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This article is about the term in linguistics. For other uses, see Homophony (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Homophobe.
Euler diagram showing the relationships between homophones (purple) and related linguistic concepts.
Venn diagram showing the relationships between homographs (green) and related linguistic concepts.

A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as another word but differs in meaning, and may differ in spelling. The words may be spelled the same, such as rose (flower) and rose (past tense of "rise"), or differently, such as carat, caret, and carrot, or to, two, and too. Homophones that are spelled the same are also both homographs and homonyms.[1] Homophones that are spelled differently are also called heterographs. The term "homophone" may also apply to units longer or shorter than words, such as phrases, letters or groups of letters that are pronounced the same as another phrase, letter or group of letters.

The word derives from the Greek homo- (ὁμο-), "same", and phōnḗ (φωνή), "voice, utterance".

In wordplay and games[edit]

Homophones are often used to create puns and to deceive the reader (as in crossword puzzles) or to suggest multiple meanings. The last usage is common in poetry and creative literature. An example of this is seen in Dylan Thomas's radio play Under Milk Wood: "The shops in mourning" where mourning can be heard as mourning or morning. Another vivid example is Thomas Hood's use of "birth" and "berth" and "told" and "toll'd" (tolled) in his poem "Faithless Sally Brown":

His death, which happen'd in his berth,
At forty-odd befell:
They went and told the sexton, and
The sexton toll'd the bell.

In some accents, various sounds have merged in that they are no longer distinctive, and thus words that differ only by those sounds in an accent that maintains the distinction (a minimal pair) are homophonous in the accent with the merger. Some examples from English are:

pin and pen in many southern American accents.
merry, marry, and Mary in most American accents.
bacon and beer can in a Jamaican accent.
The pairs do, due and forward, foreword are homophonous in most American accents but not in most British accents.
The pairs talk, torque, and court, caught are distinguished in rhotic accents such as Scottish English and most dialects of American English, but are homophones in many non-rhotic accents such as British Received Pronunciation.

Wordplay is particularly common in English because the multiplicity of linguistic influences offers considerable complication in spelling and meaning and pronunciation compared with other languages.

Homophones of multiple words or phrases (as sometimes seen in word games) are also known as "oronyms". This term was coined by Gyles Brandreth and first published in his book The Joy of Lex (1980), and it was used in the BBC programme Never Mind the Full Stops, which also featured Brandreth as a guest.

Examples of "oronyms" (which may only be true homophones in certain dialects of English) include:

"ice cream" vs. "I scream" (as in the popular song "I scream. You scream. We all scream for ice cream.")
"euthanasia" vs. "Youth in Asia"
"the sky" vs. "this guy" (most notably as a mondegreen in Purple Haze by Jimi Hendrix)
"four candles" vs. "fork handles"
"sand which is there" vs. "sandwiches there"
"example" vs. "egg sample"
"some others" vs. "some mothers" and also vs. "smothers"
"minute" vs. "my newt"
"real eyes" vs. "realize" vs. "real lies"
"a dressed male" vs. "addressed mail"
"them all" vs. "the mall"
"one-sided" vs. "once I did"

In his Appalachian comedy routine, American comedian Jeff Foxworthy frequently uses oronyms which play on exaggerated "country" accents. Notable examples include:

Initiate: "My wife ate two sandwiches, initiate [and then she ate] a bag o' tater chips."
Mayonnaise: "Mayonnaise [Man, there is] a lot of people here tonight."
Innuendo: "Hey dude I saw a bird fly innuendo [in your window]."
Moustache: "I Moustache [must ask] you a question."

Malapropisms, which often create a similar comic effect, are usually near-homophones. See also Eggcorn.

Number of homophones[edit]

English[edit]

There are sites, for example, http://people.sc.fsu.edu/~jburkardt/fun/wordplay/multinyms.html which have lists of homonyms or rather homophones and even 'multinyms' which have as many as seven spellings. There are differences in such lists due to dialect pronunciations and usage of old words. In English, there are approximately 88 triples; 24 quadruples; 2 quintuples; 1 sextet and 1 septet. The septet is:

Raise, rays, rase, raze, rehs, réis, res

Other than the three common words (raise, rays and raze), there is:

  • rase - a verb meaning "to erase";
  • rehs - the plural of reh, a mixture of sodium salts found as an efflorescence in India;
  • réis - the plural of real, a currency unit of Portugal and Brazil;
  • res - the plural of re, a name for one step of the musical scale;

Japanese[edit]

There are an extraordinarily large number of homophones in Japanese, due to the use of Sino-Japanese vocabulary, where borrowed words and morphemes from Chinese are widely used in Japanese, but many sound differences, such as tones, are lost, resulting in a large number of homophones. These are to some extent disambiguated via Japanese pitch accent, or from context, but many of these words are primarily or almost exclusively used in writing, where they are easily distinguished; others are used for puns, which are frequent in Japanese. An extreme example is kikō, which is the pronunciation of at least 22 words (some quite rare or specialized, others common; all these examples are 2-character compounds), including: 機構 紀行 稀覯 騎行 貴校 奇功 貴公 起稿 奇行 機巧 寄港 帰校 気功 寄稿 機甲 帰航 奇効 季候 気孔 起工 気候 帰港.

Korean[edit]

The Korean language contains a combination of words that strictly belong to Korean and words that are loanwords from Chinese. Due to Chinese languages being pronounced with varying tones and Korean's removal of those tones, and because the modern Korean writing system, Hangeul, has a more finite number of phonemes than, for example, Latin-derived alphabets such as English's, there is a large number of homonyms with both same spelling and pronunciation. For example, '화장하다': 'to put on makeup' and '화장하다': 'to cremate'. Also, '유산': 'inheritance' and '유산': 'miscarriage'. '방구': 'fart', and '방구': 'guard'. There are heterographs, but far fewer, contrary to the tendency in English. For example, '학문': 'learning', and '항문': 'anus'. Using hanja (한자), which are Chinese characters, such words are written differently.

Implicit above, like in other languages, Korean homonyms can be used to make puns. The context in which the word is used indicates which meaning is intended by the speaker or writer.

Use in psychological research[edit]

Pseudo-homophones[edit]

Pseudo-homophones are pseudowords that are phonetically identical to a word. For example, groan/grone and crane/crain are pseudo-homophone pairs, whereas plane/plain is a homophone pair since both letter strings are recognised words. Both types of pairs are used in lexical decision tasks to investigate word recognition.[2]

Use as ambiguous information[edit]

Homophones where one spelling is of a threatening nature and one is not (e.g. slay/sleigh, war/wore) have been used in studies of anxiety as a test of cognitive models that those with high anxiety tend to interpret ambiguous information in a threatening manner.[3]

See also[edit]

Wiktionary

References[edit]

  1. ^ According to the strict sense of homonyms as words with the same spelling and pronunciation; however, homonyms according to the loose sense common in nontechnical contexts are words with the same spelling or pronunciation, in which case all homophones are also homonyms. Random House Unabridged Dictionary entry for "homonym" at Dictionary.com
  2. ^ Martin, R. C. (1982). The pseudohomophone effect: The role of visual similarity in nonword decisions. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 34A, 395-409.
  3. ^ Mogg K, Bradley BP, Miller T, Potts H, Glenwright J, Kentish J (1994). Interpretation of homophones related to threat: Anxiety or response bias effects? Cognitive Therapy and Research, 18(5), 461-77

External links[edit]

  • Homophone.com; Complete List of American homophones with a searchable database.
  • [1]; Reed's Homophones: a comprehensive book of sound-alike words, reference work published in 2012.
  • Homophone Machine; Swaps homophones in any sentence
  • Between The Lions; Song about homophones

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homophone — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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134 news items

 
CNET (blog)
Sun, 03 Aug 2014 23:49:10 -0700

As Fox 13 in Salt Lake City, Utah reports, Torkildson wrote an ode to the homophone. Because Technically Incorrect readers all have advanced degrees, they will know that a homophone is a word that sounds the same as another word, but is spelled ...
 
Baltimore Sun
Sat, 23 Aug 2014 17:45:00 -0700

Not long ago a person self-described as "an old English teacher" generously offered to school me at Facebook on terminology, suggesting that I should research the meaning of homonym. "Lead and led (along with hundreds of other examples) are ...
 
Human Capital Magazine Online
Thu, 07 Aug 2014 18:33:27 -0700

A Utah man is claiming he was fired because his boss thought the word "homophone" was related to homosexuality. Tim Torkildson, a former teacher and social media manager at Nomen Global Language Center, wrote a blog post about homophones ...

Wall Street Journal

Wall Street Journal
Tue, 02 Sep 2014 08:11:15 -0700

Sea turtles, also a homophone for students returning from overseas studies, are highly prized by Chinese companies because they understand the nuances of Chinese culture and can draw upon Western practices to help their new bosses expand, especially ...
 
The Guardian
Mon, 01 Sep 2014 12:31:51 -0700

Carswell did not study at Oxford University (Defection to Ukip puts pressure on Cameron, 29 August). • Homophone corner: “Cut out rounds of the size of your choice, then use a palate knife to carefully lift each one on to the tray, still in the cutter ...
 
Adweek
Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:07:30 -0700

Sometimes showrunners perform genre reassignment surgery on the fabled detective and his various pals: make irascible, drug-addicted Holmes a doctor, change his name so it's a synonym for its homophone, and instead of Holmes and Watson you have ...

STERN.DE

STERN.DE
Sun, 03 Aug 2014 21:42:01 -0700

Nicht jeder weiß auf Anhieb, was ein Homophon ist. Deswegen schrieb Timothy Torkildson für eine Sprachschule in Provo, US-Bundesstaat Utah, einen Blog-Eintrag, um genau dieses Phänomen der Sprachwissenschaft zu erklären. Homophone sind Wörter ...

Huffington Post

Huffington Post
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 07:15:00 -0700

The name of all these foods contain the word katsu, which is a homophone of the verb “to win,” so exam takers, athletes, politicians seeking election in office and others choose to eat these foods. One other habit that is spreading especially among ...
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