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This article is about the mythological figure. For other uses, see Hecuba (disambiguation).

Hecuba (/ˈhɛkjʊbə/; also Hecabe, Hécube; Ancient Greek: Ἑκάβη Hekábē, pronounced [hekábɛ͜ɛ]) was a queen in Greek mythology, the wife of King Priam of Troy during the Trojan War,[1] with whom she had 19 children. These children included several major characters of Homer's Iliad such as the warriors Hector and Paris and the prophetess Cassandra.

Parents[edit]

Ancient sources vary as to the parentage of Hecuba.[2] According to Homer, Hecuba was the daughter of King Dymas of Phrygia,[3] but Euripides[4] and Virgil[5] write of her as the daughter of the Thracian king Cisseus. The mythographers Pseudo-Apollodorus and Hyginus leave open the question which of the two was her father, with Pseudo-Apollodorus adding a third alternate option: Hecuba's parents could as well be the river god Sangarius and Metope.[6][7] Some versions from non-extant works are summarized by a scholiast on Euripides' Hecuba:[8] according to those, she was a daughter of Dymas or Sangarius by the Naiad Euagora, or by Glaucippe the daughter of Xanthus (Scamander?); the possibility of her being a daughter of Cisseus is also discussed. A scholiast on Homer relates that Hecuba's parents were either Dymas and the nymph Eunoe or Cisseus and Telecleia;[9] the latter option would make her a full sister of Theano, which is also noted by the scholiast on Euripides cited above.

According to Suetonius in The Twelve Caesars, the emperor Tiberius pestered scholars with obscure questions about ancient mythology, with one of his favorites being "Who was Hecuba's mother?"[10]

Hecuba in the Iliad[edit]

The death of Hector on a Roman sarcophagus, c. 200 AD

Hecuba appears six times in the Iliad. In Book 6.326–96, she meets Hector upon his return to the polis and offers him the libation cup, instructing him to offer it to Zeus and to drink of it himself. Taking Hector's advice, she chooses a gown taken from Alexander's treasure to give as an offering to the goddess and leads the Trojan women to the temple of Athena to pray for help. In Book 22, she pleads with Hector not to fight Achilles, for fear of "never get[ting] to mourn you laid out on a bier."[11] In Book 24.201–16, she is stricken with anxiety upon hearing of Priam's plan to retrieve Hector's body from Achilles' hut. Further along in the same episode, at 24.287–98, she offers Priam the libation cup and instructs him to pray to Zeus so that he may receive a favourable omen upon setting out towards the Achaean camp. Unlike in the first episode in which Hector refuses her offer of the cup, Priam accepts and is rewarded with the requested omen. Finally, she laments Hector's death in a well-known speech at 24.748–59.

Hecuba in other classical works[edit]

The Bibliotheca (Library) of Pseudo-Apollodorus states that Hecuba had a son named Troilus with the god Apollo. An oracle prophesied that Troy would not be defeated if Troilus reached the age of twenty alive, but he was killed by Achilles.

Hecuba is a main character in two plays by Euripides: The Trojan Women and Hecuba. The Trojan Women describes the aftermath of the fall of Troy, including Hecuba's enslavement by Odysseus. Hecuba also takes place just after the fall of Troy. Polydorus, the youngest son of Priam and Hecuba, is sent to King Polymestor for safekeeping, but when Troy falls, Polymestor murders Polydorus. Hecuba learns of this, and when Polymestor comes to the fallen city, Hecuba, by trickery, blinds him and kills his two sons.

A third story says that when she was given to Odysseus as a slave, she snarled and cursed at him, so the gods turned her into a dog, allowing her to escape.

In another tradition, Hecuba went mad upon seeing the corpses of her children Polydorus and Polyxena. Dante described this episode, which he derived from Italian sources:

Inferno XXX: 13–20

Hecuba's children with Priam[edit]

Hecuba in popular culture[edit]

Hecuba is frequently referenced in classical literature, and in many medieval, Renaissance, and modern works. Among the works which are about Hecuba are:

Hecuba is mentioned in:

The name Hecuba or Hecubah appears occasionally:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition: "Hecuba"
  2. ^ Frazer's note 21 on Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 3. 12. 5. In: Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921.
  3. ^ Iliad, 16. 715
  4. ^ Euripides, Hecuba, 3
  5. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 7. 320; 10. 705,
  6. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 3. 12. 5
  7. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae, 91, 111, 249
  8. ^ Scholia on Euripides, Hecuba, 3
  9. ^ Scholia on Iliad, 16. 718, referring to Pherecydes and Athenion for the two versions respectively
  10. ^ Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Chapter 2 (Tiberius), paragraph 72
  11. ^ Homer, The Iliad. Book 22, line 86

References[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

Secondary sources[edit]

  • Tsotakou-Karveli. Lexicon of Greek Mythology. Athens: Sokoli, 1990.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hecuba — Please support Wikipedia.
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Stratford Observer

Stratford Observer
Thu, 06 Aug 2015 06:30:00 -0700

ALL is not well in Hecuba's world as Greek tragedy takes over RSC stage at the Swan Theatre in Stratford. Marina Carr's version of Euripides' play Hecuba opens at the end of the Trojan War with the city in flames and devastation. Hecuba, the Queen of a ...

British Theatre

British Theatre
Fri, 24 Jul 2015 08:45:00 -0700

Euripides still gets short shrift in many quarters by comparison with his senior colleagues in the great Greek dramatic triumvirate – Aeschylus and Sophocles. And yet in many ways his plays speak more directly and immediately to our post-modern ...
 
Broadway World
Thu, 16 Jul 2015 13:36:59 -0700

As part of ATT's 2015 summer series, American Thymele Theatre is presenting the New York Euripides Summer Festival from July 28th to August 1st. Five free, fully staged performances of Euripides' Hecuba are presented in select New York City stages.

WhatsOnStage.com

WhatsOnStage.com
Tue, 28 Jul 2015 07:37:30 -0700

The full cast includes: Nadia Albina (Cassandra); David Ajao (Nepotolemus); Derbhle Crotty (Hecuba); Ray Fearon (Agamemnon); Edmund Kingsley (Polymestor); Amy McAllister (Polyxena); Chu Omambala (Odysseus) and Lara Stubbs (Hecuba's Woman).

The Upcoming

The Upcoming
Tue, 21 Jul 2015 13:48:45 -0700

Euripides' Hecuba is one of the most compelling and tragic stories in classical literature. Written in 424 BC, it's set in the aftermath of the Trojan War where Queen Hecuba of Troy stands dignified, but grief-stricken, as she looks at the dismembered ...

Financial Times

Financial Times
Tue, 18 Aug 2015 10:15:00 -0700

Part Two takes us to the rubble of Troy where Queen Hecuba (a commanding Ursula Mohan) and her women wait to be parcelled off as spoils of war. Kuma and director Willmott don't push the contemporary relevance, though it is constantly there (indeed ...

The Independent

The Independent
Fri, 21 Aug 2015 08:56:15 -0700

with sufficient derision each time you announce the worthless fame-phantom you've grown enamoured of – “What's Hecuba to you, or you to Hecuba – I'm speaking figuratively – that you should skip school to gawp at her? Fortinbras, you say? That speck of ...

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Sun, 19 Jul 2015 07:26:15 -0700

'Hecuba' played with great gusto and commitment by Lucinda Lloyd also portrays 'Willow', her modern counterpart. Chris Vlachopoulos' script undoubtedly makes a good attempt to portray the two characters sharing a similar plight. It is however not ...
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