digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Haematoxylin
Hämatoxylin.svg
Identifiers
CAS number 517-28-2 YesY
PubChem 10603
ChemSpider 21106443 YesY
UNII YKM8PY2Z55 YesY
MeSH Hematoxylin
ChEMBL CHEMBL477197 N
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C16H14O6
Molar mass 302.28 g mol−1
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Haematoxylin, hematoxylin, Natural Black 1, or C.I. 75290 is extracted from the heartwood of the logwood tree.[1] When oxidized it forms haematein, a compound that forms strongly coloured complexes with certain metal ions, the most notable ones being Fe(III) and Al(III) salts. Metal-haematein complexes are used to stain cell nuclei prior to examination under a microscope. Structures that stain with iron- or aluminium-haematein are often called basophilic, even though the mechanism of the staining is different from that of staining with basic dyes.

Haematoxylin and eosin together make up haematoxylin and eosin stain, one of the most commonly used stains in histology. It is a permanent stain as opposed to temporary stains (e.g. iodine solution in KI).

Another common stain is phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin, a mix of haematoxylin with phosphotungstic acid.

In the early 1970s and in 2008, there were shortages of haematoxylin due to interruptions in its extraction from logwood. The price of the compound increased, affecting the cost of diagnostic histopathology, and prompted a search for alternative nuclear stains. Before the use of any alternatives became firmly established, haematoxylin returned to the market, though at a higher price, and resumed its place in histopathology. Several synthetic dyes have been recommended as replacements, notably celestine blue (CI 51050), gallocyanine (CI 51030), gallein (CI 45445) and eriochrome cyanine R (also called chromoxane cyanine R and solochrome cyanine (CI 43820). All four have Fe(III) as the mordant. Another alternative is the aluminium complex of oxidized brazilin, which differs from haematoxylin by only one hydroxyl group.

Staining solutions[edit]

Sample of a trachea coloured with hematoxylin and eosin.

These stains are commonly employed for histological studies. The mordants used to demonstrate nuclear and cytoplasmic structures are alum and iron, forming lakes or coloured complexes (dye-mordant-tissue complexes), the colour of which will depend on the salt used. Aluminium salt lakes are usually coloured blue-white, whereas ferric salt lakes are coloured blue-black.

Aluminium solutions[edit]

The three main alum haematoxylin solutions employed are Ehrlich's haematoxylin, Harris's haematoxylin, and Mayer's haematoxylin. The name haemalum is preferable to "haematoxylin" for these solutions because haematein, a product of oxidation of haematoxylin, is the compound that combines with aluminium ions to form the active dye-metal complex. Alum haematoxylin solutions impart to the nuclei of cells a light transparent red stain that rapidly turns blue on exposure to any neutral or alkaline liquid.

Alum or potassium aluminium sulfate used as the mordant usually dissociates in an alkaline solution, combining with HO of water to form insoluble aluminium hydroxide. In the presence of excess acid, aluminium hydroxide cannot be formed, thus causing failure of aluminium haematoxylin dye-lake to form, due to lack of OH ions. Hence, acid solutions of alum haematoxylin become red. During staining, alum haematoxylin-stained sections are usually passed on to a neutral or alkaline solution (e.g., hard tap water or 1% ammonium hydroxide) in order to neutralize the acid and form an insoluble blue aluminium haematin complex. This procedure is known as blueing.

When tap water is not sufficiently alkaline, or is even acidic and is unsatisfactory for blueing haematoxylin, a tap water substitute consisting of 3.5 g NaHCO3 and 20 g MgSO4.7H2O in one litre of water with thymol (to inhibit formation of moulds), is used to accelerate blueing of thin paraffin sections. Addition of a trace of any alkali to tap or distilled water also provides an effective blueing solution; a few drops of strong ammonium hydroxide or of saturated aqueous lithium carbonate, added immediately before use, are sufficient for a 400 ml staining dish full of water. Use of very cold water slows down the blueing process, whereas warming accelerates it. In fact, the use of water below 10 °C for blueing sections may even produce pink artifact discolourations in the tissue.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cooksey 2010

References[edit]

  • Brown, G. G. (1978). An Introduction to Histotechnology. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.
  • Cooksey C. (2010) Hematoxylin and related compounds - an annotated bibliography concerning their origin, properties, chemistry and certain applications. Biotechnic & Histochemistry 85(1): 65-82. PMID 19568968
  • Dapson R., Horobin R.W., Kiernan J.A. (2010) Hematoxylin shortages their causes and duration and other dyes that can replace hemalum in routine hematoxylin and eosin staining. Biotechnic & Histochemistry 85(1): 55-63.
  • Godwin Avwioro (2011). Histochemical Uses Of Haematoxylin - A Review. JPCS 1:24-34. PDF
  • Jocelyn H. Bruce-Gregorios, M.D.: Histopathologic Techniques, JMC Press Inc., Quezon City, Philippines, 1974.
  • Meloan, S. M. & Puchtler, H. 1987. "Harris hematoxylin," what Harris really wrote and the mechanism of hemalum stains. Journal of Histotechnology 10: 257-261.
  • Puchtler, H., Meloan, S.N. & Waldrop, F.S. 1986. Application of current chemical concepts to metal-haematein and -brazilein stains. Histochemistry 85: 353-364.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haematoxylin — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
89 videos foundNext > 

Hematoxylin & Eosin staining

At the Department of Pathology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), the only medical university of Bangladesh, we demonstrated how this rout...

Haematoxylin and eosin stain (part 1 of 3)

http://www.val.biologycourses.co.uk Introduction to the haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, the most widely performed stain to visualise and diagnose tissues...

Haematoxylin and eosin stain (part 3 of 3)

http://www.val.biologycourses.co.uk Introduction to the haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, the most widely performed stain to visualise and diagnose tissues...

Haematoxylin and eosin stain (part 2 of 3)

http://www.val.biologycourses.co.uk Introduction to the haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, the most widely performed stain to visualise and diagnose tissues...

Blended Media 2 - Haematoxylin and Eosin Staining

Ambient Anonymous - Haematoxylin Eosin

Ambient Anonymous - Haematoxylin Eosin http://www.archive.org/details/AmbientAnonymousTwilightOfEmpire.

How to Pronounce Haematoxylin

Learn how to say Haematoxylin correctly with EmmaSaying's "how do you pronounce" free tutorials. Definition of haematoxylin (oxford dictionary): noun [mass n...

H&E Stain

Histology Tutorial-0018 by Donna Emge, HT-ASCP H&E Staining Method by Hand (Regressive Harris Hematoxylin and Eosin Staining) donna@histologytutorials.com ht...

Liver Histology H&E

ASM Team.

H&E Staining

http://www.abnova.com ) - H&E stain is a popular staining method in histology. It's a combination of two dyes: the basic dye (hematoxylin) and the alcohol-...

89 videos foundNext > 

3 news items

 
Nature.com
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 00:14:47 -0700

Visualization was performed by the APAAP technique. Counterstaning was done with Mayer's haematoxylin. To screen immuno-stained bone marrow slides for DTC, we used the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ChromaVision Medical Systems Inc., San ...
 
Nature.com
Sun, 26 Oct 2014 10:49:56 -0700

T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3, also known as HAVCR2) is an activation-induced inhibitory molecule involved in tolerance and shown to induce T-cell exhaustion in chronic viral infection and cancers1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Under some ...

ไทยรัฐ

ไทยรัฐ
Wed, 01 Oct 2014 15:02:59 -0700

... มีวัตถุผลึกไม่มีสีชื่อ HAEMATOXYLIN 10 เปอร์เซ็นต์ เมื่อถูกอากาศจะกลายเป็นสีแดง มีเทนนิน, เรซิน และ น้ำมันระเหยเล็กน้อย เป็นยาสมานอ่อนๆ แก้ท้องเดิน ปัจจุบัน “ฝาง” มีต้นขายทั่วไป ที่ตลาดนัดไม้ดอกไม้ประดับ สวนจตุจักร ทุกวันพุธ-พฤหัสฯ ราคาแตกต่างกัน หรืออยู่ที่ขนาดของต้นครับ.
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight