|Republic of Guinea-Bissau
República da Guiné-Bissau (Portuguese)
"Unidade, Luta, Progresso" (Portuguese)
"Unity, Struggle, Progress"
Esta é a Nossa Pátria Bem Amada (Portuguese)
This is Our Beloved Homeland
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||Crioulo da Guiné-Bissau|
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|-||President||José Mário Vaz|
|-||Prime Minister||Domingos Simões Pereira|
|Legislature||National People's Assembly|
|Independence from Portugal|
|-||Declared||24 September 1973|
|-||Recognized||10 September 1974|
|-||Total||36,125 km2 (136th)
13,948 sq mi
|-||2010 estimate||1,647,000 (148th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2012 estimate|
|HDI (2013)|| 0.396
low · 177th
|Currency||West African CFA franc (XOF)|
|Time zone||GMT (UTC+0)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||GW|
Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau i/ /, GI-nee-bi-SOW, (Portuguese: República da Guiné-Bissau, pronounced: [ʁeˈpublikɐ dɐ ɡiˈnɛ biˈsaw]), is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Senegal to the north and Guinea to the south and east, with the Atlantic Ocean to its west. It covers 36,125 km² (nearly 14,000 sq mi) with an estimated population of 1,600,000.
Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, as well as part of the Mali Empire. Parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while a few others were under some rule by the Portuguese Empire since the 16th century. In the 19th century, it was colonized as Portuguese Guinea. Upon independence, declared in 1973 and recognised in 1974, the name of its capital, Bissau, was added to the country's name to prevent confusion with Guinea (formerly French Guinea). Guinea-Bissau has a history of political instability since independence, and no elected president has successfully served a full five-year term.
On the evening of 12 April 2012, members of the country's military staged a coup d'état and arrested the interim president and a leading presidential candidate. Former vice chief of staff, General Mamadu Ture Kuruma, assumed control of the country in the transitional period and started negotiations with opposition parties.
Only 14% of the population speaks Portuguese, established as the official language in the colonial period. Almost half the population (44%) speaks Crioulo, a Portuguese-based creole language, and the remainder speak a variety of native African languages. The main religions are African traditional religions and Islam; there is a Christian (mostly Roman Catholic) minority. The country's per-capita gross domestic product is one of the lowest in the world.
Guinea-Bissau is a member of the African Union, Economic Community of West African States, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Latin Union, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, La Francophonie and the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone.
- 1 History
- 2 Politics
- 3 Regions and sectors
- 4 Geography
- 5 Climate
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, part of the Mali Empire; parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century. Other parts of the territory in the current country were considered by the Portuguese as part of their empire. Portuguese Guinea was known as the Slave Coast, as it was a major area for the exportation of African slaves by Europeans to the western hemisphere. Previously slaves had been traded by Arabs north to the northern part of Africa and into the Middle East.
Early reports of Europeans reaching this area include those of the Venetian Alvise Cadamosto's voyage of 1455, the 1479–1480 voyage by Flemish-French trader Eustache de la Fosse, and Diogo Cão. In the 1480s this Portuguese explorer reached the Congo River and the lands of Bakongo, setting up the foundations of modern Angola, some 4200 km down the African coast from Guinea-Bissau.
Although the rivers and coast of this area were among the first places colonized by the Portuguese, who set up trading posts in the 16th century, they did not explore the interior until the 19th century. The local African rulers in Guinea, some of whom prospered greatly from the slave trade, controlled the inland trade and did not allow the Europeans into the interior. They kept them in the fortified coastal settlements where the trading took place. African communities that fought back against slave traders also distrusted European adventurers and would-be settlers. The Portuguese in Guinea were largely restricted to the port of Bissau and Cacheu. A small number of European settlers established isolated farms along Bissau's inland rivers.
For a brief period in the 1790s, the British tried to establish a rival foothold on an offshore island, at Bolama. But by the 19th century the Portuguese were sufficiently secure in Bissau to regard the neighbouring coastline as their own special territory, also up north in part of present South Senegal.
An armed rebellion beginning in 1956 by the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) under the leadership of Amílcar Cabral gradually consolidated its hold on then Portuguese Guinea. Unlike guerrilla movements in other Portuguese colonies, the PAIGC rapidly extended its military control over large portions of the territory, aided by the jungle-like terrain, its easily reached borderlines with neighbouring allies, and large quantities of arms from Cuba, China, the Soviet Union, and left-leaning African countries. Cuba also agreed to supply artillery experts, doctors, and technicians. The PAIGC even managed to acquire a significant anti-aircraft capability in order to defend itself against aerial attack. By 1973, the PAIGC was in control of many parts of Guinea, although the movement suffered a setback in January 1973 when Cabral was assassinated.
Independence was unilaterally declared on 24 September 1973. Recognition became universal following the 25 April 1974 socialist-inspired military coup in Portugal, which overthrew Lisbon's Estado Novo regime.
Luís Cabral, brother of Amílcar and co-founder of PAIGC, was appointed the first President of Guinea-Bissau. Following independence, the PAIGC killed thousands of local Guinean soldiers who had fought along with the Portuguese Army against guerrillas. Some escaped to settle in Portugal or other African nations. One of the massacres occurred in the town of Bissorã. In 1980 the PAIGC acknowledged in its newspaper Nó Pintcha (dated 29 November 1980) that many Gueinean soldiers had been executed and buried in unmarked collective graves in the woods of Cumerá, Portogole, and Mansabá.
The country was controlled by a revolutionary council until 1984. The first multi-party elections were held in 1994. An army uprising in May 1998 led to the Guinea-Bissau Civil War and the president's ousting in June 1999. Elections were held again in 2000, and Kumba Ialá was elected president.
In September 2003, a military coup was conducted. The military arrested Ialá on the charge of being "unable to solve the problems". After being delayed several times, legislative elections were held in March 2004. A mutiny of military factions in October 2004 resulted in the death of the head of the armed forces and caused widespread unrest.
In June 2005, presidential elections were held for the first time since the coup that deposed Ialá. Ialá returned as the candidate for the PRS, claiming to be the legitimate president of the country, but the election was won by former president João Bernardo Vieira, deposed in the 1999 coup. Vieira beat Malam Bacai Sanhá in a runoff election. Sanhá initially refused to concede, claiming that tampering and electoral fraud occurred in two constituencies including the capital, Bissau.
Despite reports of arms entering the country prior to the election and some "disturbances during campaigning," including attacks on government offices by unidentified gunmen, foreign election monitors described the 2005 election overall as "calm and organized".
Three years later, PAIGC won a strong parliamentary majority, with 67 of 100 seats, in the parliamentary election held in November 2008. In November 2008, President Vieira's official residence was attacked by members of the armed forces, killing a guard but leaving the president unharmed.
On 2 March 2009, however, Vieira was assassinated by what preliminary reports indicated to be a group of soldiers avenging the death of the head of joint chiefs of staff, General Batista Tagme Na Wai. Tagme died in an explosion on Sunday, 1 March 2009, target of an assassination. Military leaders in the country pledged to respect the constitutional order of succession. National Assembly Speaker Raimundo Pereira was appointed as an interim president until a nationwide election on 28 June 2009. It was won by Malam Bacai Sanhá.
Guinea-Bissau is a republic. In the past, the government had been highly centralized. Multi-party governance was not established until mid-1991. The president is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. At the legislative level, a unicameral Assembleia Nacional Popular (National People's Assembly) is made up of 100 members. They are popularly elected from multi-member constituencies to serve a four-year term. The judicial system is headed by a Tribunal Supremo da Justiça (Supreme Court), made up of nine justices appointed by the president; they serve at the pleasure of the president.
João Bernardo "Nino" Vieira was elected in 2005 as President of Guinea-Bissau as an independent, being declared winner of the second round by the CNE (Comité Nacional de Eleições). Vieira returned to power in 2005 six years after being ousted from office during a civil war. Previously, he held power for 19 years after taking power in 1980 in a bloodless coup. In that action, he toppled the government of Luís Cabral.
He was killed on 2 March 2009, possibly by soldiers in retaliation for the assassination of General Batista Tagme Na Waie, the head of the joint chiefs of staff, killed in an explosion. Vieira's death did not trigger widespread violence, but there were signs of turmoil in the country, according to the advocacy group Swisspeace. Malam Bacai Sanhá was elected after a transition. In the 2009 election to replace the assassinated Vieira, Sanhá was the presidential candidate of the PAIGC while Kumba Ialá was the presidential candidate of the PRS.
In 2012, President Rachide Sambu-balde Malam Bacai Sanhá died. He belonged to PAIGC (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde), one of the two major political parties in Guinea-Bissau, along with the PRS (Party for Social Renewal). There are more than 20 minor parties.
Regions and sectors
At 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi), the country is larger in size than Taiwan or Belgium. This small tropical country lies at a low altitude; its highest point is 300 metres (984 ft). The interior is savanna, and the coastline is plain with swamps of Guinean mangroves. Its monsoon-like rainy season alternates with periods of hot, dry harmattan winds blowing from the Sahara. The Bijagos Archipelago extends out to sea.
Main cities in Guinea-Bissau include:
|1979 Census||2005 estimate|
Guinea-Bissau is warm all year around and there is little temperature fluctuation; it averages 26.3 °C (79.3 °F). The average rainfall for Bissau is 2,024 millimetres (79.7 in) although this is almost entirely accounted for during the rainy season which falls between June and September/October. From December through April, the country experiences drought.
Guinea-Bissau's GDP per capita is one of the lowest in the world, and its Human Development Index is one of the lowest on earth. More than two-thirds of the population lives below the poverty line. The economy depends mainly on agriculture; fish, cashew nuts and ground nuts are its major exports.
A long period of political instability has resulted in depressed economic activity, deteriorating social conditions, and increased macroeconomic imbalances. It takes longer on average to register a new business in Guinea-Bissau (233 days or about 33 weeks) than in any other country in the world except Suriname. [The Economist, Pocket World in Figures, 2008 Edition, London: Profile Books]
Guinea-Bissau has started to show some economic advances after a pact of stability was signed by the main political parties of the country, leading to an IMF-backed structural reform program. The key challenges for the country in the period ahead are to achieve fiscal discipline, rebuild public administration, improve the economic climate for private investment, and promote economic diversification. After the country became independent from Portugal in 1974 due to the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution, the rapid exodus of the Portuguese civilian, military, and political authorities resulted in considerable damage to the country's economic infrastructure, social order, and standard of living.
After several years of economic downturn and political instability, in 1997, Guinea-Bissau entered the CFA franc monetary system, bringing about some internal monetary stability. The civil war that took place in 1998 and 1999, and a military coup in September 2003 again disrupted economic activity, leaving a substantial part of the economic and social infrastructure in ruins and intensifying the already widespread poverty. Following the parliamentary elections in March 2004 and presidential elections in July 2005, the country is trying to recover from the long period of instability, despite a still-fragile political situation.
Beginning around 2005, drug traffickers based in Latin America began to use Guinea-Bissau, along with several neighboring West African nations, as a transshipment point to Europe for cocaine. The nation was described by a United Nations official as being at risk for becoming a "narco-state". The government and the military have done little to stop drug trafficking, which increased after the 2012 coup d'état.
Guinea-Bissau is a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA).
The population of Guinea-Bissau is ethnically diverse and has many distinct languages, customs, and social structures.
Guinea-Bissauans can be divided into the following ethnic groups:
- Fula and the Mandinka-speaking people, who comprise the largest portion of the population and are concentrated in the north and northeast;
- Balanta and Papel people, who live in the southern coastal regions; and
- Manjaco and Mancanha, who occupy the central and northern coastal areas.
Portuguese natives comprise a very small percentage of Guinea-Bissauans. After Guinea-Bissau gained independence, most of the Portuguese nationals left the country. The country has a tiny Chinese population. These include traders and merchants of mixed Portuguese and Chinese ancestry from Macau, a former Asian Portuguese colony.
Only 14% of the population speaks the official language of Portuguese, made the language of government and national communication during the colonial years. 44% speak Kriol, a Portuguese-based creole language, which is effectively a national language of communication among groups. The remainder speak a variety of native African languages unique to ethnicities. Most Portuguese and Mestiços speak one of the African languages and Kriol as second languages. French is taught in schools, as well, because the country is surrounded by French-speaking nations; and it is a full member of the Francophonie.
Throughout the 20th century, most Bissau-Guineans practiced some form of Animism. In the early 21st century, many have adopted Islam, which is now practiced by 50% of the country's population. Most of Guinea-Bissau's Muslims are of the Sunni denomination with approximately 2% belonging to the Ahmadiyya sect. Approximately 10% of the country's population belong to the Christian community, and 40% continue to hold Indigenous beliefs. These statistics can be misleading, however, as many residents practice syncretic forms of Islamic and Christian faiths, combining their practices with traditional African beliefs.
Malaria kills more residents; 9% of the population have reported infection, It causes three times as many deaths as AIDS. (In 2008, fewer than half of children younger than five slept under antimalaria nets or had access to antimalarial drugs).
Despite lowering rates in surrounding countries, cholera rates were reported in November 2012 to be on the rise, with 1,500 cases reported and nine deaths. A 2008 cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau affected 14,222 people and killed 225.
Maternal and child healthcare
In June 2011, the United Nations Population Fund released a report on The State of the World's Midwifery. It contained new data on the midwifery workforce and policies relating to newborn and maternal mortality for 58 countries. According to this report, the 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Guinea Bissau was 1000. This compares with 804.3 in 2008 and 966 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births, was 195 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality was 24. The number of midwives per 1,000 live births was 3; one out of eighteen pregnant women die as a result of pregnancy. According to a 2013 UNICEF report, 50% of women in Guinea Bissau had undergone female genital mutilation. In 2010, Guinea Bissau had the 7th highest maternal mortality rate in the world.
Education is compulsory from the age of 7 to 13. The enrollment of boys is higher than that of girls. Child labor is very common. In 2011 the literacy rate was estimated at 55.3% (68.9% male, and 42.1% female).
On the other side, Guinea-Bissau has several secondary schools (general as well as technical) and a surprising number of universities, to which an institutionally autonomous Faculty of Law as well as a Faculty of Medicine have to be added.
In 1998, the gross primary enrollment rate was 53.5%, with higher enrollment ratio for males (67.7%) compared to females (40%). Since 2001, Guinea-Bissau has been recovering from the civil conflict of 1999, and later conflicts, which displaced one-third of the population, destroyed many schools, and prevented most young children from attending school for at least half a year.
The music of Guinea-Bissau is usually associated with the polyrhythmic gumbe genre, the country's primary musical export. However, civil unrest and other factors have combined over the years to keep gumbe, and other genres, out of mainstream audiences, even in generally syncretist African countries.
The calabash is the primary musical instrument of Guinea-Bissau, and is used in extremely swift and rhythmically complex dance music. Lyrics are almost always in Guinea-Bissau Creole, a Portuguese-based creole language, and are often humorous and topical, revolving around current events and controversies, especially AIDS.
The word gumbe is sometimes used generically, to refer to any music of the country, although it most specifically refers to a unique style that fuses about ten of the country's folk music traditions. Tina and tinga are other popular genres, while extent folk traditions include ceremonial music used in funerals, initiations and other rituals, as well as Balanta brosca and kussundé, Mandinga djambadon, and the kundere sound of the Bissagos Islands.
Flora Gomes is an internationally renowned film director; his most famous film is Nha Fala (English: My Voice). Gomes's Mortu Nega (Death Denied) (1988) was the first fiction film and the second feature film ever made in Guinea-Bissau. (The first feature film was N’tturudu, by director Umban u’Kest in 1987.) At FESPACO 1989, Mortu Nega won the prestigious Oumarou Ganda Prize. Mortu Nega is in Creole with English subtitles. In 1992, Gomes directed Udju Azul di Yonta, which was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1992 Cannes Film Festival. Gomes has also served on the boards of many Africa-centric film festivals.
- "Background Note: Guinea-Bissau". US Department of State. December 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
- Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009). "World Population Prospects, Table A.1" (PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations. Retrieved 12 March 2009. Note: According to email information by the Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisa, Bissau, the preliminary results of the national population census in Guinea-Bissau put the figure at 1,449,230.
- "Guinea-Bissau". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "Tiny Guinea-Bissau becomes latest West African nation hit by coup". Bissau: McClatchy. 12 April 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- Embalo, Allen Yero (14 April 2012). "Fears grow for members of toppled G.Bissau government". AFP. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- "Guinea-Bissau opposition vows to reach deal with junta | Radio Netherlands Worldwide". Rnw.nl. 15 April 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- Empire of Kaabu, West Africa. Accessgambia.com. Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- Alvise Cadamosto. Nndb.com. Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- Eustache De La Fosse (1992). Voyage d'Eustache Delafosse sur la côte de Guinée, au Portugal et en Espagne: 1479–1481. Editions Chandeigne. ISBN 978-2-906462-03-8. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- Diogo Cão at the Wayback Machine (archived February 8, 2007). win.tue.nl
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- British Library – Endangered Archive Programme (EAP). Inep-bissau.org (18 March 1921). Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- Amilcar Cabral 1966 "The Weapon of Theory". Address delivered to the first Tricontinental Conference of the Peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America held in Havana in January 1966. Marxists.org. Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- The PAIC Programme Appendix. Marxists.org. Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- El Tahri, Jihan (2007). Cuba! Africa! Revolution!. BBC Television. Event occurs at 50:00–60:00. Retrieved 2 May 2007.
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- Embassy of The Republic of Guinea-Bissau – Country Profile. Diplomaticandconsular.com (12 April 2012). Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- Guiné-Bissau: Morreu Luís Cabral, primeiro presidente do país. Expresso.sapo.pt (30 May 2009). Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- Uppsala Conflict Data Program Conflict Encyclopedia, Guinea Bissau: government, in depth, Negotiations, Veira's surrender and the end of the conflict, viewed July 12, 2013,
- Guinea-Bissau's Kumba Yala: from crisis to crisis. Afrol.com. Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- Smith, Brian (27 September 2003) "US and UN give tacit backing to Guinea Bissau coup", Wsws.org, September 2003, Retrieved on 22 June 2013
- GUINEA-BISSAU: Vieira officially declared president. irinnews.org (10 August 2005).
- "Army man wins G Bissau election". London: BBC News. 28 July 2005. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- Guinea Bissau vote goes smooth amid hopes for stability. AFP via Google.com (16 November 2008). Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- Balde, Assimo (24 November 2008). "Coup attempt fails in Guinea-Bissau". London: The Independent UK independent.co.uk. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- "Já foi escolhida a data para a realização das eleições presidenciais entecipadas". Bissaudigital.com. 1 April 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- Guinea-Bissau Supreme Court. Stj.pt. Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- Soldiers kill fleeing President at the Wayback Machine (archived March 8, 2009). news.com.au (2 March 2009).
- Elections, Guinea-Bissau (27 May 2009). "On the Radio Waves in Guinea-Bissau". swisspeace. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
- Guinea-Bissau Political Parties. Nationsencyclopedia.com. Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- Nossiter, Adam (4 November 2009) "Bijagós, a Tranquil Haven in a Troubled Land", New York Times, 8 November 2009
- Guinea-Bissau Climate. Nationsencyclopedia.com. Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- World Bank profile. Data.worldbank.org (31 May 2013). Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- Guinea-Bissau and the IMF. Imf.org (13 May 2013). Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- CFA Franc and Guinea-Bissau. Uemoa.int. Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- Guinea-Bissau:A narco-state?. Time.com (29 October 2009). Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- Sullivan, Kevin (25 May 2008). "Route of Evil: How a tiny West African nation became a key smuggling hub for Colombian cocaine, and the price it is paying". Washington Post.
- "Guinea-Bissau drug trade 'rises since coup'". London: BBC News. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "OHADA.com: The business law portal in Africa". Retrieved 22 March 2009.
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- Crioulo, Upper Guinea. Ethnologue.org. Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
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- The WHO identified only 78 physicians in the entire Guinea-Bissau health workforce in 2009 data. ("Health workforce, infrastructure, essential medicines" (PDF). 2010. p. 118.) And the World Bank estimates that Guinea-Bissau had 1,575,446 residents in 2008. At the current rate of growth, 2009 population was expected to reach about 1.61 million people. Only 0.0048% are known to be medical doctors involved in patient care. The WHO estimate an average of about 20 per 100,000 across Africa, but reports a density per 10,000 population of <0.5 in its Physicians data covering the period to 2009. Guinea-Bissau has an unusually high ratio of nursing staff to doctors: including nurses and midwives; there are 64 medical professionals per 100,000 Bissau-Guineans
- The WHO estimates that there were 188 physicians working in the entire country as of 2007 ("Health workforce, infrastructure, essential medicines". 2009. p. 98.). And The World Bank estimates that Guinea-Bissau had 1,541,040 residents in 2007 ("Midyear estimates of the resident population". 2010.). So, about 0.0122% of the permanent population were known to be medical doctors involved in patient care, as of 2007.
- The WHO estimates a 1.8% HIV-infection rate from 2007 data among 15- to 49-year old Bissau-Guineans – see statistics on page 65 of: "2. Cause-specific mortality and morbidity" (PDF). WHO. 2010.. (The section's introduction describes estimation methodology).
- As of 2008, only 20% of HIV-infected mothers or sufferers with advanced cases had anti-retroviral drug access, see: "Health service coverage". WHO. 2010. p. 91.. Coverage in the general population is lower.
- "Selected infectious diseases". WHO. 2010. p. 76. Retrieved 9 June 2010. – 148,542 reported cases in 2008.
- According to the 2010 WHO report, the latest Malaria mortality rate per 100,000 Bissau-Guineans (180) is substantially greater than that for AIDS (65). ("Cause-specific mortality and morbidity". WHO. 2010. p. 64. Retrieved 9 June 2010.) Among children younger than 5, malaria is nine times more deadly (p. 65).
- "Global Health Indicators: 4. Health service coverage". WHO. 2010. p. 91.
- "Global Health Indicators: Mortality and burden of disease". 2010. p. 50.. Healthy life expectancy at birth was 42. The probability of dying between a live-birth and age 5 was 19.5% (down from 24% in 1990, p.51).
- "Guinea Bissau: Cholera On the Rise". allafrica.com. 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- "State of world's midwifery". UNFPA. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
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- The latter is maintained by Cuba and functions in different cities.
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- Lobeck, Katharina (21 May 2003) Manecas Costa Paraiso di Gumbe Review. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- The Kora . Freewebs.com. Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- Radio Africa: Guinea Bissau vinyl discography. Radioafrica.com.au. Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- http://gumbe.com Gumbe
- Music of Guinea-Bissau. Ccas11bijagos.pbworks.com. Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- Nha Fala/My Voice. spot.pcc.edu
- Mortu Nega. California Newsreel. Newsreel.org. Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- Udju Azul di Yonta. California Newsreel. Newsreel.org. Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
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- Flora Gomes The Two Faces of War: National Liberation in Guinea-Bissau. Watsoninstitute.org (25 October 2007). Retrieved on 22 June 2013.
- Abdel Malek, K.,"Le processus d'accès à l'indépendance de la Guinée-Bissau.",In : Bulletin de l'Association des Anciens Elèves de l'Institut National de Langues et de Cultures Orientales, N°1, Avril 1998. - pp. 53-60
- Forrest, Joshua B., Lineages of State Fragility. Rural Civil Society in Guinea-Bissau (Ohio University Press/James Currey Ltd., 2003)
- Galli, Rosemary E, Guinea Bissau: Politics, Economics and Society, (Pinter Pub Ltd, 1987)
- Lobban, Jr., Richard Andrew and Mendy, Peter Karibe, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau, third edition (Scarecrow Press, 1997)
- Vigh, Henrik, Navigating Terrains of War: Youth And Soldiering in Guinea-Bissau, (Berghahn Books, 2006)
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- Guinea-Bissau: Prime Minister’s fate unknown after apparent military coup – West Africa – Portuguese American Journal
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- The State of the World's Midwifery – Guinea-Bissau Country Profile
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