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Henry II
Henry II of France..jpg
King of France
Reign 31 March 1547 – 10 July 1559
Coronation 25 July 1547
Predecessor Francis I
Successor Francis II
Consort Catherine de' Medici
Issue
among others...
Francis II of France
Elisabeth, Queen of Spain
Louis of Valois
Claude, Duchess of Lorraine
Charles IX of France
Henry III of France
Margaret, Queen of Navarre and France
Hercule, Duke of Anjou
House House of Valois-Angoulême
Father Francis I of France
Mother Claude, Duchess of Brittany
Born (1519-03-31)31 March 1519
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye
Died 10 July 1559(1559-07-10) (aged 40)
Place des Vosges
Burial Saint Denis Basilica
Religion Roman Catholicism

Henry II (French: Henri II) (31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559.[1] The second son of Francis I, he became Dauphin of France upon the death of his elder brother Francis III, Duke of Brittany, in 1536.

Henry pursued his father's policies in matter of arts, wars and religion. He persevered in the Italian Wars against the House of Habsburg and tried to suppress the Protestant Reformation even as the Huguenots became an increasingly large minority in France during his reign.

The Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559), which put an end to the Italian Wars, had mixed results: France renounced its claims to territories in Italy, but gained certain other territories, including the Pale of Calais and the Three Bishoprics. France failed to change the balance of power in Europe, as Spain remained the sole dominant power, but it did benefit from the division of the holdings of its ruler, Charles V, and from the weakening of the Holy Roman Empire, which Charles also ruled.

Henry suffered an untimely death in a jousting tournament held to celebrate the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis at the conclusion of the Eighth Italian War. The king's surgeon, Ambroise Paré, was unable to cure the infected wound inflicted by Gabriel de Montgomery, the captain of his Scottish Guard. He was succeeded in turn by three of his sons, whose ineffective reigns helped to spur the ghastly consequences of the French Wars of Religion between Protestants and Catholics.

Early years[edit]

Henry as a child

Henry was born in the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, the son of Francis I and Claude, Duchess of Brittany (daughter of Louis XII of France and Anne, Duchess of Brittany).

His father was captured at the Battle of Pavia in 1525 by the forces of his sworn enemy, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, and held prisoner in Spain.[2] To obtain his release, it was agreed that Henry and his older brother be sent to Spain in his place. They remained in captivity for three years.

Henry married Catherine de' Medici, a member of the ruling family of Florence, on 28 October 1533, when they were both fourteen years old. The following year, he became romantically involved with a thirty-five-year-old widow, Diane de Poitiers. They had always been very close: she had publicly embraced him on the day he set off to Spain, and during a jousting tournament, he insisted that his lance carry her ribbon instead of his wife's. Diane became Henry's most trusted confidante and, for the next twenty-five years, wielded considerable influence behind the scenes, even signing royal documents. Extremely confident, mature and intelligent, she left Catherine powerless to intervene.[3] She did, however, insist that Henry sleep with Catherine in order to produce heirs to the throne.[4]

When his elder brother Francis, the Dauphin and Duke of Brittany, died in 1536 after a game of tennis, Henry became heir apparent to the throne. He succeeded his father on his 28th birthday and was crowned King of France on 25 July 1547 at Reims Cathedral.

Reign[edit]

Henry's reign was marked by wars with Austria and the persecution of Protestants, mainly French Calvinists known as Huguenots. Henry II severely punished them, particularly the ministers, for example by burning at the stake or cutting off their tongues for uttering heresies. Even those only suspected of being Huguenots could be imprisoned.

The Edict of Châteaubriant (27 June 1551) called upon the civil and ecclesiastical courts to detect and punish all heretics and placed severe restrictions on Huguenots, including the loss of one-third of their property to informers, and confiscations. It also strictly regulated publications by prohibiting the sale, importation or printing of any unapproved book. It was during the reign of Henry II that Huguenot attempts at establishing a colony in Brazil were made, with the short-lived formation of France Antarctique.[5]

Italian War of 1551–1559[edit]

Entrance of Henri II in Metz in 1552, after the signature of the Treaty of Chambord.

The Eighth Italian War of 1551–1559, sometimes known as the Habsburg–Valois War, began when Henry declared war against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V with the intent of recapturing Italy and ensuring French, rather than Habsburg, domination of European affairs. Persecution of Protestants at home did not prevent Henry II from becoming allied with German Protestant princes at the Treaty of Chambord in 1552. Simultaneously, the continuation of his father's Franco-Ottoman alliance allowed Henry II to push for French conquests towards the Rhine while a Franco-Ottoman fleet defended southern France.[6] An early offensive into Lorraine was successful. Henry captured the three episcopal cities of Metz, Toul, and Verdun, and secured them by defeating the Habsburg army at the Battle of Renty in 1554. However the attempted French invasion of Tuscany in 1553 was defeated at the Battle of Marciano.

After the abdication of Charles V in 1556, the Habsburg empire was split between Philip II of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I. The focus of Henry's conflict with the Hapsburgs shifted to Flanders, where Phillip, in conjunction with Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy, defeated the French at the Battle of St. Quentin (1557). England's entry into the war later that year led to the French capture of Calais, and French armies plundered Spanish possessions in the Low Countries. Henry was nonetheless forced to accept the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis, in which he renounced any further claims to territories in Italy.

The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis was signed between Henry and Elizabeth I of England on 2 April and between Henry and Philip II of Spain on 3 April 1559 at Le Cateau-Cambrésis. Under its terms, France restored Piedmont and Savoy to the Duke of Savoy, but retained Saluzzo, Calais, and the bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdun. Spain retained Franche-Comté. Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, married Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry, the sister of Henry II, and Philip II of Spain married Henry's daughter Elizabeth of Valois.

Henry raised the young Mary, Queen of Scots, at his court, hoping to use her ultimately to establish a dynastic claim to Scotland. On 24 April 1558, Henry's fourteen-year-old son Francis was married to Mary in a union intended to give the future king of France not only the throne of Scotland, but also a claim to the throne of England. Henry had Mary sign secret documents, illegal in Scottish law, that would ensure Valois rule in Scotland even if she died without an heir (Guy 2004:91). Mary's claim to the English throne quickly became an issue when Mary I of England died later in 1558. Henry and his Catholic advisers regarded Elizabeth I unfit to reign because of her supposed illegitimacy as daughter of the executed Queen Anne Boleyn.

Patent innovation[edit]

Henry II

Henry II introduced the concept of publishing the description of an invention in the form of a patent. The idea was to require an inventor to disclose his invention in exchange for monopoly rights to the patent. The description is called a patent “specification”. The first patent specification was submitted by the inventor Abel Foullon for "Usaige & Description de l'holmetre" (a type of rangefinder). Publication was delayed until after the patent expired in 1561.[7]

Death[edit]

The fatal tournament between Henry II and Montgomery (Lord of "Lorges").

Henry II was an avid hunter and a participant in jousts and tournaments. On 30 June 1559, at the Place des Vosges at the Hôtel des Tournelles, during a match to celebrate the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis with his longtime enemies, the Habsburgs of Austria, and to celebrate the marriage of his daughter Elisabeth of Valois to King Philip II of Spain, King Henry was mortally wounded by the lance of Gabriel Montgomery, captain of the King's Scottish Guard.[8] The king suffered a mortal head wound from a lance fragment and, despite the efforts of royal surgeon Ambroise Paré, he died on 10 July 1559 from septicemia.[9][10] He was buried in a cadaver tomb in Saint Denis Basilica. Henry's death was a factor in the end of jousting as a sport.[11]

As Henry lay dying, Queen Catherine limited access to his bedside and denied his mistress Diane de Poitiers permission to see him, even though he repeatedly asked for her. Following his death, Catherine sent Diane into exile, where she lived in comfort on her own properties until her death.[12]

Tombs of Henry II of France and his wife Catherine de' Medici in Basilica of St Denis, Paris.

It was the practice to enclose the heart of the king in an urn. The Monument to the Heart of Henry II is in the collection of the Louvre, but was originally in the Chapel of Orleans beneath a pyramid. The original bronze urn holding the king's heart was destroyed during the French Revolution and a replica was made in the 19th century. The marble sculpture of the Three Graces holding the urn, executed from a single piece of marble by Germain Pilon, the sculptor to Catherine de' Medici, survives.[13]

Henry was succeeded by his sickly fifteen-year-old son, Francis II. He was married to sixteen-year old Mary Queen of Scots, who had been his childhood friend and fiancée since her arrival at the French court when she was five. Francis II died 18 months later in 1560, and Mary returned to Scotland the following summer. Francis II was succeeded by his ten-year-old brother Charles IX. His mother, Catherine de Medici, acted as Regent. Starting in 1562 and for the forty years following, France was filled with turbulence as Protestants and Catholics fought the bitter French Wars of Religion.[8][14]

Ancestors and Descendants[edit]

Catherine de' Medici bore 10 of Henry's children: (See Children of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici)

Francis II, King of France, born January 19, 1544.
Elizabeth of France, born April 2, 1545, married Philip II, King of Spain.
Claude of France, born November 12, 1547, married Charles III, Duke of Lorraine.
Louis, Duke of Orléans, born February 3, 1549, died October 24, 1549.
Charles IX, King of France, born June 27, 1550.
Henry III, King of France, born September 19, 1551, also briefly King of Poland.
Margaret of France, born May 14, 1553, married Henry IV, King of France.
Hercules, Duke of Anjou, born March 18, 1555, later known as Francis, Duke of Alençon and Anjou.
Victoria of France, born June 24, 1556, died August 17, 1556.
Joan of France, stillborn.

Henry II also had three illegitimate children:

Diane, duchesse d'Angoulême (1538–1619). At the age of fourteen, the younger Diane married Orazio Farnese, Duke of Castro, who died young in battle. Her second marriage was to François, Duke of Montmorency.
Henri d'Angoulême (1551 – June 1586). He was legitimized and became governor of Provence.
  • By Nicole de Savigny:[17]
Henri de Saint-Rémy (1557–1621). He was given the title of Count of Saint-Rémy. One of his last descendants was Jeanne de Valois-Saint-Rémy, Countess de la Motte, famous for her role in the Affair of the Diamond Necklace at the court of Louis XVI.

Prophecy[edit]

Royal styles of
King Henry II
Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France
France moderne.svg
Reference style His Most Christian Majesty
Spoken style Your Most Christian Majesty
Alternative style Monsieur le Roi

Nostradamus (1503-1566), a French apothecary and astrological writer known for his prophecies, is said by most commentators to have become famous when one of his quatrains was construed as a prediction of the death of King Henry II:

CI, Q 35 The young lion shall overcome the older one,
on the field of combat in single battle,
He shall pierce his eyes in a golden cage,
Two forces one, then he shall die a cruel death.

But, in fact, the link was first proposed in print only in 1614,[18] fifty-five years after the event and forty-eight after Nostradamus' death; thus it qualifies as a postdiction, or vaticinium ex eventu. The Italian astrologer Luca Gaurico, a contemporary of Nostradamus, is also said[by whom?] to have predicted the king's death.

Portrayals[edit]

Henri or Henry has had two notable portrayals on the screen. He was played by a young Roger Moore in the 1956 film Diane, opposite Lana Turner in the title role and Marisa Pavan as Catherine de Medici. In the 2013 CW series Reign he is played by Alan Van Sprang.

Gallery[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Patrick, David, and Francis Hindes Groome, Chambers's biographical dictionary: the great of all times and nations, (J.B. Lippincott Company, 1907), 482.
  2. ^ Tazón, Juan E., The life and times of Thomas Stukeley (c.1525–78), (Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2003), 16.
  3. ^ Arnold-Baker, Charles, The companion to British history, (Routledge, 1996), 254.
  4. ^ Princess Michael of Kent (2004). The Serpent and The Moon: two rivals for the love of a Renaissance king. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-5104-0. 
  5. ^ ''France and the Americas: culture, politics, and history'' Volume 3, By Bill Marshall, Cristina Johnston p.185''ff''. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-08-23. 
  6. ^ ''The Cambridge History of Islam''. Books.google.com. 1977-04-21. p. 328. Retrieved 2012-08-23. 
  7. ^ M. Frumkin, "The Origin of Patent", Journal of the Patent Office Society, March 1945, Vol. XXVII, No. 3, p.143 et Seq.
  8. ^ a b Faria, Miguel A. The Death of Henry II of France. Journal of Neurosurgery 1992;77:964-969.
  9. ^ "Classic Encyclopedia Web, Based on 1911 Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica". 1911encyclopedia.org. 2006-10-06. Retrieved 2012-08-23. 
  10. ^ Baumgartner, Frederic J., "Henri II: King of France, 1547-1559", 1988, Durham, N.C.
  11. ^ See History of Jousting.
  12. ^ Princess Michael of Kent, "The Serpent and the Moon: Two rivals for the Love of a Renaissance King" (2005) p. 432 ISBN 0743251040.
  13. ^ Goldberg, Victoria L. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 1966;29:206-218.
  14. ^ Fischer, David Hackett, "Champlain's Dream", 2008, Alfred A. Knopf Canada
  15. ^ Considerations on "Les Amours de I. du Bellay", Robert V. Merrill, Modern Philology, Vol. 33, No. 2 (Nov., 1935), 133.
  16. ^ Robert J. Sealy, The Palace Academy of Henry III, (Droz, 1981), 206.
  17. ^ (FR)Pere Anselme, Histoire de la Maison royale de France, Vol. 9, Part 2, (Librairie de Firmin-Didot et Cie., 1879), 33.
  18. ^ César Nostradamus, Histoire et Chronique de Provence, Lyon, Simon Rigaud, 1614

Further reading[edit]

  • Arnold-Baker, Charles, The companion to British history, Routledge, 1996.
  • Baumgartner, Frederic J., "Henri II: King of France, 1547 - 1559", 1988, Durham, N.C.
  • Frumkin, M., The Origin of Patents, Journal of the Patent Office Society, March 1945, Vol. XXVII, No. 3, 143.
  • Guy, John, My Heart is my Own, London, Fourth Estate, 2004, ISBN 978-1-84115-752-8.
  • Nostradamus, César, Histoire et Chronique de Provence, Lyon, Simon Rigaud, 1614
  • Princess Michael of Kent, The Serpent and the Moon: Two rivals for the Love of a Renaissance King, 2005, ISBN 0-7432-5104-0.
  • Patrick, David, and Francis Hindes Groome, Chambers's biographical dictionary: the great of all times and nations, J.B. Lippincott Company, 1907.
  • Tazón, Juan E., The life and times of Thomas Stukeley (c.1525–78), Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2003.

External links[edit]

Henry II of France
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: 31 March 1519 Died: 10 July 1559
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Francis I
King of France
31 March 1547 – 10 July 1559
Succeeded by
Francis II
French royalty
Preceded by
Francis
Dauphin of France
10 August 1536 – 31 March 1547
Succeeded by
Francis
French nobility
Preceded by
Francis III
Duke of Brittany
10 August 1536 – 31 March 1547
Merged in crown
Vacant
Title last held by
Louis II
Duke of Orléans
1519–1536
Succeeded by
Charles II

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_II_of_France — Please support Wikipedia.
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6 news items

Florida Times-Union

Florida Times-Union
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:03:45 -0700

The trend caught on in France, where Venetian Catherine de Medici married the future King Henry II of France in 1533; she served a different fruit ice daily during a month-long wedding celebration. Before we knew it, Rita's Ice moved to Jacksonville ...
 
Cleveland Jewish News (blog)
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 15:07:30 -0700

This was an experimental operation and all three attempts failed. The Jewish doctor fled when it did not work. 1547: Coronation of King Henry II of France to whom Italian Rabbi Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno dedicated his commentary on the Book of ...

Newstalk 106-108 fm

Newstalk 106-108 fm
Fri, 18 Jul 2014 18:19:49 -0700

King Henry II of France, convinced of the Dutchman's loyalty to Philip and Catholicism, spoke openly with William during a hunting trip about shared Franco-Spanish plans to root out Protestantism in both of their empires. William's silence had lulled ...
 
New York Times
Thu, 03 Jul 2014 15:44:46 -0700

Dragons also come in many forms, like a sculptural shaffron, equine armor owned by Henry II of France, circa 1490 to 1500. This combination helmet and mask turned a horse into a mythical monster. “This is the first time on a kids' hunt when I will take ...
 
Agri-View
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 06:30:00 -0700

France was introduced to similar frozen desserts in 1553 by the Italian Catherine de Medici when she became the wife of Henry II of France. It was not until 1660 that ice cream was made available to the general public. A Sicilian named Procopio ...
 
The Epoch Times
Thu, 17 Jul 2014 06:19:16 -0700

This is said to allude to the death of King Henry II of France in a jousting tournament. Nostradamus wrote: “The young lion will overcome the older one, on the field of combat in a single battle; He will pierce his eyes through a golden cage, two ...
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