digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

The geographic location of the Chalcolithic Halaf culture in relation to the contemporaneous Hassuna culture.

The Halaf culture, is a prehistoric period which lasted between about 6100 and 5500 BCE. The period is a continuous development out of the earlier Pottery Neolithic and is located primarily in south-eastern Turkey, Syria, and northern Iraq, although Halaf-influenced material is found throughout Greater Mesopotamia.

While the period is named after the site of Tell Halaf in north Syria, excavated by Max von Oppenheim between 1911 and 1927, the earliest Halaf period material was excavated by John Garstang in 1908 at the site of Sakce Gözü, then in Syria but now part of Turkey.[1] Small amounts of Halaf material was also excavated in 1913 by Leonard Woolley at Carchemish, on the Turkish/Syrian border.[2] However, the most important site for the Halaf tradition was the site of Tell Arpachiyah, now located in the suburbs of Mosul, Iraq.[3]

The Halaf period was succeeded by the Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period (~5500 - 5200 cal. BCE) and then by the Ubaid period (~5200 - 4000 cal. BCE).

Economy[edit]

Dryland farming was practiced by the population. This type of farming was based on exploiting natural rainfall without the help of irrigation, in a similar practice to that still practiced today by the Hopi people of Arizona. Emmer wheat, two-rowed barley and flax were grown. They kept cattle, sheep and goats.

Architecture[edit]

Although no Halaf settlement has been extensively excavated some buildings have been excavated: the tholoi of Tell Arpachiyah, circular domed structures approached through long rectangular anterooms. Only a few of these structures were ever excavated. They were constructed of mud-brick sometimes on stone foundations and may have been for ritual use (one contained a large number of female figurines). Other circular buildings were probably just houses.

Halaf pottery[edit]

Halafian ware

The best known, most characteristic pottery of Tell Halaf, called Halaf ware, produced by specialist potters, can be painted, sometimes using more than two colors (called polychrome) with geometric and animal motifs. Other types of Halaf pottery are known, including unpainted, cooking ware and ware with burnished surfaces. There are many theories about why the distinctive pottery style developed. The theory is that the pottery came about due to regional copying and that it was exchanged as a prestige item between local elites is now disputed. The polychrome painted Halaf pottery has been proposed to be a "trade pottery"—pottery produced for export—however, the predominance of locally produced painted pottery in all areas of Halaf sites including potters settlement questions that theory.

Halaf pottery has been found in other parts of northern Mesopotamia, such as at Nineveh and Tepe Gawra, Chagar Bazar and at many sites in Anatolia (Turkey) suggesting that it was widely used in the region. In addition, the Halaf communities made female figurines of partially baked clay and stone and stamp seals of stone, (see also Impression seal). The seals are thought to mark the development of concepts of personal property, as similar seals were used for this purpose in later times. The Halaf people used tools made of stone and clay. Copper was also known, but was not used for tools.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Castro Gessner, G. 2011. "A Brief Overview of the Halaf Tradition" in Steadman, S and McMahon, G (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Ancient anatolia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 780
  2. ^ Castro Gessner, G. 2011. "A Brief Overview of the Halaf Tradition" in Steadman, S and McMahon, G (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Ancient anatolia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 781
  3. ^ Campbell, S. 2000. "The Burnt House at Arpachiyah: A Reexamination" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research no. 318. pp. 1

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halaf_culture — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
264 videos foundNext > 

tell halaf - british museum

Tell Halaf (Arabic: تل حلف‎) is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border, just opposite Ceylanpına...

Die geretteten Götter aus dem Palast von Tell Halaf (archeologic treasures from Syria)

Subscribe For More Videos.

euronews le mag - Los tesoros de Tell Halaf reconstruidos en Berlín

Las esculturas antiguas de más de tres mil años sacadas de tierra a principios del siglo veinte por el arqueólogo judío alemán Max von Oppenheim han sido rec...

Anar Din Shah speech at Halaf Bardari Pay Tay Alaf Primary Teachers Association

Anar Din Shah speech at Halaf Bardari Pay Tay Alaf Primary Teachers Association.

Pakistan Community Halaf - Part 2

Bitola's Pride Part 3 - Halaf

The third part of the documentary "Bitola's Pride" by Aleksandar Misevski-Youth Forum Bitola, Macedonia.

HALAF WAFA DARI UNIT4,5REHMANI WELFARE TRUST NOSHERA VIRKAN GUJRANWALA

HALAF DANCE SHUFFLE HD 2012

HALAF DANCE SHUFFLE HD AND 3D 2012 popping dance.

HALAF WAFA DARI UNIT 1,2 NOSHERA VIRKAN SAITH KHALID REHMANI

halaf

halaf.

264 videos foundNext > 

We're sorry, but there's no news about "Halaf culture" right now.

Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Halaf culture

You can talk about Halaf culture with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!