digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Humerus
Humerus - anterior view.png
Position of humerus (shown in red). Anterior view.
Illu upper extremity.jpg
Latin Humerus
Gray's p.209
MeSH Humerus
TA A02.4.04.001
FMA FMA:13303
Anatomical terms of bone

The humerus (/ˈhjmərəs/; ME from Latin humerus, umerus upper arm, shoulder; cf. Gothic ams shoulder, Greek ōmos. Plural: humeri) is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.

Anatomically, in modern humans, it connects the scapula and the lower arm (consisting of the radius and ulna), and consists of three sections. The upper extremity consists of a rounded head, a narrow neck, and two short processes (tubercles, sometimes called tuberosities.) Its body is cylindrical in its upper portion, and more prismatic below. The lower extremity consists of 2 epicondyles, 2 processes (trochlea & capitulum), and 3 fossae (radial fossa, coronoid fossa, and olecranon fossa). As well as its true anatomical neck, the constriction below the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus is referred to as its surgical neck due to its tendency to commonly get fractured, thus often becoming the focus of surgeons.

Structure[edit]

Articulations[edit]

At the shoulder, the head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula. More distally, at the elbow, the capitulum of the humerus articulates with the head of the radius, and the trochlea of the humerus articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna.

Diagram of the human shoulder joint 
The left shoulder and acromioclavicular joints, and the proper ligaments of the scapula. 
Head of humerus 
The supinator

Nerves[edit]

The axillary nerve is located at the proximal end, against the shoulder girdle. Dislocation of the humerus's glenohumeral joint, has the potential to injure the axillary nerve or the axillary artery. Signs and symptoms of this dislocation include a loss of the normal shoulder contour and a palpable depression under the acromion.

The radial nerve follows the humerus closely. At the midshaft of the humerus, the radial nerve travels from the posterior to the anterior aspect of the bone in the spiral groove. A fracture of the humerus in this region can result in radial nerve injury.

The ulnar nerve at the distal end of the humerus near the elbow is sometimes referred to in popular culture as 'the funny bone'. Striking this nerve can cause a tingling sensation ("funny" feeling), and sometimes a significant amount of pain. It lies posterior to the medial epicondyle, and is easily damaged in elbow injuries.[1]

Horizontal section at the middle of upper arm
Horizontal section of upper arm. 
Humerus 

Function[edit]

Muscular attachment[edit]

The deltoid originates on the lateral third of the clavicle, acromion and the crest of the spine of the scapula. It is inserted on the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus and has several actions including abduction, extension, and circumduction of the shoulder. The supraspinatus also originates on the spine of the scapula. It inserts on the greater tubercle of the humerus, and assists in abduction of the shoulder.

The pectoralis major, teres major, and latissimus dorsi insert at the intertubercular groove of the humerus. They work to adduct and medially, or internally, rotate the humerus.

The infraspinatus and teres minor insert on the greater tubercle, and work to laterally, or externally, rotate the humerus. In contrast, the subscapularis muscle inserts onto the lesser tubercle and works to medially, or internally, rotate the humerus.

The biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis (which attaches distally) act to flex the elbow. (The biceps do not attach to the humerus.) The triceps brachii and anconeus extend the elbow, and attach to the posterior side of the humerus.

The four muscles of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis form a musculo-ligamentous girdle called the rotator cuff. This cuff stabilizes the very mobile but inherently unstable glenohumeral joint. The other muscles are used as counterbalances for the actions of lifting/pulling and pressing/pushing.

Left humerus. Anterior view.
Humerus ant (mirroed).png Left humerus - anterior view.png Left humerus - close-up - animation - stop at anterior view.gif HumerusFront.png Gray207.png Human left humerus - anterior view - muscles.svg A. Supraspinatus muscle
B. Latissimus dorsi muscle
C. Pectoralis major muscle
D. Deltoid muscle
E. Brachioradialis
F. Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle
G.
H. Subscapularis muscle
I. Teres major muscle
J. Coracobrachialis muscle
K. Brachialis muscle
L. Pronator teres muscle
M.


Left humerus. Posterior view.
Humerus post (mirroed).png Left humerus - posterior view.png Left humerus - close-up - animation - stop at posterior view.gif HumerusBack.png Gray208.png


Clinical significance[edit]

Fracture[edit]

In other animals[edit]

Primitive fossil amphibians had little, if any, shaft connecting the upper and lower extremities, making their limbs very short. In most living tetrapods, however, the humerus has a similar form to that of humans. In many reptiles and some primitive mammals, the lower extremity includes a large foramen, or opening, into which nerves and blood vessels pass.[2]

Additional images[edit]

References[edit]

This article incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy.

  1. ^ http://teachmeanatomy.net/upper-limb-2/bones/the-humerus/
  2. ^ Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 198–199. ISBN 0-03-910284-X. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humerus — Please support Wikipedia.
A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
18444 videos foundNext > 

Humerus - 3D Anatomy

www.SalmonellaPlace.com This is a tutorial/lecture on anatomy of the Humerus. We cover some topics important for classes such as anatomy, college and medical...

SKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMY: Bones of the arm- Humerus

Short video describing the skeletal structures of the humerus Structural markings identified: Head Anatomical neck Surgical neck Greater tubercle Lesser tube...

Humerus.mov

Gross anatomy of the humerus including greater and lesser tubercles, deltoid tuberosity, trochlea, capitulum, medial and lateral epicondyles, olecranon fossa...

Features of the Humerus - Anatomy Tutorial

http://www.anatomyzone.com 3D anatomy tutorial on the features of the humerus using the BioDigital Human Browser (http://www.biodigitalhuman.com). Just reali...

Features of the humerus.wmv

Anatomy of the humerus. Recorded at Glen Oaks Community College, Centreville, Michigan by Dr Ren Allen Hartung.

Dr. Fabian Identifying Parts of the Humerus

Dr. Fabian Identifying Parts of the Humerus.

Humerus and Scapula - Anatomy Tutorial | Kenhub

https://www.kenhub.com This is an Anatomy video tutorial covering the Humerus and the Scapula, two bones which comprise the shoulder girdle. If you want to s...

Humerus

identify the humerus, anatomical position, left and right.

Proximal Humerus

Humerus Fracture - Broken Upper Arm

http://pixvid.me/mdbonedocsHumerusFracture Humerus fractures are common. The humerus is the long bone in your upper arm. A fracture is a broken bone. The hum...

18444 videos foundNext > 

439 news items

Northern Voices Online

Northern Voices Online
Tue, 25 Mar 2014 20:34:46 -0700

Also, known as a humerus, it was preserved. However, doctors started working on it only after they found another in the same state in Monmouth County. After accomplishing the task of matching the bone, researchers are now claiming that the ancient sea ...
 
The Grand Rapids Press - MLive.com
Tue, 15 Apr 2014 05:33:45 -0700

Leah Allyn Norton filed a federal lawsuit against Deputy Heather Stille after her humerus bone – the bone between the shoulder and elbow – was broken during an encounter in a holding area in Holland District Court in 2010. Norton, who at the time used ...

West Virginia Record

West Virginia Record
Tue, 15 Apr 2014 11:11:15 -0700

According to Eifert's findings, Francis was referred to the VA Medical Center in Huntington after breaking his left humerus on a camping trip. Because the surgeon at the VAMC was not a specialist in treating that condition, he was referred to a local ...

Outlook

Outlook
Mon, 14 Apr 2014 23:33:45 -0700

That the upper arm's bone (in a fascinating passage on St Thomas' relics) is not the ulna but the humerus (the radius and the ulna are twin bones in the forearm), too, is Human Anatomy 101. Other minor errors raised my writers' hackles (....The first ...
 
ValpoLife.com
Mon, 14 Apr 2014 13:16:02 -0700

Shoulder instability occurs when the shoulder joint is too loose and the 'ball' of the humerus (upper arm) can move around too much in the 'socket' of the scapula. In a healthy shoulder joint, the four tendons that make up the rotator cuff hold the ...
 
nwitimes.com
Mon, 14 Apr 2014 16:25:41 -0700

Forrest Gump was right. Stupid is as stupid does. Los Angeles Angels outfielder Josh Hamilton offers the latest proof. You would think he learned his lesson in 2011 when a headfirst slide into home resulted in a fractured right humerus (upper arm bone).
 
BusinessWorld Online Edition
Mon, 14 Apr 2014 07:48:46 -0700

The act itself of touching such an unglamorous part of the arm where the humerus is joined to the ulna, if I have named two of 606 bones correctly, seems the least intimate of human contacts. Romantic interludes hardly mention elbow-rubbing on top of ...
 
Health Hub from Cleveland Clinic
Fri, 11 Apr 2014 05:00:00 -0700

A shoulder dislocation happens when the upper arm bone (the humerus) comes out of the socket of the shoulder joint. The shoulder is our body's most mobile joint, making it highly functional but also easier to injure than most other joints. The way ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Humerus

You can talk about Humerus with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!