digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Not to be confused with Graphene, Graphane, or Graphyne.

A grapheme is the smallest semantically distinguishing unit in a written language, analogous to the phonemes of spoken languages. A grapheme may or may not carry meaning by itself, and may or may not correspond to a single phoneme. Graphemes include alphabetic letters, typographic ligatures, Chinese characters, numerical digits, punctuation marks, and other individual symbols of any of the world's writing systems.

The word grapheme is derived from Greek γράφω gráphō ("write"), and the suffix -eme, by analogy with phoneme and other names of emic units. The study of graphemes is called graphemics.

A grapheme is an abstract concept, similar to a character in computing. A glyph is a specific shape that represents that grapheme, in a specific typeface. For example, the abstract concept of "the Arabic numeral one" is a grapheme, which would have two different glyphs (allographs) in the fonts Times New Roman and Helvetica.

Notation[edit]

Graphemes are often notated within angle brackets, as a, B, etc.[1] This is analogous to the slash notation (/a/, /b/) used for phonemes, and the square bracket notation used for phonetic transcriptions ([a], [b]).

Glyphs and allographs[edit]

Main article: Allography

In the same way that the surface forms of phonemes are speech sounds or phones (and different phones representing the same phoneme are called allophones), the surface forms of graphemes are glyphs (sometimes "graphs"), namely concrete written representations of symbols, and different glyphs representing the same grapheme are called allographs. Hence a grapheme can be regarded as an abstraction of a collection of glyphs that are all semantically equivalent.

For example, in written English (or other languages using the Latin alphabet), there are many different physical representations of the lowercase letter "a", such as a, ɑ, etc. But because the substitution of any of these for any other cannot change the meaning of a word, they are considered to be allographs of the same grapheme, which can be written a. Italic and bold face are also allographic.

There is some disagreement as to whether capital and lower-case letters are allographs or distinct graphemes. Capitals are generally found in certain triggering contexts which do not change the word: When used as a proper name, for example, or at the beginning of a sentence, or all caps in a newspaper headline. Some linguists consider digraphs like the sh in ship to be distinct graphemes, but these are generally analyzed as sequences of graphemes. Ligatures, however, such as æ, are distinct graphemes, as are various letters with distinctive diacritics, such as ç.

Types of graphemes[edit]

The principal types of phonographic graphemes are logograms, which represent words or morphemes (for example Chinese characters, the ampersand & representing the English word and, Arabic numerals); syllabic characters, representing syllables (as in Japanese kana); and alphabetic letters, corresponding roughly to phonemes (see next section). For a full discussion of the different types, see Writing system: Functional classification of writing systems.

Not all graphemes are phonographic (write sounds). There are additional graphemic components used in writing, such as punctuation marks, mathematical symbols, word dividers such as the space, and other typographic symbols.

Correspondence between graphemes and phonemes[edit]

Main article: Phonemic orthography

As mentioned in the previous section, in languages that use alphabetic writing systems, the graphemes stand in principle for the phonemes (significant sounds) of the language. In practice, however, the orthographies of such languages entail at least a certain amount of deviation from the ideal of exact grapheme–phoneme correspondence. A phoneme may be represented by a multigraph (sequence of more than one grapheme), as the digraph sh represents a single sound in English (and sometimes a single grapheme may represent more than one phoneme, as with the Russian letter я). Some graphemes may not represent any sound at all (like the b in English debt), and often the rules of correspondence between graphemes and phonemes become complex or irregular, particularly as a result of historical sound changes that are not necessarily reflected in spelling. "Shallow" orthographies such as those of standard Spanish and Finnish have relatively regular (though not always one-to-one) correspondence between graphemes and phonemes, while those of French and English have much less regular correspondence, and are known as deep orthographies.

Multigraphs representing a single phoneme are normally treated as combinations of separate letters, not as graphemes in their own right. However in some languages a multigraph may be treated as a single unit for the purposes of collation; for example, in a Czech dictionary, the section for words that start with ch comes after that for h.[2] For more examples, see Alphabetical order: Language-specific conventions.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, second edition, Cambridge University Press, 1997, p. 196
  2. ^ Zeman, Dan. "Czech Alphabet, Code Page, Keyboard, and Sorting Order". Old-site.clsp.jhu.edu. Retrieved 31 March 2012. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grapheme — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
1459 videos foundNext > 

What is a grapheme?

This tutorial by PhonicBooks explains the term 'grapheme' and demonstrates how graphemes spell sounds in words. This is a useful presentation aimed at teache...

Grapheme - phoneme correspondences with the phonics teaching toolkit: 'ough' words

While phonemes can be associated with several graphemes, the reverse is also true: the same spelling can be associated with more than one sound. In this tuto...

Graphemes with Gestures

Use hand gestures to help recall the sounds of the graphemes.

DJ Spooky- 10 Grapheme

Songs Of A Dead Dreamer.

JUBA - GRAPHEME

VÍDEO EXCLUSIVO VICE Videoclip da faixa "Grapheme", do primeiro disco dos JUBA, o longa-duração Mynah. Realização / Edição: Ansel Yen Produção: Miguel Coelho...

Graphemes 1 to 26

Practice pronouncing the sounds of the graphemes.

Phase 2 grapheme recognition

This is a video clip from the DfES Letters and Sounds Programme (2007) used to teach children to read in many schools. This clip shows children learning and ...

Career Girls: Color Grapheme Synesthesia- Structural Biologist Erica Ollmann Saphire

Structural Biologist Erica Ollmann Saphire offers career guidance and advice to girls. Visit CareerGirls.org: http://www.careergirls.org Like us on Facebook:...

Phase 3 Grapheme recall and making words

This is a video clip from the DfES Letters and Sounds Programme (2007) used to teach children to read in many schools. This clip shows a teacher helping chil...

THRASS UK PHONICS 1004SIO User Guide 09 - Word Bank Grapheme Catch-Alls

THRASS UK is licensed to serve customers in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, South America, Central America and the United States of America. For courses and...

1459 videos foundNext > 

35 news items

 
Seeking Alpha (registration)
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 12:18:45 -0700

We continue to regularly shift R&D tools from the position of carbon nanomaterials including grapheme which also is in early R&D stage for significant market. In summary, this gives us confidence in our short, mid and long term market position. Let's ...
 
Manufacturers' Monthly
Mon, 28 Jul 2014 18:18:45 -0700

The CEO said he believed that NanoCarbon had begun negotiations with several global manufacturers on “high performance graphene-based composite materials”, and that his company had entered the global market for grapheme technologies early ...

The Independent

The Independent
Sat, 26 Jul 2014 15:52:30 -0700

Ryan also has grapheme-colour synaesthesia – letters and days of the week have a colour – which he'll attempt to reflect aurally, too. "So Saturday is red, pencil-red, quite dark," he says. "The sound is very deep, very loud; volume is important. It's ...
 
gamesandlearning.org
Sun, 27 Jul 2014 17:56:15 -0700

But then making it interactive is the challenge – there are only so many ways you can represent matching a grapheme to a phoneme and make it fun. Antonio: One point to mention, we're using the terminology “teach” but there is actually a debate about ...
 
Washington Post
Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:00:00 -0700

Although not all of these experiences have been scientifically validated, there exist about 60 different reported forms of synaesthesia including grapheme-color synaesthesia, where a letter printed in black triggers a highly specific and consistent ...
 
IT Jungle
Sun, 13 Jul 2014 20:11:15 -0700

... billion will go towards exploring entirely different materials, including quantum computing, neurosynaptic computing, silicon photonics, carbon nanotubes, III-V compounds (named after the columns in the periodic table), low power transistors, and ...

Core77.com (blog)

Core77.com (blog)
Fri, 18 Jul 2014 09:13:05 -0700

As a graphic representation, it certainly invites free association, but as a glyph, Bélo is one degree removed from the letter "A," itself a grapheme, which is doubly abstracted: A signifier of linguistic import. But it's not just a matter of semantics ...

Android Headlines - Android News

Android Headlines - Android News
Sat, 12 Jul 2014 11:25:00 -0700

The attacks led by groups like Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (famous for their advances in quicker charging batteries utilizing grapheme sheets), ZAF Energy Systems (known for their recent reveal of air electrode batteries that function better ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Grapheme

You can talk about Grapheme with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!