digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Humerus
Humerus - anterior view.png
Position of humerus (shown in red). Anterior view.
Illu upper extremity.jpg
Latin Humerus
Gray's p.209
MeSH Humerus
TA A02.4.04.001
FMA FMA:13303
Anatomical terms of bone

The humerus (/ˈhjmərəs/; ME from Latin humerus, umerus upper arm, shoulder; cf. Gothic ams shoulder, Greek ōmos. Plural: humeri) is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.

Anatomically, in modern humans, it connects the scapula and the lower arm (consisting of the radius and ulna), and consists of three sections. The upper extremity consists of a rounded head, a narrow neck, and two short processes (tubercles, sometimes called tuberosities). Its body is cylindrical in its upper portion, and more prismatic below. The lower extremity consists of 2 epicondyles, 2 processes (trochlea & capitulum), and 3 fossae (radial fossa, coronoid fossa, and olecranon fossa). As well as its true anatomical neck, the constriction below the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus is referred to as its surgical neck due to its tendency to commonly get fractured, thus often becoming the focus of surgeons.

Structure[edit]

Articulations[edit]

At the shoulder, the head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula. More distally, at the elbow, the capitulum of the humerus articulates with the head of the radius, and the trochlea of the humerus articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna.

Diagram of the human shoulder joint 
The left shoulder and acromioclavicular joints, and the proper ligaments of the scapula. 
Head of humerus 
The supinator

Nerves[edit]

The axillary nerve is located at the proximal end, against the shoulder girdle. Dislocation of the humerus's glenohumeral joint, has the potential to injure the axillary nerve or the axillary artery. Signs and symptoms of this dislocation include a loss of the normal shoulder contour and a palpable depression under the acromion.

The radial nerve follows the humerus closely. At the midshaft of the humerus, the radial nerve travels from the posterior to the anterior aspect of the bone in the spiral groove. A fracture of the humerus in this region can result in radial nerve injury.

The ulnar nerve at the distal end of the humerus near the elbow is sometimes referred to in popular culture as 'the funny bone'. Striking this nerve can cause a tingling sensation ("funny" feeling), and sometimes a significant amount of pain. It lies posterior to the medial epicondyle, and is easily damaged in elbow injuries.[1]

Horizontal section at the middle of upper arm
Horizontal section of upper arm. 
Humerus 

Function[edit]

Muscular attachment[edit]

The deltoid originates on the lateral third of the clavicle, acromion and the crest of the spine of the scapula. It is inserted on the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus and has several actions including abduction, extension, and circumduction of the shoulder. The supraspinatus also originates on the spine of the scapula. It inserts on the greater tubercle of the humerus, and assists in abduction of the shoulder.

The pectoralis major, teres major, and latissimus dorsi insert at the intertubercular groove of the humerus. They work to adduct and medially, or internally, rotate the humerus.

The infraspinatus and teres minor insert on the greater tubercle, and work to laterally, or externally, rotate the humerus. In contrast, the subscapularis muscle inserts onto the lesser tubercle and works to medially, or internally, rotate the humerus.

The biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis (which attaches distally) act to flex the elbow. (The biceps do not attach to the humerus.) The triceps brachii and anconeus extend the elbow, and attach to the posterior side of the humerus.

The four muscles of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis form a musculo-ligamentous girdle called the rotator cuff. This cuff stabilizes the very mobile but inherently unstable glenohumeral joint. The other muscles are used as counterbalances for the actions of lifting/pulling and pressing/pushing.

Left humerus. Anterior view.
Humerus ant (mirroed).png Left humerus - anterior view.png Left humerus - close-up - animation - stop at anterior view.gif HumerusFront.png Gray207.png Human left humerus - anterior view - muscles.svg A. Supraspinatus muscle
B. Latissimus dorsi muscle
C. Pectoralis major muscle
D. Deltoid muscle
E. Brachioradialis
F. Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle
G. Common extensor tendon
H. Subscapularis muscle
I. Teres major muscle
J. Coracobrachialis muscle
K. Brachialis muscle
L. Pronator teres muscle
M. Common flexor tendon


Left humerus. Posterior view.
Humerus post (mirroed).png Left humerus - posterior view.png Left humerus - close-up - animation - stop at posterior view.gif HumerusBack.png Gray208.png


Clinical significance[edit]

Fracture[edit]

Main article: Humerus fracture

In other animals[edit]

Primitive fossil amphibians had little, if any, shaft connecting the upper and lower extremities, making their limbs very short. In most living tetrapods, however, the humerus has a similar form to that of humans. In many reptiles and some primitive mammals, the lower extremity includes a large foramen, or opening, into which nerves and blood vessels pass.[2]

Additional images[edit]

References[edit]

This article incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy.

  1. ^ http://teachmeanatomy.net/upper-limb-2/bones/the-humerus/
  2. ^ Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 198–199. ISBN 0-03-910284-X. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humerus — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
25581 videos foundNext > 

SKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMY: Bones of the arm- Humerus

Short video describing the skeletal structures of the humerus Structural markings identified: Head Anatomical neck Surgical neck Greater tubercle Lesser tube...

Features of the Humerus - Anatomy Tutorial

http://www.anatomyzone.com 3D anatomy tutorial on the features of the humerus using the BioDigital Human Browser (http://www.biodigitalhuman.com). Just reali...

Humerus.mov

Gross anatomy of the humerus including greater and lesser tubercles, deltoid tuberosity, trochlea, capitulum, medial and lateral epicondyles, olecranon fossa...

Humerus - 3D Anatomy

www.SalmonellaPlace.com This is a tutorial/lecture on anatomy of the Humerus. We cover some topics important for classes such as anatomy, college and medical...

Humerus and Scapula - Human Anatomy | Kenhub

Find more videos at: https://www.kenhub.com Subscribe to our YouTube channel: http://bit.ly/VOEG2I This is an Anatomy video tutorial covering the Humerus and...

Dr. Fabian Identifying Parts of the Humerus

Dr. Fabian Identifying Parts of the Humerus.

Proximal Humerus

Humerus Anterolateral Approach

anatomie cours osteologie humerus

cours d'ostéologie de première année de médecine (PCEM1) portant sur l'humérus. Pour plus de vidéos rendez vous sur la chaine youtube prepavideo.

Features of the humerus.wmv

Anatomy of the humerus. Recorded at Glen Oaks Community College, Centreville, Michigan by Dr Ren Allen Hartung.

25581 videos foundNext > 

306 news items

WDSU New Orleans

WDSU New Orleans
Fri, 17 Oct 2014 10:15:00 -0700

Tickle your punny bone with these 'humerus' skeletons on St. Charles Avenue. 1 of 23. In what's been an annual event in New Orleans, an Uptown home on St. Charles Avenue has scared up some skeletons with great "humerus" jokes. Gallery Endcap.

Sydney Morning Herald

Sydney Morning Herald
Sun, 19 Oct 2014 05:45:36 -0700

Former Wallaby Pat McCabe admits he used to think osteoporosis was something which affected only older women. But he is not alone in thinking that. New research shows osteoporosis is still very much considered a women's disease and only 9 per cent of ...

OrthoSpineNews

OrthoSpineNews
Wed, 01 Oct 2014 09:33:02 -0700

Proximal humerus fractures are commonly encountered in elderly patients. Surgical treatment demonstrates high complication rates, including varus construct collapse and screw cutout. In this study, the authors evaluate the clinical outcome of locking ...

The Times-Picayune - NOLA.com (blog)

The Times-Picayune - NOLA.com (blog)
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 08:13:27 -0700

The skeletons are back tickling funny bones at their annual Halloween display in front of a home at State Street and St. Charles Avenue in Uptown on Friday, October 3, 2014. (Michael DeMocker, Nola.com / The Times-Picayune). Michael DeMocker. Print.
 
Chron.com
Sat, 25 Oct 2014 07:15:00 -0700

The humerus bone in his left arm, caught in the propeller, was completely broken. His left wrist was lacerated with torn tendons barely keeping his pinky finger attached to his hand. Lacerations on his lower right leg near his kneecap and a deep ...

New York Law Journal (registration)

New York Law Journal (registration)
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 15:18:45 -0700

DeBow awarded the inmate $80,000 in damages—$70,000 for past pain and suffering and $10,000 for future pain and suffering—for the "permanent" humerus injury, saying it was "unexplained" by the otherwise reasonable use of force applied against him.

Greensboro News & Record

Greensboro News & Record
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 17:45:00 -0700

Duke, a one year old gibbon, in his exhibit at the Greensboro Science Center on Friday, April 25, 2014, in Greensboro, N.C. Amanda Bissert found the tiny cold body of a newborn baby gibbon lying alone on the floor of the indoor habitat. When she ...
 
Wicked Local Framingham
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 06:30:16 -0700

When my upper arm accidently bumped the door, I made the comment, "Oh, my humerus!" A master builder's eyes curiously peeked up from his Lego creation … Add one silly word to a conversation. Mix in one inquisitive child and one devoted mom, and you ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!