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Hadera
Hebrew transcription(s)
 • Hebrew חֲדֵרָה
 • ISO 259 Ḥdera
Hadera - Giv'at Olga.jpg
Official logo of Hadera
Logo
Hadera is located in Israel
Hadera
Hadera
Coordinates: 32°27′N 34°55′E / 32.450°N 34.917°E / 32.450; 34.917Coordinates: 32°27′N 34°55′E / 32.450°N 34.917°E / 32.450; 34.917
District Haifa
Founded 1890
Government
 • Type City (from 1952)
 • Mayor Zvika Gendelman
Area
 • Total 53,000 dunams (53 km2 or 20 sq mi)
Population (2013)[1]
 • Total 91,634
Website www.hadera.muni.il

Hadera (Hebrew: חֲדֵרָה Ḥadera ) is a city located in the Haifa District of northern Israel approximately 45 kilometers (28 miles) from the major cities of Tel Aviv and Haifa. The city is located along 7 km (5 mi) of the Israeli Mediterranean Coastal Plain. The city has a population of about 91,634, which includes a high proportion of immigrants arriving since 1990, notably from Ethiopia and the former Soviet Union.[1]

Hadera was established in 1891 as a farming colony by members of the Zionist group, Hovevei Zion, from Lithuania and Latvia. By 1948, it was a regional center with a population of 11,800. In 1952, Hadera was declared a city, with jurisdiction over an area of 53,000 dunams.[2]

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

Jewish school in Hadera, 1931
Hadera's Great Synagogue

Hadera was founded in 1891, in the early days modern Zionism by Jewish immigrants from Lithuania and Latvia on land purchased by Yehoshua Hankin, known as the Redeemer of the Valley.[2][3] The land was purchased from a Christian effendi, Selim Khuri. This was the largest purchase of land in Eretz Israel by a Zionist group, although the land was of low quality and mostly swampland. The only inhabitants prior to the purchase were a few families raising water buffaloes and selling reeds.[4] The town may derive its name from the Arabic word khadra, meaning "green" in reference to the wild weeds which covered the marshes on which the town is built.[3]

The first settlers lived in a house known as the Khan near Hadera's main synagogue.[5] Initially, Hadera was a lonely outpost of 10 families and 4 guards. In its early years, however, the town had issues with land ownership having drained the swamps with the aid of Egyptian workers sent to them by Baron Edmond de Rothschild.[6]

Old tombstones in the local cemetery reveal that out of a population of 540, 210 died of malaria.[7] Relations between the residents of Hadera and neighboring Bedouins were poor and HaShomer organization was assigned to guarding the fields. By the early twentieth century, the town had become a regional economic center.[2] Land disputes in the area were resolved by the 1930s, by which time, the population had grown to 2,002 in 1931.[3][4] Free schooling was introduced in the city in 1937 in all schools apart from the Histadrut school.[8]

After 1948[edit]

Hadera's population began to grow dramatically after Israeli independence in 1948 as immigrants flocked to the country. Among the immigrants to the city were Russian and other European immigrants and also 40 Yemenite families.[7] In 1964, Hadera was declared a city,[2] and in 1953, Israel's first paper mill opened in the city. Sponsored by investors from within Israel as well as from the United States, Brazil, and Australia, the mill was designed to meet all of Israel's paper needs.[9] It was also at this time that the Givat Olga neighborhood was constructed on the coast, and Beit Eliezer in the east of the city.[2]

From the 1990s[edit]

The city grew dramatically during the 1990s as it absorbed large numbers of Russian and Ethiopian immigrants.[2][3] Hadera, considered a safe place by its inhabitants, was jolted by several acts of terrorism, including a massacre of six civilians at a Bat Mitzvah[10] and a suicide bomber who blew himself up at a falafel stand on October 26, 2005, killing seven civilians,[11][12] and 55 were injured, of them five in severe condition.[13] In addition, four civilians were killed when a terrorist opened fire on pedestrians at a bus stop on October 28, 2001.[14] However, since the construction of the nearby West Bank barrier, the frequency of such incidents has dropped drastically. On August 4, 2006, three rockets fired by Hezbollah hit Hadera. Hadera is 50 miles (80 km) south of the Lebanese border and marked the farthest point inside Israel hit by Hezbollah.[15]

Hadera has traditionally been known as a backwater. However, in the 2000s, several projects were launched to improve the quality of life in Hadera. The city center was regenerated, a high-tech business park was constructed, and the world's largest desalination plant was built.[2][16] In addition, the city has slowly but steadily attracted new home-buyers. Currently, a development plan is underway to turn Hadera into a major center of home ownership, business, and vacation. Some 18,000 new homes will be built, including 2,500 villas and cottages and 1,300 luxury apartments on the coast. These housing units will be built in new neighborhoods that will be built in the underdeveloped northeastern part of the city, and 2.5 km (1.6 mi) of the coastline will be developed. A large park and several major shopping malls will be built. Ten new hotels with a total of 1,800 rooms will also be built; the city is planned to become a future vacation destination due to its closeness to the Galilee, beaches, and access to major highways.[17]

Geography[edit]

Hadera municipality

Hadera is located on the Israeli Mediterranean coastal plain, 45 km (28 mi) north of Tel Aviv.[18] The city's jurisdiction covers 53,000 dunams (53.0 km2; 20.5 sq mi), making it the fourth largest city in the country. Nahal Hadera Park, a eucalyptus forest covering 1,300 dunams (1.3 km2; 0.5 sq mi) and Hasharon Park are located on the outskirts of Hadera.[2]

Transportation[edit]

Hadera lies along two main Israel Railways lines: the Coastal Line and the nowadays freight-only Eastern Line. The city's railway station is located in the west of the city and is on the Tel Aviv suburban line which runs between Binyamina and Ashkelon. The city center of Hadera is located near Israel's two main north-south highways; Highway 2, linking Tel Aviv to Haifa, and Highway 4.[2] This made Hadera an important junction for all coastal bus transportation after 1948 and into the 1950s.

Economy[edit]

Orot Rabin chimneys

Hadera's importance as an economic center was first recognised when Israel's first paper mill was opened here in 1953. Hadera Paper continues to be a large employer in the city. In December 2009 the world's largest desalination plant of its type,[19] located within the municipal borders, was inaugurated.[2] Hadera is the location of the Orot Rabin Power Plant, Israel's largest power station.[20]

Demographics[edit]

According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, as of October 2013, Hadera had a population of 91,634 which is growing at an annual rate of 1.2%.[1] As of 2003, the city had a population density of 1,516.6 per km2.[21] Of the city's population of 2013 of 91,634, approximately 23,407 were immigrants, many from Ethiopia.[21]

Hadera has grown steadily since 1948, when the city had a population of 11,800. In 1955, the population almost doubled to 22,500. In 1961 it rose to 25,600, 1972 to 32,200, and 1983, to 38,700.[21]

The median age in Hadera is 32.8, with 23,200 people 19 years of age or younger, 12.1% between 20 and 29, 14,100 between 30 and 44, 17,600 from 45 to 64, and 9,700, 65 or older.[22] As of 2007, there were 37,500 males and 39,200 females.[22]

In 2001, the ethnic makeup was 99.2% Jewish and other non-Arab, with no significant Arab population. In 2000, there were 27,920 salaried workers and 1,819 self-employed. The mean monthly wage in 2000 for a salaried worker was ILS 5,135, a real change of 8.0% over the course of 2000. Salaried males had a mean monthly wage of ILS 6,607 (a real change of 9.0%) compared with ILS 3,598 for females (a real change of 3.1%). The mean income for the self-employed was 6,584. A total of 1,752 people received unemployment benefits and 6,753 received income supplements.

Education[edit]

Technoda science and technology center
Hillel Yaffe Medical Center

In 2001, there were 15,622 students studying at 42 schools (24 elementary schools with 7,933 students, and 21 high schools with 7,689 students). A total of 57.5% of 12th graders were entitled to a matriculation certificate.

The Democratic School of Hadera, which opened in 1987, was the first of its kind in Israel. The Technoda, an educational center for science and technology equipped with a state-of-the-art telescope and planetarium, is located in Hadera's Givat Olga neighborhood.[23]

Medical facilities[edit]

Hadera is served by the Hillel Yaffe Medical Center.

Neighborhoods[edit]

Neighborhoods of Hadera include Givat Olga,[24] Beit Eliezer, Kfar Brandeis, Haotzar, Hephzibah, Neve Haim, Nissan, Ephraim, Bilu, Klarin,Nahaliel, Shimshon, Shlomo, Pe'er, Bialik, Beitar and The Park.

Sports[edit]

Hadera is home to four current football clubs: Hapoel Hadera, F.C. Givat Olga (both playing in Liga Alef North), Beitar Hadera (playing in Liga Gimel Shomron) and the women's football club Maccabi Kishronot Hadera (playing in Ligat Nashim Rishona). In the past the city was also home to Maccabi Hadera, Hapoel Nahliel and Hapoel Beit Eliezer.

The city is also represented in the Israeli Beach Soccer League. Its team, Hapoel Hadera, won the championship (under its previous name, Hadera's Princes) in 2008.[25]

In Basketball, Maccabi Hadera's women's basketball team plays in second tier Liga Leumit, while the club's Maccabi Hadera men's basketball team plays in third tier Liga Artzit.

Notable residents[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Hadera is twinned with:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Table 3 - Population of Localities Numbering Above 2,000 Residents" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2010-06-30. Retrieved 2010-10-30. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "New Urbanism, Israeli Style". Haaretz. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Hadera". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  4. ^ a b Avneri, Aryeh L. (1984). The Claim of Dispossession: Jewish Land-Settlement and the Arabs, 1878-1948. Transaction Publishers. p. 93. ISBN 0-87855-964-7. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  5. ^ Jacobs, Daniel; Eber, Shirley; Silvani, Fransesca (1998). Israel and the Palestinian Territories: The Rough Guide. Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-248-9. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  6. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1998). Israel, a History. Morrow. p. 9. ISBN 0-688-12362-7. 
  7. ^ a b Winter, Dave (1999). Israel Handbook. Footprint Travel Guides. p. 532. ISBN 1-900949-48-2. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  8. ^ Sternhell, Zeev (1999). The Founding Myths of Israel: Nationalism, Socialism, and the Making of the Jewish State. Princeton University Press. p. 255. ISBN 0-691-00967-8. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  9. ^ "First Paper Mill Opened in Israel; Plant at Hadera is Expected to Help Nation Cut Currency Gap $1,000,000 a Year". New York Times. 1953-12-18. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  10. ^ Bat mitzvah massacre in Israel leaves seven dead, Phil Reeves, 18 January 2002
  11. ^ "Larissa Grishchenko". GxMSDev. 
  12. ^ "Woman injured in Hadera terror attack dies 4 years later". ynet. 
  13. ^ "Suicide bomber rocks Hadera market". Haaretz.com. 27 October 2005. 
  14. ^ Victims of Palestinian Violence and Terrorism since September 2000
  15. ^ "For first time: Hizbullah targets Hadera area". Ynet News. 2006-08-04. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  16. ^ Rabinovitch, Ari. "Israel opens largest desalination plant of its kind". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  17. ^ No Longer a Backwater, Hadera Plans Big Push - Inside Israel - News - Israel National News
  18. ^ "Telfed takes on next target: Hadera". Haaretz.com. 1 May 2009. 
  19. ^ Rinat, Zafrir (2008-04-02). "Where will the water go? - Haaretz Daily Newspaper | Israel News". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2011-09-16. 
  20. ^ Paz, Shelly (2007-03-01). "Greenpeace protests at Hadera power plant | Israel | Jerusalem Post". Jpost.com. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  21. ^ a b c "Population and Density per Km² in Localities Numbering Above 5,000 Residents" (PDF). 55th Statistical Yearbook. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2003. Retrieved 2008-03-15. 
  22. ^ a b "Statistical Abstract of Israel 2008". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  23. ^ "NJ Jewish News on-line - Reach for the stars". njjewishnews.com. 
  24. ^ "Women on the Map - Olga Hankin". women.org.il. 
  25. ^ Hadera's Princes are the Champions of Bank Yahav Beach Soccer League for the Year 2008 netanya.muni.il (Hebrew)
  26. ^ "Charlotte Sister Cities Worldwide - Hadera". Retrieved 2008-11-30. 

External links[edit]

  • Official website (Hebrew)

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadera — Please support Wikipedia.
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11130 news items

 
El Paso Times
Wed, 20 May 2015 15:13:11 -0700

Tzvika Gendelman, right, mayor of Hadera, Israel, talks with Borderplex Alliance CEO Rolando Pablos Wednesday at City Hall moments before a signing ceremony for a sister-city agreement between El Paso and Hadera. (photos by MARK LAMBIE — EL ...

Jerusalem Post Israel News

Jerusalem Post Israel News
Tue, 19 May 2015 22:03:45 -0700

NORTH Hadera held a memorial ceremony last week to commemorate the Ethiopian Jews who died during their exodus to Israel. Their mass journey began in the late 1970s, from Ethiopia over the border to Sudan. The Ethiopians who survived the ...

Globes

Globes
Wed, 06 May 2015 10:38:59 -0700

As revealed by "Globes" several days ago, the abandonment of the conversion of the Hadera power station from coal to natural gas is expected to be a severe blow to the Leviathan, Karish, and Tanin gas reservoirs, which are liable to be left without a ...
 
Arutz Sheva
Wed, 06 May 2015 23:30:17 -0700

A 19-year-old man was brought to a Hadera hospital this morning (Thursday) after being stabbed. Medics say that his injury is "severe." Initial investigations have found that the young man arrived at a meeting on the beach with another person, who then ...

Jerusalem Post Israel News

Jerusalem Post Israel News
Wed, 29 Apr 2015 08:11:15 -0700

The hina ceremony is colorful, romantic and entertaining, but in the early years of the state it went underground. Henna. The writer's son and daughter-in-law hold up their hennaed hands for a photo-op.. (photo credit:YEHUDIT HELFON). Share on Facebook
 
Diario Digital Juárez
Wed, 20 May 2015 23:22:30 -0700

El Paso firmó ayer miércoles un acuerdo de 'ciudad hermana' con Hadera, Israel. La iniciativa promoverá un desarrollo económico entre las dos localidades que poseen características similares y que buscan potencializar sus virtudes para un beneficio ...

Haaretz

Haaretz
Mon, 26 Jan 2015 11:42:16 -0800

Facing severe financial difficulties, Hadera Paper said on Monday it had agreed to sell its stake in a joint venture making home paper goods to its partner, the U.S. Kimberly Clark Corporation, for 648 million shekels ($162 million). The sale of Hadera ...

Haaretz

Haaretz
Mon, 11 May 2015 16:15:00 -0700

Students taking a matriculation exam at a high school in Hadera. Photo by Alon Ron. Text size. Comments (0). Print Page. Send to friend. Share on Facebook. Share on Twitter. Share. related tags. Israel education. related articles. Arab students protest ...
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