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Haplogroup L1
Possible time of origin 107,600–174,300 YBP[1]
Possible place of origin Central Africa
Ancestor L1-6
Descendants L1b, L1c
Defining mutations 3666, 7055, 7389, 13789, 14178, 14560[2]

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup common in Central and West Africa.

Origin[edit]

Haplogroup L1 is believed to have appeared approximately 110,000 to 170,000 years ago.[citation needed] Haplogroup L1 is a daughter of L1-6 and genetic marker changes are 3666, 7055, 7389, 13789, 14178 and 14560.

Though it is typically used to refer to a family of lineages found in Africa, L1 is sometimes referred to as haplogroup L1-6, which is the macrohaplogroup that includes the majority of African lineages and all non-African lineages. Haplogroup L1-6 is the macrohaplogroup that includes subclades L1, L2, L4, L5, L6, and also L3 which gave rise to the two non-African haplogroups M and N. Haplogroup L1-6 and its only sibling haplogroup L0 are united by the matrilineal most recent common ancestor, (MRCA) of all living humans, Mitochondrial Eve. The existence of these two lineages, implies that Mitochondrial Eve had at least two daughters, one of whom is the maternal common ancestor of haplogroup L1-6 lineages.

Distribution[edit]

It is found most commonly in Central Africa and West Africa. It reaches its highest frequency in the Mbenga Pygmies.

Subclades[edit]

L1 has two branches:[Note 1]

Tree[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup L1 subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[2] and subsequent published research.

  • Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)
    • L1'2'3'4'5'6
      • L1
        • L1b
          • L1b1
            • L1b1a
              • L1b1a1'4
                • L1b1a1
                • L1b1a4
              • L1b1a2
                • L1b1a2a
              • 189
                • L1b1a3
                  • L1b1a3a
                    • L1b1a3a1
              • L1b1a5
              • L1b1a6
              • L1b1b7
        • L1c
          • L1c1'2'4'6
            • L1c1
              • L1c1a
                • L1c1a1
                  • L1c1a1a
                    • L1c1a1a1
                      • L1c1a1a1a
                      • L1c1a1a1b
                        • L1c1a1a1b1
                    • L1c1a1a2
                  • L1c1a1b
                • L1c1a2
                  • L1c1a2a
                    • L1c1a2a1
                    • L1c1a2a2
                  • L1c1a2b
                  • L1c1a2c
              • L1c1b'c'd
                • L1c1b
                • L1c1c'd
                  • L1c1c
                  • L1c1d
            • L1c2'4
              • L1c2
                • L1c2a
                  • L1c2a1
                    • L1c2a1a
                    • L1c2a1b
                  • L1c2a2
                • L1c2b
                  • L1c2b1
                  • L1c2b2
              • L1c4
                • L1c4a
                • L1c4b
            • L1c6
          • L1c3
            • L1c3a
              • L1c3a1
              • L1c3a1a
            • L1c3b'c
              • L1c3b
                • L1c3b1
                  • L1c3b1a
                  • L1c3b1b
                • L1c3b2
              • L1c3c

See also[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T

References[edit]

  1. ^ Soares, Pedro; Luca Ermini, Noel Thomson, Maru Mormina, Teresa Rito, Arne Röhl, Antonio Salas, Stephen Oppenheimer, Vincent Macaulay and Martin B. Richards (4 Jun 2009). "Supplemental Data Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock". The American Society of Human Genetics 84 (6): 82–93. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001. PMC 2694979. PMID 19500773. Retrieved 2009-08-13. 
  2. ^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  3. ^ Rosa A. et al. 2004, MtDNA Profile of West Africa Guineans: Towards a Better Understanding of the Senegambia Region.
  4. ^ Liane Fendt et al., MtDNA diversity of Ghana: a forensic and phylogeographic view, 2011
  5. ^ a b Quintana-Murci et al. 2008. Maternal traces of deep common ancestry and asymmetric gene flow between Pygmy hunter–gatherers and Bantu-speaking farmers 'Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America'. 105(5): 1599
  6. ^ Sarah A. Tishkoff et al. 2007, History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2007 24(10):2180-2195
  7. ^ Lluis Quintana-Murci et al. MtDNA diversity in Central Africa: from hunter-gathering to agriculturalism. CNRS-Institut Pasteur, Paris
  8. ^ Batini, Chiara et al 2006, Phylogeography of the human mitochondrial L1c haplogroup: Genetic signatures of the prehistory of Central Africa

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The formerly named L1 branches (L1d, L1k, L1a, L1f) have been re-classified into haplogroup L0 as L0d, L0k, L0a and L0f.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_L1_(mtDNA) — Please support Wikipedia.
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