digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Not to be confused with Graphene, Graphane, or Graphyne.

A grapheme is the smallest semantically distinguishing unit in a written language, analogous to the phonemes of spoken languages. A grapheme may or may not carry meaning by itself, and may or may not correspond to a single phoneme. Graphemes include alphabetic letters, typographic ligatures, Chinese characters, numerical digits, punctuation marks, and other individual symbols of any of the world's writing systems.

The word grapheme is derived from Greek γράφω gráphō ("write"), and the suffix -eme, by analogy with phoneme and other names of emic units. The study of graphemes is called graphemics.

A grapheme is an abstract concept, similar to a character in computing. A glyph is a specific shape that represents that grapheme, in a specific typeface. For example, the abstract concept of "the Arabic numeral one" is a grapheme, which would have two different glyphs (allographs) in the fonts Times New Roman and Helvetica.

Notation[edit]

Graphemes are often notated within angle brackets, as a, B, etc.[1] This is analogous to the slash notation (/a/, /b/) used for phonemes, and the square bracket notation used for phonetic transcriptions ([a], [b]).

Glyphs and allographs[edit]

Main article: Allography

In the same way that the surface forms of phonemes are speech sounds or phones (and different phones representing the same phoneme are called allophones), the surface forms of graphemes are glyphs (sometimes "graphs"), namely concrete written representations of symbols, and different glyphs representing the same grapheme are called allographs. Hence a grapheme can be regarded as an abstraction of a collection of glyphs that are all semantically equivalent.

For example, in written English (or other languages using the Latin alphabet), there are many different physical representations of the lowercase letter "a", such as a, ɑ, etc. But because the substitution of any of these for any other cannot change the meaning of a word, they are considered to be allographs of the same grapheme, which can be written a. Italic and bold face are also allographic.

There is some disagreement as to whether capital and lower-case letters are allographs or distinct graphemes. Capitals are generally found in certain triggering contexts which do not change the word: When used as a proper name, for example, or at the beginning of a sentence, or all caps in a newspaper headline. Some linguists consider digraphs like the sh in ship to be distinct graphemes, but these are generally analyzed as sequences of graphemes. Ligatures, however, such as æ, are distinct graphemes, as are various letters with distinctive diacritics, such as ç.

Types of graphemes[edit]

The principal types of phonographic graphemes are logograms, which represent words or morphemes (for example Chinese characters, the ampersand & representing the English word and, Arabic numerals); syllabic characters, representing syllables (as in Japanese kana); and alphabetic letters, corresponding roughly to phonemes (see next section). For a full discussion of the different types, see Writing system: Functional classification of writing systems.

Not all graphemes are phonographic (write sounds). There are additional graphemic components used in writing, such as punctuation marks, mathematical symbols, word dividers such as the space, and other typographic symbols.

Correspondence between graphemes and phonemes[edit]

Main article: Phonemic orthography

As mentioned in the previous section, in languages that use alphabetic writing systems, the graphemes stand in principle for the phonemes (significant sounds) of the language. In practice, however, the orthographies of such languages entail at least a certain amount of deviation from the ideal of exact grapheme–phoneme correspondence. A phoneme may be represented by a multigraph (sequence of more than one grapheme), as the digraph sh represents a single sound in English (and sometimes a single grapheme may represent more than one phoneme, as with the Russian letter я). Some graphemes may not represent any sound at all (like the b in English debt), and often the rules of correspondence between graphemes and phonemes become complex or irregular, particularly as a result of historical sound changes that are not necessarily reflected in spelling. "Shallow" orthographies such as those of standard Spanish and Finnish have relatively regular (though not always one-to-one) correspondence between graphemes and phonemes, while those of French and English have much less regular correspondence, and are known as deep orthographies.

Multigraphs representing a single phoneme are normally treated as combinations of separate letters, not as graphemes in their own right. However in some languages a multigraph may be treated as a single unit for the purposes of collation; for example, in a Czech dictionary, the section for words that start with ch comes after that for h.[2] For more examples, see Alphabetical order: Language-specific conventions.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, second edition, Cambridge University Press, 1997, p. 196
  2. ^ Zeman, Dan. "Czech Alphabet, Code Page, Keyboard, and Sorting Order". Old-site.clsp.jhu.edu. Retrieved 31 March 2012. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grapheme — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
1617 videos foundNext > 

What is a grapheme?

This tutorial by PhonicBooks explains the term 'grapheme' and demonstrates how graphemes spell sounds in words. This is a useful presentation aimed at teache...

Graphemes with Gestures

Use hand gestures to help recall the sounds of the graphemes.

Phase 2 grapheme recognition

This is a video clip from the DfES Letters and Sounds Programme (2007) used to teach children to read in many schools. This clip shows children learning and ...

Grapheme - phoneme correspondences with the phonics teaching toolkit: 'ough' words

While phonemes can be associated with several graphemes, the reverse is also true: the same spelling can be associated with more than one sound. In this tuto...

Graphemes 1 to 26

Practice pronouncing the sounds of the graphemes.

JUBA - GRAPHEME

VÍDEO EXCLUSIVO VICE Videoclip da faixa "Grapheme", do primeiro disco dos JUBA, o longa-duração Mynah. Realização / Edição: Ansel Yen Produção: Miguel Coelho...

DJ Spooky- 10 Grapheme

Songs Of A Dead Dreamer.

Career Girls: Color Grapheme Synesthesia- Structural Biologist Erica Ollmann Saphire

Structural Biologist Erica Ollmann Saphire offers career guidance and advice to girls. Visit CareerGirls.org: http://www.careergirls.org Like us on Facebook:...

Ben Neill - Sistrum (DJ Spooky Grapheme Remix)

DJ Spooky's Grapheme remix http://www.benneill.com/ From Necropolis: Dialog Project 1996 Songs of a Dead Dreamer 2002.

Christoper Noyes "Grapheme" official music video

Artist: Christoper Noyes Song: "Grapheme" Album: Grapheme Director/DP/Editor: Brian Macaione :: bmdvpro.com christopernoyes.bandcamp.com.

1617 videos foundNext > 

37 news items

 
Gadget Review (blog)
Fri, 17 Oct 2014 14:26:56 -0700

It's available with all international power plugs and you just plug into a power socket to illuminate its lights as it takes in 1,500mAh of charge into the grapheme supercapacitor, which is enough to charge an iPhone 5 from flat to 100%, an iPhone 6 or ...
 
Labmate Online
Sat, 18 Oct 2014 23:00:00 -0700

Researchers at Swansea University's Centre for NanoHealth have developed a new sensor for rapid assessment of increased cancer risk. The grapheme biosensor, which can be armed with bioreceptor molecules targeted at specific molecules in urine, ...
 
Reading Today Online
Tue, 14 Oct 2014 02:45:00 -0700

They explained grapheme/phoneme understanding is still critically important to understanding the language, but we cannot possibly know how a word will be pronounced (or read) until we know how it appears within a grammatical and morphological context.
 
PR Newswire UK (press release)
Fri, 17 Oct 2014 05:45:00 -0700

Additionally, replacement of conventional silver, indium tin oxide (ITO), carbon nano tubes, grapheme, etc. in smartphones, OLEDs and LCDs with nanosilver is anticipated to boost the market. Furthermore, application of nanosilver in antimicrobial ...
 
The Australian
Thu, 09 Oct 2014 05:56:15 -0700

Graphite, with its ability to easily conduct heat and electrical current, is an important element in the production of lithium-ion batteries while its derivative grapheme — a material 200 times stronger than steel — is expected to transform ...

Mother Nature Network

Mother Nature Network
Sun, 05 Oct 2014 06:16:34 -0700

For example, my friend and I both have grapheme-color synesthesia — numbers and letters trigger a color experience, even though my experience differs from hers. Because her numbers have personalities, she also has a form of synesthesia known as ...
 
Times of India
Sun, 12 Oct 2014 11:56:15 -0700

The company wants to set up a project for grapheme water purification based on nano technology, and had sought 1,00,000 sq m of land at Shiroda industrial estate. The company was asked to submit its minimum requirement of land as their requirement was ...
 
The Dieline (blog)
Wed, 08 Oct 2014 04:37:30 -0700

"Specialists of the TWET art-group developed cute characters – hares consuming the product and a unique grapheme: 'Get Ready for a Daily Dozen!' It was important to show both the oatmeal cookies and the chocolate in the image of the product. Special ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!