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Hatra
الحضر
Hatra ruins.jpg
The ruins of Hatra
Hatra is located in Iraq
Hatra
Shown within Iraq
Location Ninawa Governorate, Iraq
Region Mesopotamia
Coordinates 35°35′17″N 42°43′6″E / 35.58806°N 42.71833°E / 35.58806; 42.71833Coordinates: 35°35′17″N 42°43′6″E / 35.58806°N 42.71833°E / 35.58806; 42.71833
History
Builder Seleucid Empire
Founded 3rd or 2nd century BC
Abandoned 241 AD
Periods Seleucid Empire to Parthian Empire
Official name: Hatra
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, iv, vi
Designated 1985 (9th session)
Reference No. 277
Region Arab States

Hatra (Arabic: الحضرal-Ḥaḍr) is an ancient city in the Ninawa Governorate and al-Jazira region of Iraq. It is known as al-Hadr, a name which appears once in ancient inscriptions, and it was in the ancient Persian province of Khvarvaran. The city lies 290 km (180 mi) northwest of Baghdad and 110 km (68 mi) southwest of Mosul.

History[edit]

Hercules, Hatra, Iraq, Parthian period, 1st-2nd century CE.

Hatra was probably built in the 3rd or 2nd century BC by the Seleucid Empire. After its capture by the Parthian Empire, it flourished during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD as a religious and trading center.[1] Later on, the city became the capital of possibly the first Arab Kingdom in the chain of Arab cities running from Hatra, in the northeast, via Palmyra, Baalbek and Petra, in the southwest. The region controlled from Hatra was the Kingdom of Araba, a semi-autonomous buffer kingdom on the western limits of the Parthian Empire, governed by Arabian princes.

Hatra became an important fortified frontier city and withstood repeated attacks by the Roman Empire, and played an important role in the Second Parthian War. It repulsed the sieges of both Trajan (116/117) and Septimius Severus (198/199).[2] Hatra defeated the Iranians at the battle of Shahrazoor in 238, but fell to the Iranian Sassanid Empire of Shapur I in 241 and was destroyed.[2] The traditional stories of the fall of Hatra tell of an-Nadira, daughter of the King of Araba, who betrayed the city into the hands of Shapur. The story tells of how Shapur killed the king and married an-Nadira, but later had her killed also.[1]

Hatra is the best preserved and most informative example of a Parthian city. It is encircled by inner and outer walls nearly 4 miles (6.4 km) in circumference and supported by more than 160 towers. A temenos (τέμενος) surrounds the principal sacred buildings in the city’s centre. The temples cover some 1.2 hectares and are dominated by the Great Temple, an enormous structure with vaults and columns that once rose to 30 metres. The city was famed for its fusion of Greek, Mesopotamian, Canaanite, Aramean and Arabian pantheons, known in Aramaic as Beiṯ Ĕlāhā ("House of God"). The city had temples to Nergal (Assyrian-Babylonian and Akkadian), Hermes (Greek), Atargatis (Syro-Aramaean), Allat and Shamiyyah (Arabian) and Shamash (the Mesopotamian sun god).[1] Other deities mentioned in the Hatran Aramaic inscriptions is the Aramaean Ba'al Shamayn, and the female deity known as Ashurbel, which latter is perhaps the assimilation of the two deities the Assyrian god Ashur and the Babylonian Bel, despite their being individually masculine.

List of rulers[edit]

In inscriptions found at Hatra, several rulers are mentioned. Other rulers are sporadically mentioned by classical authors. They appear with two titles. The earlier rulers are called mrj´ (translation uncertain), the later ones mlk -king.

Rulers of Hatra
Name title years attested Comments
Worod mry´
Ma’nu mry´
Elkud mry´ AD 155/156
Nashrihab mrj´ AD 128/29 - 137/38
Naṣru mry´ 128/29 - 176/77
Wolgash I mry´ and mlk - King
Sanatruq I mry´ and mlk - King AD 176/177 ruled together with Wolgash I
Wolgash (II?), son of Wolgash (I.)
Abdsamiya mlk - King AD 192/93 - 201/202 Supported the Roman emperor Pescennius Niger
Sanatruq II mlk - King AD 207/08 - 229/230

Modern Hatra[edit]

Hatra ruins in July 2008.

Hatra was used as the setting for the opening scene in the 1973 film The Exorcist, and since 1985 is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Al Hadr Hotel is located within a kilometer of the Hatra ruins.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Hatra" (Encyclopædia Britannica). Retrieved 14 December 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Advisory Body Evaluation on Hatra. International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS). 1985. pages 1-2.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hatra — Please support Wikipedia.
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114 news items

 
Kenosha News
Mon, 30 Jun 2014 16:03:45 -0700

This all comes back to me now because this morning I opened my Wall Street Journal and there was an exquisite color picture of the great pink-sand-colored walls of Hatra, which stretch four miles around the city center with 160 towers and a Great ...
 
History News Network
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 00:07:30 -0700

We should be deeply concerned about Hatra, because of its isolation, and because the area has been used as a camp for ISIS training. The al-Askari shrine in Samarra, which was attacked in 2006, has become a target again. Among the shrines and tombs ...

RT

RT
Tue, 01 Jul 2014 03:17:04 -0700

After destroying statues of a poet and a musician in Mosul, ISIS now threatens to destroy the 2nd century BC city of Hatra, and UNESCO has sounded the alarm about one of their World Heritage sites at risk. The Director-General of UNESCO, Irina Bokova, ...

Rudaw

Rudaw
Sun, 13 Jul 2014 21:04:39 -0700

Some sites of the UNESCO World Heritage List are now under IS control, like the temples of Hatra and Ashur. Other sites, like the ancient Assyrian cities of Nimrud and Nineveh, have applied for a place on the list. Blowing up mosques and tombs is part ...

Wall Street Journal

Wall Street Journal
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 15:04:19 -0700

To that end, they have also shuttered the doors of Mosul's museum and now await a fatwa to obliterate the contents within. The threat extends to entire archaeological sites such as the Greco-Roman city of Hatra, with its classical-era temple complex ...

AINA

AINA
Thu, 10 Jul 2014 07:15:00 -0700

In the desert 100km southwest of Mosul lies Hatra, an Arab city of the Roman period rather like its more famous sisters Palmyra, Petra and Baalbeck. It is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site with fabulous stone temples and statues (the originals now ...

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Fri, 04 Jul 2014 06:24:22 -0700

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