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This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. For the European grapevine, see Vitis vinifera. For other uses, see Grape (disambiguation).
"White" table grapes

A grape is a fruiting berry of the deciduous woody vines of the botanical genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or they can be used for making wine, jam, juice, jelly, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar, and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters.

Grapes, red or green
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 288 kJ (69 kcal)
18.1 g
Sugars 15.48 g
Dietary fiber 0.9 g
0.16 g
0.72 g
Thiamine (B1)
0.069 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.07 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.188 mg
0.05 mg
Vitamin B6
0.086 mg
Folate (B9)
2 μg
5.6 mg
Vitamin C
3.2 mg
Vitamin E
0.19 mg
Vitamin K
14.6 μg
Trace metals
10 mg
0.36 mg
7 mg
0.071 mg
20 mg
191 mg
2 mg
0.07 mg
Other constituents
Fluoride 7.8 µg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database


The cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East.[1] The earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia.[2][3]

Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs naturally on the skins of grapes, leading to the innovation of alcoholic drinks such as wine. The earliest known production occurred around 8,000 years ago on the territory of Georgia.[4] During an extensive gene-mapping project, archaeologists analyzed the heritage of more than 110 modern grape cultivars, and narrowed their origin to a region in Georgia, where wine residues were also discovered on the inner surfaces of 8,000-year-old ceramic storage jars.[5] The oldest winery was found in Armenia, dating to around 4000 BC. By the 9th century AD the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East. Thus it has been proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz, a city in Persia where the grape was used to make Shirazi wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, and history attests to the ancient Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production. The growing of grapes would later spread to other regions in Europe, as well as North Africa, and eventually in North America.

In North America, native grapes belonging to various species of the Vitis genus proliferate in the wild across the continent, and were a part of the diet of many Native Americans, but were considered by European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. Vitis vinifera cultivars were imported for that purpose.


Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, and can be crimson, black, dark blue, yellow, green, orange and pink. "White" grapes are actually green in color, and are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins, which are responsible for the color of purple grapes.[6] Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines.[7][8] Grapes are typically an ellipsoid shape resembling a prolate spheroid.


Main article: Vitis
Concord is a variety of North American labrusca grape

Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as:

Distribution and production[edit]

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 75,866 square kilometers of the world are dedicated to grapes. Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, and 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural". The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year.

There are no reliable statistics that break down grape production by variety. It is believed that the most widely planted variety is Sultana, also known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 km2. (880,000 acres) dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Grenache, Tempranillo, Riesling and Chardonnay.[9]

Top producers of grapes for wine making, by area planted
Country Area (km²)
 Spain 11,750
 France 8,640
 Italy 8,270
 Turkey 8,120
 United States 4,150
 Iran 2,860
 Romania 2,480
 Portugal 2,160
 Argentina 2,080
 Chile 1,840
 Australia 1,642
 Armenia 1,459
Top grape producing countries by years
(in metric tons)
Rank Country 2009 2010 2011 2012
1  China 8,038,703 8,651,831 9,174,280 9,600,000 F
2  United States 6,629,198 6,777,731 6,756,449 6,661,820
3  Italy 8,242,500 7,787,800 7,115,500 5,819,010
4  France 6,101,525 5,794,433 6,588,904 5,338,512
5  Spain 5,535,333 6,107,617 5,809,315 5,238,300
6  Turkey 4,264,720 4,255,000 4,296,351 4,275,659
7  Chile 2,600,000 2,903,000 3,149,380 3,200,000 F
8  Argentina 2,181,567 2,616,613 2,750,000 2,800,000 F
9  Iran 2,305,000 2,225,000 2,240,000 2,150,000 F
10  South Africa 1,748,590 1,743,496 1,683,927 1,839,030
World 58,521,410 58,292,101 58,500,118 67,067,128
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization [10] (F=FAO estimate)

Table and wine grapes[edit]

Wine grapes on the vine

Commercially cultivated grapes can usually be classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw (table grapes) or used to make wine (wine grapes). While almost all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera, table and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding. Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit (see below) with relatively thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller, usually seeded, and have relatively thick skins (a desirable characteristic in winemaking, since much of the aroma in wine comes from the skin). Wine grapes also tend to be very sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is approximately 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes is usually around 15% sugar by weight.[11]

Seedless grapes[edit]

Seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings.[citation needed] Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction. It is an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques.

There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, and essentially all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, and Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are currently more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Benjamin Gunnels's Prime seedless grapes, Reliance and Venus, have been specifically cultivated for hardiness and quality in the relatively cold climates of northeastern United States and southern Ontario.[12]

An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical content of grape seeds (see Health claims, below).[13][14]

Raisins, currants and sultanas[edit]

In most of Europe and North America, dried grapes are referred to as "raisins" or the local equivalent. In the UK, three different varieties are recognized, forcing the EU to use the term "Dried vine fruit" in official documents.

A raisin is any dried grape. While raisin is a French loanword, the word in French refers to the fresh fruit; grappe (from which the English grape is derived) refers to the bunch (as in une grappe de raisins).

A currant is a dried Zante Black Corinth grape, the name being a corruption of the French raisin de Corinthe (Corinth grape). Currant has also come to refer to the blackcurrant and redcurrant, two berries unrelated to grapes.

A sultana was originally a raisin made from Sultana grapes of Turkish origin (known as Thompson Seedless in the United States), but the word is now applied to raisins made from either white grapes or red grapes that are bleached to resemble the traditional sultana.


Grape Juice

Grape juice is obtained from crushing and blending grapes into a liquid. The juice is often sold in stores or fermented and made into wine, brandy or vinegar. In the wine industry, grape juice that contains 7–23% of pulp, skins, stems and seeds is often referred to as "must". In North America, the most common grape juice is purple and made from Concord grapes while white grape juice is commonly made from Niagara grapes, both of which are varieties of native American grapes, a different species from European wine grapes. In California, Sultana (known there as Thompson Seedless) grapes are sometimes diverted from the raisin or table market to produce white juice.[15]

Health claims[edit]

French paradox[edit]

Main article: French paradox

Comparing diets among Western countries, researchers have discovered that although the French tend to eat higher levels of animal fat, the incidence of heart disease remains low in France. This phenomenon has been termed the French paradox, and is thought to occur from protective benefits of regularly consuming red wine. Apart from potential benefits of alcohol itself, including reduced platelet aggregation and vasodilation,[16] polyphenols (e.g., resveratrol) mainly in the grape skin provide other suspected health benefits, such as:[17]

Although adoption of wine consumption is not recommended by some health authorities,[18] a significant volume of research indicates moderate consumption, such as one glass of red wine a day for women and two for men, may confer health benefits.[19][20][21] Emerging evidence is that wine polyphenols like resveratrol[22] provide physiological benefit whereas alcohol itself may have protective effects on the cardiovascular system.[23] More may be seen in the article the Long-term effects of alcohol.


Main article: Resveratrol

Synthesized by many plants, resveratrol apparently serves antifungal and other defensive properties. Dietary resveratrol has been shown to modulate the metabolism of lipids and to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets.[24]

Resveratrol is found in widely varying amounts among grape varieties, primarily in their skins and seeds, which, in muscadine grapes, have about one hundred times higher concentration than pulp.[25] Fresh grape skin contains about 50 to 100 micrograms of resveratrol per gram.[26]

In vitro studies indicate that protection of the genome through antioxidant actions may be a general function of resveratrol.[27] In laboratory studies with mice, resveratrol has transcriptional overlap with the beneficial effects of calorie restriction in heart, skeletal muscle and brain. Both dietary interventions inhibit gene expression associated with heart and skeletal muscle aging, and prevent age-related heart failure.[28]

Resveratrol is the subject of several human clinical trials,[29] among which the most advanced is a one year dietary regimen in a Phase III study of elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease.[30]

Anthocyanins and other phenolics[edit]

Anatomical-style diagram of three grapes on their stalks. Two of the grapes are shown in cross-section with all their internal parts labeled.
Grape cross-section

Anthocyanins tend to be the main polyphenolics in purple grapes whereas flavan-3-ols (i.e. catechins) are the more abundant phenolic in white varieties.[31] Total phenolic content, a laboratory index of antioxidant strength, is higher in purple varieties due almost entirely to anthocyanin density in purple grape skin compared to absence of anthocyanins in white grape skin.[31] It is these anthocyanins that are attracting the efforts of scientists to define their properties for human health.[32] Phenolic content of grape skin varies with cultivar, soil composition, climate, geographic origin, and cultivation practices or exposure to diseases, such as fungal infections.

Red wine may offer health benefits more so than white because potentially beneficial compounds are present in grape skin, and only red wine is fermented with skins. The amount of fermentation time a wine spends in contact with grape skins is an important determinant of its resveratrol content.[33] Ordinary non-muscadine red wine contains between 0.2 and 5.8 mg/L,[34] depending on the grape variety, because it is fermented with the skins, allowing the wine to absorb the resveratrol. By contrast, a white wine contains lower phenolic contents because it is fermented after removal of skins.

Wines produced from muscadine grapes may contain more than 40 mg/L, an exceptional phenolic content.[25][35] In muscadine skins, ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and trans-resveratrol are major phenolics.[36] Contrary to previous results, ellagic acid and not resveratrol is the major phenolic in muscadine grapes.

The flavonols syringetin, syringetin 3-O-galactoside, laricitrin and laricitrin 3-O-galactoside are also found in purple grape but absent in white grape.[37]

Seed constituents[edit]

Biochemical and preliminary clinical studies have demonstrated potential biological properties of grape seed oligomeric procyanidins.[38] For example, laboratory tests indicated a potential anticancer effect from grape seed extract.[39] According to the American Cancer Society, "there is very little reliable scientific evidence available at this time that drinking red wine, eating grapes, or following the grape diet can prevent or treat cancer in people".[40]

Grape seed oil from crushed seeds is used in cosmeceuticals and skincare products for perceived health benefits. Grape seed oil contains tocopherols (vitamin E) and high contents of phytosterols and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid.[41][42][43]

Concord grape juice[edit]

Commercial juice products from Concord grapes have been applied in medical research studies, showing potential benefits against the onset stage of cancer,[44] platelet aggregation and other risk factors of atherosclerosis,[45] loss of physical performance and mental acuity during aging[46] and hypertension in humans.[47]

Grape and raisin toxicity in dogs[edit]

The consumption of grapes and raisins presents a potential health threat to dogs. Their toxicity to dogs can cause the animal to develop acute renal failure (the sudden development of kidney failure) with anuria (a lack of urine production) and may be fatal.[48]

Religious significance[edit]

In the Bible, grapes are first mentioned when Noah grows them on his farm (Genesis 9:20–21). Instructions concerning wine are given in the book of Proverbs and in the book of Isaiah, such as in Proverbs 20:1 and Isaiah 5:20–25. Deuteronomy 18:3–5,14:22–27,16:13–15 tell of the use of wine during Jewish feasts. Grapes were also significant to both the Greeks and Romans, and their god of agriculture, Dionysus, was linked to grapes and wine, being frequently portrayed with grape leaves on his head.[49] Grapes are especially significant for Christians, who since the Early Church have used wine in their celebration of the Eucharist.[50] Views on the significance of the wine vary between denominations. In Christian art, grapes often represent the blood of Christ, such as the grape leaves in Caravaggio’s John the Baptist.

Use in religion[edit]

Grape juice, because of its non-alcoholic content, is commonly used by those Christians who oppose the partaking of alcoholic beverages, as the "cup" or "wine" in the Lord's Supper.[51]

The Catholic Church uses wine in the celebration of the Eucharist because it is part of the tradition passed down through the ages starting with Jesus Christ at the Last Supper, where Catholics believe the consecrated bread and wine literally become the body and blood of Jesus Christ, a dogma known as transubstantiation.[52] Wine is used (not grape juice) both due to its strong Scriptural roots, and also to follow the tradition set by the early Christian Church.[53] The Code of Canon Law of the Catholic Church (1983), Canon 924 says that the wine used must be natural, made from grapes of the vine, and not corrupt.[54] In some circumstances, a priest may obtain special permission to use grape juice for the consecration, however this is extremely rare and typically requires sufficient impetus to warrant such a dispensation, such as personal health of the priest.

Although alcohol is permitted in Judaism, grape juice is sometimes used as an alternative for kiddush on Shabbat and Jewish holidays and it has the same blessing as wine. Many authorities maintain that grape juice must be capable of turning into wine naturally in order to be used for kiddush. Common practice, however, is to use any kosher grape juice for kiddush.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ This, Patrice; Lacombe, Thierry and Thomash , Mark R. (2006). "Historical Origins and Genetic Diversity of Wine Grapes". Trends in Genetics 22 (9): 511–519. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2006.07.008. PMID 16872714. 
  2. ^ McGovern, Patrick E. (2003). Ancient Wine: The Search for the Origins of Viniculture. Princeton University Press. 
  3. ^ McGovern, P. E. "Georgia: Homeland of Winemaking and Viticulture". 
  4. ^ Keys, David (2003-12-28) Now that's what you call a real vintage: professor unearths 8,000-year-old wine. archaeology.ws.
  5. ^ [1]. europesfinestwines.com (2011-12-14). Retrieved on 2012-07-10.[dead link]
  6. ^ Walker, A. R.; Lee, E.; Bogs, J.; McDavid, D. A. J.; Thomas, M. R.; Robinson, S. P. (2007). "White grapes arose through the mutation of two similar and adjacent regulatory genes". The Plant Journal 49 (5): 772–785. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.02997.x. PMID 17316172.  edit
  7. ^ Waterhouse, A. L. (2002). "Wine phenolics". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 957: 21–36. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb02903.x. PMID 12074959.  edit
  8. ^ Brouillard, R.; Chassaing, S.; Fougerousse, A. (2003). "Why are grape/fresh wine anthocyanins so simple and why is it that red wine color lasts so long?". Phytochemistry 64 (7): 1179–1186. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00518-1. PMID 14599515.  edit
  9. ^ "The most widely planted grape in the world". freshplaza.com. 
  10. ^ "Production of Grape by countries". UN Food & Agriculture Organization. 2011. Retrieved 2014-02-12. 
  11. ^ "Wine Grapes and Grape-y Wines". Retrieved 03/07/2010. 
  12. ^ Reisch BI, Peterson DV, Martens M-H. "Seedless Grapes", in "Table Grape Varieties for Cool Climates", Information Bulletin 234, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, retrieved December 30, 2008
  13. ^ Shi, J.; Yu, J.; Pohorly, J. E.; Kakuda, Y. (2003). "Polyphenolics in Grape Seeds—Biochemistry and Functionality". Journal of Medicinal Food 6 (4): 291–299. doi:10.1089/109662003772519831. PMID 14977436.  edit
  14. ^ Parry, J.; Su, L.; Moore, J.; Cheng, Z.; Luther, M.; Rao, J. N.; Wang, J. Y.; Yu, L. L. (2006). "Chemical Compositions, Antioxidant Capacities, and Antiproliferative Activities of Selected Fruit Seed Flours". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54 (11): 3773–3778. doi:10.1021/jf060325k. PMID 16719495.  edit
  15. ^ "Thompson Seedless Grape Juice". sweetwatercellars.com. 
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  17. ^ Opie, L. H.; Lecour, S. (2007). "The red wine hypothesis: From concepts to protective signalling molecules". European Heart Journal 28 (14): 1683–1693. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehm149. PMID 17561496.  edit
  18. ^ Alcohol, wine and cardiovascular disease. American Heart Association
  19. ^ Alcohol. Harvard School of Public Health
  20. ^ Mukamal, K. J.; Kennedy, M.; Cushman, M.; Kuller, L. H.; Newman, A. B.; Polak, J.; Criqui, M. H.; Siscovick, D. S. (2007). "Alcohol Consumption and Lower Extremity Arterial Disease among Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study". American Journal of Epidemiology 167 (1): 34–41. doi:10.1093/aje/kwm274. PMID 17971339.  edit
  21. ^ De Lange, D. W.; Van De Wiel, A. (2004). "Drink to Prevent: Review on the Cardioprotective Mechanisms of Alcohol and Red Wine Polyphenols". Seminars in Vascular Medicine 4 (2): 173–186. doi:10.1055/s-2004-835376. PMID 15478039.  edit
  22. ^ Das, S.; Das, D. K. (2007). "Resveratrol: A therapeutic promise for cardiovascular diseases". Recent patents on cardiovascular drug discovery 2 (2): 133–138. doi:10.2174/157489007780832560. PMID 18221111.  edit
  23. ^ Sato, M.; Maulik, N.; Das, D. K. (2002). "Cardioprotection with alcohol: Role of both alcohol and polyphenolic antioxidants". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 957: 122–135. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb02911.x. PMID 12074967.  edit
  24. ^ Chan, W. K.; Delucchi, A. B. (2000). "Resveratrol, a red wine constituent, is a mechanism-based inactivator of cytochrome P450 3A4". Life sciences 67 (25): 3103–3112. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(00)00888-2. PMID 11125847.  edit
  25. ^ a b LeBlanc, MR (2005). "Cultivar, Juice Extraction, Ultra Violet Irradiation and Storage Influence the Stilbene Content of Muscadine Grapes (Vitis Rotundifolia Michx". PhD Dissertation. Louisiana State University. 
  26. ^ Li, X.; Wu, B.; Wang, L.; Li, S. (2006). "Extractable Amounts oftrans-Resveratrol in Seed and Berry Skin inVitisEvaluated at the Germplasm Level". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54 (23): 8804–8811. doi:10.1021/jf061722y. PMID 17090126.  edit
  27. ^ Gatz, S. A.; Wiesmuller, L. (2007). "Take a break--resveratrol in action on DNA". Carcinogenesis 29 (2): 321–332. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgm276. PMID 18174251.  edit
  28. ^ Barger, J. L.; Kayo, T.; Vann, J. M.; Arias, E. B.; Wang, J.; Hacker, T. A.; Wang, Y.; Raederstorff, D.; Morrow, J. D. et al. (2008). "A Low Dose of Dietary Resveratrol Partially Mimics Caloric Restriction and Retards Aging Parameters in Mice". In Tomé, Daniel. PLoS ONE 3 (6): e2264. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002264. PMC 2386967. PMID 18523577.  edit
  29. ^ "Listing of resveratrol clinical trials". U.S. National Institutes of Health. 
  30. ^ "Randomized Trial of a Nutritional Supplement in Alzheimer's Disease". U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. May 2008. 
  31. ^ a b Cantos, E.; Espín, J. C.; Tomás-Barberán, F. A. (2002). "Varietal differences among the polyphenol profiles of seven table grape cultivars studied by LC-DAD-MS-MS". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 50 (20): 5691–5696. doi:10.1021/jf0204102. PMID 12236700.  edit
  32. ^ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Presents Research from the 2007 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium[dead link], Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry ACS Publications, February 2008
  33. ^ Resveratrol. Pennington Nutrition Series 2005 No. 7. pbrc.edu
  34. ^ Gu, X.; Creasy, L.; Kester, A.; Zeece, M. (1999). "Capillary electrophoretic determination of resveratrol in wines". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 47 (8): 3223–3227. doi:10.1021/jf981211e. PMID 10552635.  edit
  35. ^ Ector BJ, Magee JB, Hegwood CP, Coign MJ (1996). "Resveratrol Concentration in Muscadine Berries, Juice, Pomace, Purees, Seeds, and Wines". Am. J. Enol. Vitic 47 (1): 57–62. 
  36. ^ Pastrana-Bonilla, E.; Akoh, C. C.; Sellappan, S.; Krewer, G. (2003). "Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Muscadine Grapes". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51 (18): 5497–5503. doi:10.1021/jf030113c. PMID 12926904.  edit
  37. ^ Mattivi, F.; Guzzon, R.; Vrhovsek, U.; Stefanini, M.; Velasco, R. (2006). "Metabolite Profiling of Grape:  Flavonols and Anthocyanins". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54 (20): 7692–7702. doi:10.1021/jf061538c. PMID 17002441.  edit
  38. ^ Bagchi, D.; Bagchi, M.; Stohs, S. J.; Das, D. K.; Ray, S. D.; Kuszynski, C. A.; Joshi, S. S.; Pruess, H. G. (2000). "Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: Importance in human health and disease prevention". Toxicology 148 (2–3): 187–197. doi:10.1016/S0300-483X(00)00210-9. PMID 10962138.  edit
  39. ^ Agarwal, C.; Singh, R. P.; Agarwal, R. (2002). "Grape seed extract induces apoptotic death of human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells via caspases activation accompanied by dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release". Carcinogenesis 23 (11): 1869–1876. doi:10.1093/carcin/23.11.1869. PMID 12419835.  edit
  40. ^ "Grapes". American Cancer Society. 1 November 2011. Retrieved August 2013. 
  41. ^ Beveridge, T. H. J.; Girard, B.; Kopp, T.; Drover, J. C. G. (2005). "Yield and Composition of Grape Seed Oils Extracted by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Petroleum Ether:  Varietal Effects". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (5): 1799–1804. doi:10.1021/jf040295q. PMID 15740076.  edit
  42. ^ Crews, C.; Hough, P.; Godward, J.; Brereton, P.; Lees, M.; Guiet, S.; Winkelmann, W. (2006). "Quantitation of the Main Constituents of Some Authentic Grape-Seed Oils of Different Origin". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54 (17): 6261–6265. doi:10.1021/jf060338y. PMID 16910717.  edit
  43. ^ Tangolar, S. G. K.; Özoğul, Y. I.; Tangolar, >S.; Torun, A. (2009). "Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes". International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 60 (1): 32–39. doi:10.1080/09637480701581551. PMID 17886077.  edit
  44. ^ Jung, K. J.; Wallig, M. A.; Singletary, K. W. (2006). "Purple grape juice inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz\a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis and in vivo DMBA-DNA adduct formation". Cancer Letters 233 (2): 279–288. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2005.03.020. PMID 15878797.  edit
  45. ^ Shanmuganayagam, D.; Warner, T. F.; Krueger, C. G.; Reed, J. D.; Folts, J. D. (2007). "Concord grape juice attenuates platelet aggregation, serum cholesterol and development of atheroma in hypercholesterolemic rabbits". Atherosclerosis 190 (1): 135–142. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2006.03.017. PMID 16780846.  edit
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  47. ^ Park, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kang, M. H. (2004). "Concord grape juice supplementation reduces blood pressure in Korean hypertensive men: Double-blind, placebo controlled intervention trial". BioFactors (Oxford, England) 22 (1–4): 145–147. doi:10.1002/biof.5520220128. PMID 15630270.  edit
  48. ^ Raisins/Grapes. The Merck Veterinary Manual
  49. ^ Grape Leaf Significance. Garden Guides. Retrieved on 2012-05-28.
  50. ^ Justin Martyr, First Apology, and Chapters LXV and LXVII of The Ante-Nicene Fathers.
  51. ^ "Why do most Methodist churches serve grape juice instead of wine for Holy Communion?". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved 2007-07-07. 
  52. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1413". Vatican.va. Retrieved 2012-02-01. 
  53. ^ "The Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist". Newadvent.org. 1909-05-01. Retrieved 2012-02-01. 
  54. ^ "Altar wine, Catholic encyclopedia". Newadvent.org. 1907-03-01. Retrieved 2012-02-01. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Creasy, G. L. and L. L. Creasy. (2009). Grapes (Crop Production Science in Horticulture). CABI. ISBN 978-1-84593-401-9
  • Media related to Grapes at Wikimedia Commons

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Training grape vines.From Beginning To Canopy.pt6

I have put together a video from near beginning of creating a trunk and cordons to clusters flowering and my first year grapes that were sweet as honey. I ho...

How to Care for Grapes, Grow Perfect Grapes

Go To: http://tinyurl.com/grape-growing-special for new complete grape growing system grow grapes 9900 pruning grape 9900 grapes seedless 9900 concord grapes...

Pellenc Optimum Grape Harvester

www.vinetechequipment.com 509-788-0900 Pellenc's New Grape harvester! 99.82% clean grapes. Touch screen controls. Up to 43% percent fuel savings with new eng...

Grape Trellis Systems

http://www.totalwinesystem.com (Michael James) Video#4 of the "Wine Tips" Video Series. This video covers Why a trellis is important, The types of trellis's,...

Atlanta Grape Lady

Don't taunt the grapes! Check out the genuine look of concern on the morning news anchors...."We'll try and check on her and get back to you as soon as we can."

David Letterman's Grape Break

It's time for Dave's Grape Break!

Building a Grape Trellis

Oklahoma Gardening's Kim Rebek begins preparation for planting grapes in the small fruits garden by constructing a grape trellis system to support the weight...

HOW TO GROW grapevines from GROCERY STORE grapes. 1

The morning gardeners show, This shows design to inform and educate people on how to eat better food and save money at the same time. . http://wormcastingsbe...

Propagating Grape Plants as Hardwood Cuttings

Learn how to grow new grape plants from hardwood grape cuttings. Find more here: http://mikesbackyardnursery.com/2014/01/how-to-propagate-grapes-from-hardwoo...

1000000 videos foundNext > 

28388 news items

Mid Columbia Tri City Herald

Mid Columbia Tri City Herald
Mon, 01 Sep 2014 20:45:00 -0700

Kennewick Irrigation District worked out a few of the bugs in the new system to bring Yakima River water to prime wine grape growing land on Red Mountain near Benton City. But KID officials plan on more testing for the system before the irrigation ...
The Journal News / Lohud.com
Mon, 01 Sep 2014 20:56:15 -0700

In a photo taped to a support beam near the cash register at his wine shop, Grape Expectations in Tarrytown, you can see a young, smiling Sarofeen, surrounded by wrapping paper, inspecting what appears to be a bottle of Finger Lakes riesling. "So I ...

News & Observer

News & Observer
Mon, 01 Sep 2014 17:04:13 -0700

The Moores chose to continue being the owners of one of the state's more than 100 wineries and closed Hard Rock earlier this year. Rock of Ages grows 17 grape varieties of the state's native muscadine grapes and European-style vinifera grapes. Wines ...
Allentown Morning Call
Sun, 31 Aug 2014 20:53:13 -0700

But when I was invited to represent The Morning Call as a member of the media team at the 2014 Allentown Fair Celebrity Grape Stomp, I jumped right in — with both feet. Naturally, it didn't hurt that they'd dangled the word "celebrity" in front of me.


Bloomington Pantagraph
Mon, 01 Sep 2014 05:00:00 -0700

Kumpf clearly was the underdog in a field of eight contestants competing in a Lucy look-alike contest Sunday at the seventh annual Grape Stomp and Harvest Festival at the Mackinaw Valley Vineyard in rural Mackinaw. He quickly became a crowd favorite, ...

Dallas Observer (blog)

Dallas Observer (blog)
Tue, 02 Sep 2014 04:03:45 -0700

This week I'm changing things up a little from the regular pit master path, and I'm asking Chef Brian C. Luscher of The Grape Restaurant how he smokes his brisket. Luscher is a two-time competitor at a barbecue competition and charity event that I ...
Sun, 31 Aug 2014 18:41:15 -0700

For the first time since 2005, grape growers have been given the go-ahead to buy grapes from other parts of the country in order to make a go of it. Last winter was exceptionally long and with temperatures on the colder side of average. This caused ...
Allentown Morning Call
Sun, 31 Aug 2014 19:05:20 -0700

Members of the media competed against local politicians in a celebrity grape-stomping contest at The Great Allentown Fair on Sunday afternoon. After a close competition the media won the event by stomping the most grape juice. Members of the media ...

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