digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Hugh Capet
HugoKapet kronika.jpg
12th century portrayal of Hugh Capet
King of the Franks
Reign 3 July 987 – 24 October 996
Coronation 3 July 987, Noyon
Predecessor Louis V
Successor Robert II
Junior king Robert II
Spouse Adelaide of Aquitaine
Issue Hedwig, Countess of Mons
Gisèle, Countess of Ponthieu
Robert II, King of the Franks
Father Hugh the Great
Mother Hedwige of Saxony
Born 941
Paris, France
Died 24 October 996 (aged 55)
Paris, France
Burial Saint Denis Basilica, Paris, France

Hugh Capet[a] (c. 941 – 24 October 996), called in contemporary sources "Hugh the Great" (Latin: Hugo Magnus),[1] was the first "King of the Franks" of the namesake Capetian dynasty from his election in 987 until his death; he succeeded the last Carolingian Louis V.

Descent and inheritance[edit]

The son of Hugh the Great, Duke of France, and Hedwige of Saxony, daughter of the German king Henry the Fowler, Hugh was born in 941.[2] His paternal family, the Robertians, were powerful landowners in the Île-de-France.[3] His grandfather had been King Robert I.[3] His grandmother Beatrice was a Carolingian, a daughter of Herbert I of Vermandois.[2] This makes him the fifth great-grandson of Charlemagne through Pepin of Italy.[4] King Odo was his grand-uncle and King Rudolph the son-in-law of his grandfather, King Robert I.[5]

Hugh Capet was born into a well-connected and powerful family with many ties to the reigning nobility of Europe.[b] But Hugh's father was never king. When Rudolph died in 936, Hugh the Great organised the return of Louis d'Outremer, son of Charles the Simple, from his exile at the court of Athelstan of England.[6] Hugh the Great's motives are unknown, but it is presumed that he acted to forestall Rudolph's brother, Hugh the Black, Duke of Burgundy, from attempting to take the French throne, or to prevent it from falling into the hands of Herbert II of Vermandois or Richard the Fearless, Duke of Normandy.[7]

In 956, Hugh inherited his father's estates and became one of the most powerful nobles in the much-reduced kingdom of West Francia.[8] As he was not yet an adult, his mother acted as his guardian,[9]and young Hugh's neighbours took advantage. Theobald I of Blois, a former vassal of Hugh's father, took the counties of Chartres and Châteaudun. Further south, on the border of the kingdom, Fulk II of Anjou, another former client of Hugh the Great, carved out a principality at Hugh's expense and that of the Bretons.[10]

A denier of Hugh Capet when he was Duke of France, calling him "duke by the grace of God" (Dux Dei Gratia). Minted at Paris (Parisi Civita)

The realm in which Hugh grew up, and of which he would one day be king, bore no resemblance to modern France. Hugh's predecessors did not call themselves kings of France, and that title was not used by his successors until the time of his descendant, Philip II. Kings ruled as rex Francorum ("King of the Franks") and the lands they ruled comprised only a small part of the former Carolingian Empire. The eastern Frankish lands, the Holy Roman Empire, were ruled by the Ottonian dynasty, represented by Hugh's first cousin Otto II and then by Otto's son, Otto III. The lands south of the river Loire had largely ceased to be part of the West Francia kingdom in the years after Charles the Simple was deposed in 922. Both the Duchy of Normandy and the Duchy of Burgundy were largely independent, and Brittany entirely so—although from 956 Burgundy was ruled by Hugh's brothers Otto and Henry.[11]

Election and extent of power[edit]

From 977 to 986, Hugh Capet allied himself with the Holy Roman Emperors Otto II and Otto III and with Archbishop Adalberon of Reims to dominate the Carolingian king, Lothair. By 986, he was king in all but name. After Lothair's son Louis died in May 987, Adalberon and Gerbert of Aurillac convened an assembly of nobles to elect Hugh Capet as their king. In front of an electoral assembly at Senlis, Adalberon gave a stirring oration and pleaded to the nobles:

Crown the Duke. He is most illustrious by his exploits, his nobility, his forces. The throne is not acquired by hereditary right; no one should be raised to it unless distinguished not only for nobility of birth, but for the goodness of his soul.[12]

He was elected and crowned rex Francorum at Noyon in Picardy on 3 July 987, by the prelate of Reims, the first of the Capetian house. Immediately after his coronation, Hugh began to push for the coronation of his son Robert. Hugh's own claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona, an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the country necessitated two kings should he die while on expedition.[13] Ralph Glaber, however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to control the nobility.[14] Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the pretension of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholars have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain.[14] Robert was eventually crowned on 25 December that same year.

Denier of Hugh Capet for Beauvais

Hugh Capet possessed minor properties near Chartres and Angers. Between Paris and Orléans he possessed towns and estates amounting to approximately 400 square miles (1,000 km2). His authority ended there, and if he dared travel outside his small area, he risked being captured and held for ransom, though his life would be largely safe.[citation needed] Indeed, there was a plot in 993, masterminded by Adalberon, Bishop of Laon and Odo I of Blois, to deliver Hugh Capet into the custody of Otto III. The plot failed, but the fact that no one was punished illustrates how tenuous his hold on power was. Beyond his power base, in the rest of France, there were still as many codes of law as there were fiefdoms. The "country" operated with 150 different forms of currency and at least a dozen languages.[citation needed] Uniting all this into one cohesive unit was a formidable task and a constant struggle between those who wore the crown of France and its feudal lords. Therefore, Hugh Capet's reign was marked by numerous power struggles with the vassals on the borders of the Seine and the Loire.

While Hugh Capet's military power was limited and he had to seek military aid from Richard I of Normandy, his unanimous election as king gave him great moral authority and influence. Adémar de Chabannes records, probably apocryphally, that during an argument with the Count of Auvergne, Hugh demanded of him: "Who made you count?" The count riposted: "Who made you king?".[15]

Dispute with the papacy[edit]

Hugh made Arnulf Archbishop of Reims in 988, even though Arnulf was the nephew of his bitter rival, Charles of Lorraine. Charles thereupon succeeded in capturing Reims and took the archbishop prisoner. Hugh, however, considered Arnulf a turncoat and demanded his deposition by Pope John XV. The turn of events outran the messages, when Hugh captured both Charles and Arnulf and convoked a synod at Reims in June 991 which obediently deposed Arnulf and chose as his successor Gerbert of Aurillac. These proceedings were repudiated by Rome, although a second synod had ratified the decrees issued at Reims. John XV summoned the French bishops to hold an independent synod outside the King's realm, at Aachen, to reconsider the case. When they refused, he called them to Rome, but they protested that the unsettled conditions en route and in Rome made that impossible. The Pope then sent a legate with instructions to call a council of French and German bishops at Mousson, where only the German bishops appeared, the French being stopped on the way by Hugh and Robert.

Through the exertions of the legate, the deposition of Arnulf was finally pronounced illegal. After Hugh's death, Arnulf was released from his imprisonment and soon restored to all his dignities.

Legacy[edit]

Hugh Capet died on 24 October 996 in Paris and was interred in the Saint Denis Basilica. His son Robert continued to reign.

Most historians regard the beginnings of modern France with the coronation of Hugh Capet. This is because, as Count of Paris, he made the city his power center. The monarch began a long process of exerting control of the rest of the country from there.

He is regarded as the founder of the Capetian dynasty. The direct Capetians, or the House of Capet, ruled France from 987 to 1328; thereafter, the Kingdom was ruled by cadet branches of the dynasty. All French kings through Louis Philippe, and all royals since then, have belonged to the dynasty. Furthermore, cadet branches of the House continue to reign in Spain and Luxembourg.

All monarchs of the Kingdom of France from Hugh Capet to Philip II of France were titled King of the Franks. Philip II of France was the first to use the title of King of France. Many people are mistaken with this minor error in writing or doing genealogy.

Marriage and issue[edit]

Hugh Capet married Adelaide, daughter of William Towhead, Count of Poitou. Their children are as follows:

A number of other daughters are less reliably attested.[16]

Ancestry[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Capet is a byname of uncertain meaning distinguishing him from his father Hugh the Great. Folk etymology connects it with "cape." According to Pinoteau, the name "Capet" was first attributed to the dynasty by Ralph de Diceto writing in London in 1200, maybe because of the position of the early kings as lay abbots of St Martin of Tours, where part of the "cappa" of the saint was allegedly conserved. Other suggested etymologies derive it from terms for chief, mocker or big head. His father's byname is presumed to have been retrospective, meaning Hugh the Elder, this Hugh being Hugh the Younger, Capet being a 12th-century addition. See: James, The Origins of France, p. 183.
  2. ^ For a fuller explanation of the descent and relationships of Hugh, see the genealogical tables in Riché, The Carolingiens (1993), pp. 367-75.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jonathan Jarrett, “Sales, Swindles and Sanctions: Bishop Sal·la of Urgell and the Counts of Catalonia”, International Medieval Congress, Leeds, 11 July 2005, published in the Appendix, Pathways of Power in late-Carolingian Catalonia, PhD dissertation, Birkbeck College (2006), 300.
  2. ^ a b Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band II (Marburg, Germany: J. A. Stargardt, 1984), Tafeln 10, 11
  3. ^ a b Jim Bradbury, The Capetians: Kings of France, 987-1328, (London: Hambledon Continuum, 2007), p. 69
  4. ^ Pierre Riché, The Carolingians; A Family Who Forged Europe, trans. Michael Idomir Allen (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993), pp. 371, 375
  5. ^ Pierre Riché, The Carolingians; A Family Who Forged Europe, trans. Michael Idomir Allen (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993), p. 371
  6. ^ The Annals of Flodoard of Reims, 916–966, eds & trans. Steven Fanning: Bernard S. Bachrach (New York; Ontario, Can: University of Toronto Press, 2011), p. 28
  7. ^ James, pp 183–184; Theis, pp 65–66.
  8. ^ Pierre Riché, The Carolingians; A Family Who Forged Europe, trans. Michael Idomir Allen (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993), p. 264
  9. ^ Jules Michelet, History of France, Vol. I, trans. G. H. Smith (New York: D. Appleton, 1882), p. 146
  10. ^ Theis, pp. 69–70.
  11. ^ James, pp. iii, 182–183; Gauvard, pp. 163–168; Riché, pp. 285 ff.
  12. ^ Harriet Harvey Wood, The Battle of Hastings: The Fall of Anglo-Saxon England, Atlantic, 2008, p. 46
  13. ^ Lewis, 908.
  14. ^ a b Lewis, 914.
  15. ^ Bordenove, pp. 265–266
  16. ^ Thus Gauvard, p. 531.

Sources[edit]

  • Bordenove, Georges. Les Rois qui ont fait la France: Hugues Capet, le Fondateur. Paris: Marabout, 1986. ISBN 2-501-01099-X
  • Gauvard, Claude. La France au Moyen Âge du Ve au XVe siècle. Paris: PUF, 1996. 2-13-054205-0
  • James, Edward. The Origins of France: From Clovis to the Capetians 500–1000. London: Macmillan, 1982. ISBN 0-312-58862-3
  • Riché, Pierre. Les Carolingiens: Une famille qui fit l'Europe. Paris: Hachette, 1983. 2-012-78551-0
  • Theis, Laurent. Histoire du Moyen Âge français: Chronologie commentée 486–1453. Paris: Perrin, 1992. 2-87027-587-0
  • Lewis, Anthony W. "Anticipatory Association of the Heir in Early Capetian France." The American Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 4. (Oct., 1978), pp 906–927.
Hugh Capet
Died: 24 October 996
Preceded by
Hugh the Great
Duke of the Franks
956–987
Merged in Crown
Preceded by
Louis V
King of the Franks
3 July 987 – 24 October 996
With Robert II as co-King
(from 30 December 987)
Succeeded by
Robert II


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Capet — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
163 videos foundNext > 

Feudal France and Hugh Capet pt 1

This is a LibriVox recording. All LibriVox recordings are in the public domain. For more information, or to volunteer, please visit: http://librivox.org/ htt...

Hugh Capet

King Ugo Capeto

Who was Hugh Capet the first King of France of the Capetian Dinasty. Chi era Ugo Capeto il primo Re di Francia della omonima dinastia Capetingia.

How to Pronounce Hugh Capet

Learn how to say Hugh Capet correctly with EmmaSaying's "how do you pronounce" free tutorials. Definition of Capet, Hugh (oxford dictionary): (938--96), king...

Hugh Capet- APWH

A: Hugh Capet was born into a well-connected and powerful family with many ties to the reigning nobility of Europe; He had good communication skills, as he w...

Feudal France and Hugh Capet pt 2

This is a LibriVox recording. All LibriVox recordings are in the public domain. For more information, or to volunteer, please visit: http://librivox.org/ htt...

How to Pronounce Hugh Capet

Can we reach 1 Like? Watch video to the end :) World English Dictionary Capet (ˈkæpɪt, kæˈpɛt, French kapɛ) Hugh or Hugues (yg). ?938--996 ad, king of France...

The Captetians to the time of the Crusades

THE CAPETIANS TO THE TIME OF THE CRUSADES From 996 to 1108, the first three successors of Hugh Capet, his son Robert, his grandson Henry I., and his great-gr...

Saint Louis, King of France and the Sainte-Chapelle

Louis IX (25 April 1214 -- 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. He was also styled Louis II, Count of Artois ...

How to Pronounce Capet

Learn how to say Capet correctly with EmmaSaying's "how do you pronounce" free tutorials. Definition of Capet, Hugh (oxford dictionary): (938--96), king of F...

163 videos foundNext > 

1 news items

 
TravelPulse
Tue, 15 Jul 2014 22:03:45 -0700

Thankfully some of the ancient walls of Laon are still undamaged, even after having its title as the French capital stripped away when Hugh Capet entered its gates and seized the town centuries ago. However, behind its various gateways, Laon revels in ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Hugh Capet

You can talk about Hugh Capet with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!