This article is about the Austroasiatic language of India. For the Tibeto-Burman language also known as Ho of China, Vietnam and Laos, see Hani language
Ho (also known as Bihar Ho and Lanka Kol) is a Munda language of the Austroasiatic language family spoken primarily in India by about 1.04 million people (0.103% of India's population) per the 2001 census. It is spoken by the Ho people. It is written with the Ol Chiki, Devanagari and the Varang Kshiti scripts. The latter script was invented by pandit Dr. Lako Bodra.
The largest concentrations of Ho speakers are in East Singhbhum district, southern Jharkhand, and in Mayurbhanj district and Keonjhar district, northern Odisha. Ho is close to Mundari, although the southern Ho dialects (e.g., Mayurbhanj) are less similar to Mundari than the Jharkhand dialects to the north are (Anderson 2008:196).
- ^ Ho at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
- ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Ho". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Anderson, Gregory D.S (ed). 2008. The Munda languages. Routledge Language Family Series 3.New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32890-X.
- Deeney, J. J. (1991). Introduction to the Ho language: [learn Ho quickly and well]. Chaibasa: Xavier Ho Publications.
- Burrows, L. (1980). The grammar of the Ho language: an eastern Himalayan dialect. New Delhi: Cosmo.
- Deeney, J. J. (1975). Ho grammar and vocabulary. Chaibasa: Xavier Ho Publications.
- Hembram, D.r. "Shishu Halang" Part-2. jharkhand Publications.
- Bandia, Kaira Singh. "OL INITU".
- Bodra, Lako. "Saraswati Gwari".
- Bodra, Lako. "Baha Buru-Bonga Buru" in Ho language.
- Bodra, Lako. "Kol Rule" in Hindi.
- Bodra, Lako. "Kol Rule" in Ho by Dr. lako bodra.
- Bodra, Lako. "Halang Halpung" in Ho By Dr. lako bodra.
- Bodra, Lako. "Sahar Hora" part-1 by Dr. lako bodra.
- Bodra, Lako. (2000). "Sishu Alang" part I & part II by Dr. lako bodra.
- lala rai niranjan Shrivastav, Bhubaneswar prasad Awasthi, S.A.B.D.Hans,Dulay ch. munda. "Munda lokgeet abang lokkathayain".
- Bible Society of India, "Jiban Reya Hora" By Bible Society of India.
- Paleya, Padiyar., "Landa Bagan" Padiyar Paleya.
- Tiu, Prafulla., "Oriya-Ho" Language Translation. By Prafulla tiu.
- Honhage, Vibhishan." Sing Bonga Ashra". (1968).
- Deogam, Moraji., "Luku Hadam Deshum-Rumul".(1993).by Moraji Deogam.
- Purty, Dhanursingh, "Ho-Dishum Ho Honko" seven volumes.(1982) Xavier Ho Publications.
- Tiu, Soneya Kumar, "Re-ed-Ranu" PRACTICE OF MEDICINE. (Allopathic, Birth control & Horo vocabulary).physician Soneya Kumar Tiu.(1976).
- Deogam, Chandrabhusan, "Larka Ho", by Chandrabhusan Deogam.
- Purty, Laxman., "Elabu Padawa" Part-II. By Laxman Purty.
- Gagarai, Ghanshyam., "Parichaya" (Adivasi Ho Samaj). by Ghanshyam Gagarai.(6.10.1993). published by Krishi ebang jilla samanbayak. south Bihar, Jamshedpur.
- Tiu, Singhrai, "Warang Chiti Chinab" in Ho. by Singhrai Tiu.
- Bodra, Bagun, "Sishu Seyan" in Ho by Bagun Bodra. approved by Ho Bhasa Sahitya Vikash Samity Chaibasa, Singhbhum(W.)Bihar.
- Tiriya, Kali Charan, "SUSAR".publishes By Sida Hora Susar Aakala, Orissa, bhubaneswar.(1985).
- Sikander Tamsoy, Raiman kudada,Dobro Buliuli. "Dupub-Dustoor meeyad-marshal".
- Tiu, D.R. Soneya Kumar,."TURTUNG" by D.R. Soneya Kumar Tiu.
- Kumar, Bajra Bihari,. "HINDI-HO DICTIONARY". by Bajra Bihari Kumar. Nagaland Bhasha Parishad, Kohima. 395 pages.
- Uxbond,F.A., "Munda-Magyar-Maori". by F.A.Uxbond.london lUZAC & CO. 46, GREAT RUSSELL STREET.(1928).
- Hasan, Amir, " Kols Of Patta" by Amir Hasan(I.A.S).
- P.Ponette, S.J., "THE MUNDA WORLD". By FR J.B.HOFFMANN, S.J.(1978)Catholic Press Ranchi.
- Deeney, J. J. (1978). Ho-English Dictionary. Chaibassa: Xavier Ho Publications.
- Anderson, Gregory D. S., Toshiki Osada and K. David Harrison. "Ho and the other Kherwarian Languages" In Gregory Anderson (ed.) Munda Languages. (2008). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-32890-6
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