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For other uses, see Gravel (disambiguation).
Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm)
Gravel being unloaded from a barge

Gravel /ˈɡrævəl/ is composed of unconsolidated rock fragments that have a general particle size range and include size classes from granule- to boulder-sized fragments. Gravel is sub-categorized by the Udden-Wentworth scale into granular gravel (2 to 4 mm or 0.079 to 0.157 in) and pebble gravel (4 to 64 mm or 0.2 to 2.5 in). One cubic yard of gravel typically weighs about 3000 pounds (or a cubic metre is about 1,800 kilograms).

Gravel is an important commercial product, with a number of applications. Many roadways are surfaced with gravel, especially in rural areas where there is little traffic. Globally, far more roads are surfaced with gravel than with concrete or tarmac; Russia alone has over 400,000 km (250,000 mi) of gravel roads.[citation needed] Both sand and small gravel are also important for the manufacture of concrete.

Geological formation[edit]

Large gravel deposits are a common geological feature, being formed as a result of the weathering and erosion of rocks. The action of rivers and waves tends to pile up gravel in large accumulations. This can sometimes result in gravel becoming compacted and concreted into the sedimentary rock called conglomerate. Where natural gravel deposits are insufficient for human purposes, gravel is often produced by quarrying and crushing hard-wearing rocks, such as sandstone, limestone, or basalt. Quarries where gravel is extracted are known as gravel pits. Southern England possesses particularly large concentrations of them due to the widespread deposition of gravel in the region during the Ice Ages.

Modern production[edit]

As of 2006, the United States is the world's leading producer and consumer of gravel.[1][2]

Etymology[edit]

The word gravel comes from the Old French word gravele.[3]

Types[edit]

Gravel with stones sized roughly between 5 and 15 millimeter.
Disused gravel pit in Lower Saxony, Germany

Multiple types of gravel have been recognized,[by whom?] including:

  • Bank gravel: naturally deposited gravel intermixed with sand or clay found in and next to rivers and streams. Also known as "Bank run" and "River run".
  • Bench gravel: a bed of gravel located on the side of a valley above the present stream bottom, indicating the former location of the stream bed when it was at a higher level.
  • Creek rock: this is generally rounded, semi-polished stones, potentially of a wide range of types, that are dredged or scooped from river beds and creek beds. It is also often used as concrete aggregate and less often as a paving surface.
  • Crushed stone: is rock crushed and graded by screens then mixed to a blend of stones and fines. It is widely used in as a surfacing for roads and driveways, sometimes with tar applied over it. Crushed stone may be made from granite, limestone, dolomite, and other rocks. Also known as "crusher run", DGA (Dense Grade Aggregate) QP (Quarry Process), and shoulder stone.[4]
  • Fine gravel: gravel consisting of particles with a diameter of 2 to 4 mm.
  • Lag gravel: a surface accumulation of coarse gravel produced by the removal of finer particles.
  • Pay gravel: also known as "pay dirt"; a nickname for gravel with a high concentration of gold and other precious metals. The metals are recovered through gold panning.
  • Pea gravel: gravel that consists of small, rounded stones used in concrete surfaces. Also used for walkways, driveways and as a substrate in home aquariums.
  • Piedmont gravel: a coarse gravel carried down from high places by mountain streams and deposited on relatively flat ground, where the water runs more slowly.
  • Plateau gravel: a layer of gravel on a plateau or other region above the height at which stream-terrace gravel is usually found.

Relationship to plantlife[edit]

In locales where gravelly soil is predominant, plant life is generally more sparse.[5] This outcome derives from the inferior ability of gravels to retain moisture, as well as the corresponding paucity of mineral nutrients, since finer soils that contain such minerals are present in smaller amounts.

See also[edit]

References[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravel — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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How to Lay Out Gravel Landscaping : Landscaping Basics

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Excavating a lawn and installing a new gravel driveway. www.malvern-resurfacing.co.uk.

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iTunes: http://glob.ly/3Lk Beatport: http://btprt.dj/V7Y2hD http://www.facebook.com/youfeedme http://mau5trap.com/ http://www.facebook.com/mau5trap.

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26122 news items

 
Port Huron Times Herald
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 19:41:01 -0700

But not too far off. The trees schooled me Saturday. Mountain bike racing on a technical single track exactly once a year can be painful. Trees kept jumping out in front of me and knocking me down. Whose idea was it to put all those trees out in the ...
 
Seacoastonline.com
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 23:00:00 -0700

Anderson said selectmen are still deciding whether to sell the gravel or use it for town projects. This includes using the gravel for road work on Dearborn Road and Caswell Drive, or on the expansion of the Michael P. Maloney Recreation Complex.

Heritage Newspapers

Heritage Newspapers
Sat, 23 Aug 2014 07:37:30 -0700

Doug Fuller, left, and Roy Townsend, from the Washtenaw County Road Commission address Manchester Township officials about the possibility of a special tax district to fund gravel road repairs. NATHANIEL SIDDALL--MANCHESTER ENTERPRISE.

Daily Mail

Daily Mail
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 08:29:20 -0700

A family were left stunned when they discovered the skeleton on a 60,000-year-old mammoth in their firm's gravel pit. Perot Museum of Natural History Fossil Preparator Ron Tykoski, excavates a preserved mammoth skeleton found by gravel pit owner Wayne ...
 
Mat-Su Valley Frontiersman
Sat, 23 Aug 2014 21:18:45 -0700

The site of the pit, near the intersection of Church Road and Church Ridge Drive, contains about 100,000 cubic yards of gravel in a small mound in its northwest corner. Once the mound is removed, Tew's Construction Inc., which owns the property ...

My Everett News

My Everett News
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 06:39:51 -0700

On Monday, the City of Everett filed a lawsuit against Kimberly-Clark for failing to cover the area that formerly contained a pulp mill and paper processing plant with grass or ground cover as provided in its demolition permit. Here's the information ...

KRCRTV.COM

KRCRTV.COM
Fri, 22 Aug 2014 19:15:00 -0700

Lake Oroville water levels continue to drop due to the extreme drought, and have reached such a level that officials have been forced to close all paved boat launches and install a gravel one as a sort of last resort. The Department of Water Resources ...

Telegraph.co.uk

Telegraph.co.uk
Sat, 23 Aug 2014 23:00:00 -0700

Q: I want to install a gravel path around my house. Owing to the confines of the area, and the fact that it may be too expensive to pave, the gravel will be right up against the house. I'm making sure not to raise the level of the path above the damp ...
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