit]

At the shoulder, the head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula. More distally, at the elbow, the capitulum of the humerus articulates with the head of the radius, and the trochlea of the humerus articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna.

Diagram of the human shoulder joint 
The left shoulder and acromioclavicular joints, and the proper ligaments of the scapula. 
Head of humerus 
The supinator

Nerves[edit]

The axillary nerve is located at the proximal end, against the shoulder girdle. Dislocation of the humerus's glenohumeral joint, has the potential to injure the axillary nerve or the axillary artery. Signs and symptoms of this dislocation include a loss of the normal shoulder contour and a palpable depression under the acromion.

The radial nerve follows the humerus closely. At the midshaft of the humerus, the radial nerve travels from the posterior to the anterior aspect of the bone in the spiral groove. A fracture of the humerus in this region can result in radial nerve injury.

The ulnar nerve at the distal end of the humerus near the elbow is sometimes referred to in popular culture as 'the funny bone'. Striking this nerve can cause a tingling sensation ("funny" feeling), and sometimes a significant amount of pain. It lies posterior to the medial epicondyle, and is easily damaged in elbow injuries.[2]

Horizontal section at the middle of upper arm
Horizontal section of upper arm. 
Humerus 

Function[edit]

Muscular attachment[edit]

The deltoid originates on the lateral third of the clavicle, acromion and the crest of the spine of the scapula. It is inserted on the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus and has several actions including abduction, extension, and circumduction of the shoulder. The supraspinatus also originates on the spine of the scapula. It inserts on the greater tubercle of the humerus, and assists in abduction of the shoulder.

The pectoralis major, teres major, and latissimus dorsi insert at the intertubercular groove of the humerus. They work to adduct and medially, or internally, rotate the humerus.

The infraspinatus and teres minor insert on the greater tubercle, and work to laterally, or externally, rotate the humerus. In contrast, the subscapularis muscle inserts onto the lesser tubercle and works to medially, or internally, rotate the humerus.

The biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis (which attaches distally) act to flex the elbow. (The biceps do not attach to the humerus.) The triceps brachii and anconeus extend the elbow, and attach to the posterior side of the humerus.

The four muscles of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis form a musculo-ligamentous girdle called the rotator cuff. This cuff stabilizes the very mobile but inherently unstable glenohumeral joint. The other muscles are used as counterbalances for the actions of lifting/pulling and pressing/pushing.

Left humerus. Anterior view.
Humerus ant (mirroed).png Left humerus - anterior view.png Left humerus - close-up - animation - stop at anterior view.gif HumerusFront.png Human left humerus - anterior view - muscles.svg A. Supraspinatus muscle
B. Latissimus dorsi muscle
C. Pectoralis major muscle
D. Deltoid muscle
E. Brachioradialis
F. Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle
G. Common extensor tendon
H. Subscapularis muscle
I. Teres major muscle
J. Coracobrachialis muscle
K. Brachialis muscle
L. Pronator teres muscle
M. Common flexor tendon


Left humerus. Posterior view.
Humerus post (mirroed).png Left humerus - posterior view.png Left humerus - close-up - animation - stop at posterior view.gif HumerusBack.png Gray208.png


Other animals[edit]

Primitive fossil amphibians had little, if any, shaft connecting the upper and lower extremities, making their limbs very short. In most living tetrapods, however, the humerus has a similar form to that of humans. In many reptiles and some primitive mammals, the lower extremity includes a large foramen, or opening, into which nerves and blood vessels pass.[3]

Additional images[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

  1. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Humerus". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 November 2014. 
  2. ^ "The Humerus". TeachMeAnatomy.net. 
  3. ^ Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 198–199. ISBN 0-03-910284-X. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humerus — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
25049 videos foundNext > 

https://youtube.com/devicesupport

SKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMY: Bones of the arm- Humerus

Short video describing the skeletal structures of the humerus Structural markings identified: Head Anatomical neck Surgical neck Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Intertubercular groove Deltoid...

Human Anatomy Video: Humerus

A description of the humerus with all of its major landmarks such as major and minor tubercles and their respective crests, deltoid tuberosity, trochlea, capitulum etc... ----------------------...

Humerus.mov

Gross anatomy of the humerus including greater and lesser tubercles, deltoid tuberosity, trochlea, capitulum, medial and lateral epicondyles, olecranon fossa and coronoid fossa.

Features of the Humerus - Anatomy Tutorial

http://www.anatomyzone.com 3D anatomy tutorial on the features of the humerus using the BioDigital Human Browser (http://www.biodigitalhuman.com). Just realised how long this tutorial is -...

Humerus - 3D Anatomy

www.SalmonellaPlace.com This is a tutorial/lecture on anatomy of the Humerus. We cover some topics important for classes such as anatomy, college and medical school levels. List of topics:...

Humerus and Scapula - Human Anatomy | Kenhub

Find more videos at: https://www.kenhub.com Subscribe to our YouTube channel: http://bit.ly/VOEG2I This is an Anatomy video tutorial covering the Humerus and the Scapula, two bones which comprise ...

Proximal Humerus

Features of the humerus.wmv

Anatomy of the humerus. Recorded at Glen Oaks Community College, Centreville, Michigan by Dr Ren Allen Hartung.

Proximal Humerus ORIF Exposure and Reduction Techniques

25049 videos foundNext > 

3256 news items

OrthoSpineNews

OrthoSpineNews
Tue, 14 Apr 2015 16:31:25 -0700

Until now, patients needing surgical treatment for multipart fractures of the shoulder's proximal humerus have been limited to traditional fixation technologies or in some cases left to consider shoulder replacement alternatives. Because of the ...
 
Med Device Online (press release)
Tue, 14 Apr 2015 11:45:00 -0700

Until now, patients needing surgical treatment for multipart fractures of the shoulder's proximal humerus have been limited to traditional fixation technologies or in some cases left to consider shoulder replacement alternatives. Because of the ...

MedPage Today

MedPage Today
Fri, 24 Apr 2015 13:30:13 -0700

Most of the population never use their ulnar collateral ligament, located at the medial aspect of the elbow and connecting the humerus and ulna. But for athletes who throw thousands of baseballs, javelins, or footballs for a living, those three fibrous ...

Buffalo News

Buffalo News
Fri, 24 Apr 2015 21:07:30 -0700

From the pediatric side, it would be more fractures of the upper extremities: broken collar bones, broken humerus, broken elbow, broken wrist and broken hand. Any hand surgeon will tell you that the most common things that they deal with are carpal ...

KCEN-TV

KCEN-TV
Fri, 24 Apr 2015 11:00:00 -0700

Medical staff also found a corner fracture to the child's right humerus, which also was a result of non-accidental trauma. Doctors stated that the corner fracture was no older than seven days and that the rib fractures were seven to ten days old. Both ...
 
New Europe (blog)
Fri, 17 Apr 2015 10:50:56 -0700

HANOI, Vietnam (AP) — An American doctor arrived in Vietnam carrying an unlikely piece of luggage: the bones of an arm he amputated in 1966. Dr. Sam Axelrad brought the skeletal keepsake home to Texas as a reminder that when a badly injured North ...
 
Sioux Falls Argus Leader
Thu, 23 Apr 2015 09:07:30 -0700

... Sam Clemens said. He said the boy hit a roof ledge on his way down. He was taken to a hospital and treated for a broken humerus and some scrapes and bruises. Argus 911: Get more crime and safety news at Argus911.com, @Argus911 and on Facebook.

Madison.com

Madison.com
Fri, 24 Apr 2015 02:56:15 -0700

Unfortunately, it won't be in the course of conversation, the typical manner in which Dr. Temperance Brennan (Emily Deschanel) rattles off the trapezium, scaphoid and proximal phalanges of the hand, along with the radius, ulna, and humerus that make up ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight