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This article is about the mythological figure. For other uses, see Hecuba (disambiguation).

Hecuba (/ˈhɛkjʊbə/; also Hecabe, Hécube; Ancient Greek: Ἑκάβη Hekábē, pronounced [hekábɛ͜ɛ]) was a queen in Greek mythology, the wife of King Priam of Troy during the Trojan War,[1] with whom she had 19 children. These children included several major characters of Homer's Iliad such as the warriors Hector and Paris and the prophetess Cassandra.

Parents[edit]

Ancient sources vary as to the parentage of Hecuba.[2] According to Homer, Hecuba was the daughter of King Dymas of Phrygia,[3] but Euripides[4] and Virgil[5] write of her as the daughter of the Thracian king Cisseus. The mythographers Pseudo-Apollodorus and Hyginus leave open the question which of the two was her father, with Pseudo-Apollodorus adding a third alternate option: Hecuba's parents could as well be the river god Sangarius and Metope.[6][7] Some versions from non-extant works are summarized by a scholiast on Euripides' Hecuba:[8] according to those, she was a daughter of Dymas or Sangarius by the Naiad Euagora, or by Glaucippe the daughter of Xanthus (Scamander?); the possibility of her being a daughter of Cisseus is also discussed. A scholiast on Homer relates that Hecuba's parents were either Dymas and the nymph Eunoe or Cisseus and Telecleia;[9] the latter option would make her a full sister of Theano, which is also noted by the scholiast on Euripides cited above.

According to Suetonius in The Twelve Caesars, the emperor Tiberius pestered scholars with obscure questions about ancient mythology, with one of his favorites being "Who was Hecuba's mother?"[10]

Hecuba in the Iliad[edit]

The death of Hector on a Roman sarcophagus, c. 200 AD

Hecuba appears six times in the Iliad. In Book 6.326–96, she meets Hector upon his return to the polis and offers him the libation cup, instructing him to offer it to Zeus and to drink of it himself. Taking Hector's advice, she chooses a gown taken from Alexander's treasure to give as an offering to the goddess and leads the Trojan women to the temple of Athena to pray for help. In Book 22, she pleads with Hector not to fight Achilles, for fear of "never get[ting] to mourn you laid out on a bier."[11] In Book 24.201–16, she is stricken with anxiety upon hearing of Priam's plan to retrieve Hector's body from Achilles' hut. Further along in the same episode, at 24.287–98, she offers Priam the libation cup and instructs him to pray to Zeus so that he may receive a favourable omen upon setting out towards the Achaean camp. Unlike in the first episode in which Hector refuses her offer of the cup, Priam accepts and is rewarded with the requested omen. Finally, she laments Hector's death in a well-known speech at 24.748–59.

Hecuba in other classical works[edit]

The Bibliotheca (Library) of Pseudo-Apollodorus states that Hecuba had a son named Troilus with the god Apollo. An oracle prophesied that Troy would not be defeated if Troilus reached the age of twenty alive. Troilus is killed by Achilles.

Hecuba is a main character in two plays by Euripides: The Trojan Women and Hecuba. The Trojan Women describes the aftermath of the fall of Troy, including Hecuba's enslavement by Odysseus. Hecuba also takes place just after the fall of Troy. Polydorus, the youngest son of Priam and Hecuba, is sent to King Polymestor for safekeeping, but when Troy falls, Polymestor murders Polydorus. Hecuba learns of this, and when Polymestor comes to the fallen city, Hecuba, by trickery, blinds him and kills his two sons.[12]

A third story says that when she was given to Odysseus as a slave, she snarled and cursed at him, so the gods turned her into a dog, allowing her to escape.

In another tradition, Hecuba went mad upon seeing the corpses of her children Polydorus and Polyxena. Dante described this episode, which he derived from Italian sources:

Inferno XXX: 13–20

Hecuba's children with Priam[edit]

Hecuba in popular culture[edit]

Hecuba is frequently referenced in classical literature, and in many medieval, Renaissance, and modern works. Among the works which are about Hecuba are:

Hecuba is mentioned in:

The name Hecuba or Hecubah appears occasionally:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition: "Hecuba"
  2. ^ Frazer's note 21 on Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 3. 12. 5. In: Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921.
  3. ^ Iliad, 16. 715
  4. ^ Euripides, Hecuba, 3
  5. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 7. 320; 10. 705,
  6. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 3. 12. 5
  7. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae, 91, 111, 249
  8. ^ Scholia on Euripides, Hecuba, 3
  9. ^ Scholia on Iliad, 16. 718, referring to Pherecydes and Athenion for the two versions respectively
  10. ^ Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Chapter 2 (Tiberius), paragraph 72
  11. ^ Homer, The Iliad. Book 22, line 86
  12. ^ "Hecuba", Washington State University

References[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

Secondary sources[edit]

  • Tsotakou-Karveli. Lexicon of Greek Mythology. Athens: Sokoli, 1990.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hecuba — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

4226 news items

Albany Times Union

Albany Times Union
Mon, 11 Apr 2016 13:48:45 -0700

It's almost inconceivable that any local professional institution would have risked putting on the American premiere of Irish playwright Marina Carr's radical new update of Euripides' "Hecuba." And it's wholly impossible that any community group would ...

Troy Record

Troy Record
Tue, 05 Apr 2016 16:15:00 -0700

Making his point of a winner writing history, Euripides gave Hecuba the satisfaction of revenge for the death of her son and daughter by having her brutally murder Polymestor's sons and savagely blinding the king. Carr has the Greeks kill his sons ...
 
Grand Island Independent
Wed, 06 Apr 2016 19:43:02 -0700

KEARNEY — The University Theatre at Kearney presents “Hecuba” in several performances this week in the University of Nebraska at Kearney's Miriam Drake Theatre. The tragedy by Euripides takes place after the Trojan War, and tells the story of Hecuba's ...
 
Albany Times Union (blog)
Mon, 11 Apr 2016 07:24:05 -0700

SARATOGA SPRINGS — It's almost inconceivable that any local professional institution would have risked putting on the American premiere of Irish playwright Marina Carr's radical new update of Euripides' “Hecuba.” And it's wholly impossible that any ...

Skidmore News (blog)

Skidmore News (blog)
Tue, 05 Apr 2016 13:30:05 -0700

Celebrated Irish playwright Marina Carr's HECUBA will see its American premiere at Skidmore College, having been produced only once before at the Royal Shakespeare Company in Stratford-upon-Avon. Off-Broadway director and National Endowment for ...

Telegraph.co.uk

Telegraph.co.uk
Fri, 25 Sep 2015 04:03:45 -0700

Irish playwright Marina Carr's new take on the old, Homeric tale of Hecuba, queen of Troy, widow of Priam and witness to the apocalypse of her civilisation, takes an axe to the familiar. With mixed results. In Euripides's version of the myth, bad ...

Kearney Hub

Kearney Hub
Thu, 31 Mar 2016 06:41:13 -0700

Hecuba, played by Mikayla Stephenson tries to comfort her daughter, Polyxenia, played by Jacey Anderson in this scene from “Hecuba,” presented by University Theatre at Kearney. The play shows the aftermath of war — without the violence. The drama ...

The Independent

The Independent
Mon, 28 Sep 2015 05:22:30 -0700

“What's Hecuba to him, or he to Hecuba/That he should weep for her?”: Hamlet marvels frustratedly that the empathy of performance can elicit real tears from the First Player at Hecuba's fate. The Irish dramatist Marina Carr contends though that, in ...
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