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For other uses, see Gravel (disambiguation).
Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm)
Gravel being unloaded from a barge

Gravel /ˈɡrævəl/ is composed of unconsolidated rock fragments that have a general particle size range and include size classes from granule- to boulder-sized fragments. Gravel is sub-categorized by the Udden-Wentworth scale into granular gravel (>2 to 4 mm or 0.079 to 0.157 in) and pebble gravel (>4 to 64 mm or 0.2 to 2.5 in). One cubic yard of gravel typically weighs about 3000 pounds (or a cubic metre is about 1,800 kilograms).

Gravel is an important commercial product, with a number of applications. Many roadways are surfaced with gravel, especially in rural areas where there is little traffic. Globally, far more roads are surfaced with gravel than with concrete or tarmac; Russia alone has over 400,000 km (250,000 mi) of gravel roads.[citation needed] Both sand and small gravel are also important for the manufacture of concrete.

Geological formation[edit]

Large gravel deposits are a common geological feature, being formed as a result of the weathering and erosion of rocks. The action of rivers and waves tends to pile up gravel in large accumulations. This can sometimes result in gravel becoming compacted and concreted into the sedimentary rock called conglomerate. Where natural gravel deposits are insufficient for human purposes, gravel is often produced by quarrying and crushing hard-wearing rocks, such as sandstone, limestone, or basalt. Quarries where gravel is extracted are known as gravel pits. Southern England possesses particularly large concentrations of them due to the widespread deposition of gravel in the region during the Ice Ages.

Modern production[edit]

As of 2006, the United States is the world's leading producer and consumer of gravel.[1][2]

Etymology[edit]

The word gravel comes from the Old French word gravele.[3]

Types[edit]

Gravel with stones sized roughly between 5 and 15 millimeter.
Disused gravel pit in Lower Saxony, Germany

Multiple types of gravel have been recognized,[by whom?] including:

  • Bank gravel: naturally deposited gravel intermixed with sand or clay found in and next to rivers and streams. Also known as "Bank run" and "River run".
  • Bench gravel: a bed of gravel located on the side of a valley above the present stream bottom, indicating the former location of the stream bed when it was at a higher level.
  • Creek rock: this is generally rounded, semi-polished stones, potentially of a wide range of types, that are dredged or scooped from river beds and creek beds. It is also often used as concrete aggregate and less often as a paving surface.
  • Crushed stone: is rock crushed and graded by screens then mixed to a blend of stones and fines. It is widely used in as a surfacing for roads and driveways, sometimes with tar applied over it. Crushed stone may be made from granite, limestone, dolomite, and other rocks. Also known as "crusher run", DGA (Dense Grade Aggregate) QP (Quarry Process), and shoulder stone.[4]
  • Fine gravel: gravel consisting of particles with a diameter of 2 to 4 mm.
  • Lag gravel: a surface accumulation of coarse gravel produced by the removal of finer particles.
  • Pay gravel: also known as "pay dirt"; a nickname for gravel with a high concentration of gold and other precious metals. The metals are recovered through gold panning.
  • Pea gravel: gravel that consists of small, rounded stones used in concrete surfaces. Also used for walkways, driveways and as a substrate in home aquariums.
  • Piedmont gravel: a coarse gravel carried down from high places by mountain streams and deposited on relatively flat ground, where the water runs more slowly.
  • Plateau gravel: a layer of gravel on a plateau or other region above the height at which stream-terrace gravel is usually found.

Relationship to plantlife[edit]

In locales where gravelly soil is predominant, plant life is generally more sparse.[5] This outcome derives from the inferior ability of gravels to retain moisture, as well as the corresponding paucity of mineral nutrients, since finer soils that contain such minerals are present in smaller amounts.

See also[edit]

References[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravel — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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Gravel - O mano meilė

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19News' Cody Weddle reports. Twitter: https://twitter.com/codyweddle Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/codyweddle19.

Gravel - Aš išpjoviau tavo širdį

A new drug called gravel is causing major problems for users and hospital personnel

This mixture, featuring bath salts and either methamphetamine or Klonopin, can make a person extremely paranoid and suicidal, said Dr. John Mettert, an emerg...

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Excavating a lawn and installing a new gravel driveway. www.malvern-resurfacing.co.uk.

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Man Addicted To Eating Bricks, Mud and Gravel

Man Addicted To Eating Bricks, Mud and Gravel SUBSCRIBE: http://bit.ly/Oc61Hj AN Indian man says he is addicted to eating bricks, gravel and mud. Pakkirappa ...

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27362 news items

Fresno Bee

Fresno Bee
Mon, 28 Jul 2014 18:18:46 -0700

Herb Lang of the Running Luck Ranch near Sanger walks among some of his olive trees Wednesday, July 24, 2014. Lang wants build a gravel mine plant on the property. He says the production of the olive trees is inconsistent at best due to the heavy rock ...

Isanti County News

Isanti County News
Wed, 30 Jul 2014 12:07:30 -0700

There's a new band in town, and they're bringing back the “original” country. Gravel Roads – an Isanti-based country group – recently launched its debut album. Jeff Pasbrig and his brother-in-law Jim Mellor started playing together casually for more ...
 
wlfi.com
Mon, 28 Jul 2014 20:56:15 -0700

LOGANSPORT, Ind. (WLFI) – More than 100 people showed up to the Cass County Board of Zoning Appeals meeting to oppose a proposed sand and gravel plant Monday night. Engineering Aggregates Corp. wants to build a sand and gravel plant on E. 175 ...

Sheridan Media (press release)

Sheridan Media (press release)
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 15:18:45 -0700

State Representative Mike Madden spoke on behalf of residents in the Mountain Ridge Improvement District, with homeowners adjacent to the proposed gravel pit, they are concerned with particulates being blown into their subdivision from the activities ...

Minneapolis Star Tribune

Minneapolis Star Tribune
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 19:19:55 -0700

Despite assurances to the contrary, Schenck and her neighbors have lingering doubts about the environmental impact of a plan to mine gravel on the field in question — about 80 acres of land, across from the farm that Schenck and her husband, Larry, run.
 
Simcoe.com
Wed, 30 Jul 2014 13:54:38 -0700

Council had been scheduled to vote July 23 on whether to allow rezoning of a gravel pit owned by Triple C Investments Inc. Council was considering a request to expand the pit at 905 Fuller Ave. to 18.7 hectares from 8.3 hectares. The entire property is ...
 
The Coloradoan
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 13:12:55 -0700

Colorado Parks and Wildlife is closing a wildlife area in Windsor to make way for active gravel mining. Residents will no longer be able to access the Frank State Wildlife Area located about two miles east of Interstate 25 within the Town of Windsor ...

News1130

News1130
Wed, 30 Jul 2014 11:45:00 -0700

RCMP Cpl Robert McDonald with Traffic Services says the truck was travelling west on the highway, just east of 264th about 9 a.m. when the accident happened. “The vehicle lost control and flipped upside down in the ditch. The driver, I can't tell you ...
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