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This article is about attempts to merge, or harmonize, the Christian canonical gospels. For harmony in Christian Gospel music, see Gospel music.
The Four Evangelists by Jacob Jordaens, 1625–1630, Louvre.
Events in the
Life of Jesus
according to the Gospels
Life of Jesus
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A Gospel harmony is an attempt to compile the Christian canonical gospels into a single account.[1] This may take the form either of a single, merged narrative, or a tabular format with one column for each gospel, technically known as a 'synopsis', although the word 'harmony' is often used for both.[1] Harmonies are constructed to establish a chronology of events in the life of Jesus depicted in the canonical gospels, to better understand how the accounts relate to each other, or to establish events in the life of Jesus.[2]

The construction of harmonies has always been favoured by more conservative scholars. Students of higher criticism, on the other hand, see the divergences between the Gospel accounts as reflecting the construction of traditions by the early Christian communities.[3] In the modern era, attempts to construct a single story have largely been abandoned in favour of laying out the accounts in parallel columns for comparison, to allow critical study of the differences between them.[4]

The earliest known harmony is the Diatessaron by Tatian in the 2nd century and variations based on the Diatessaron continued to appear in the Middle Ages.[5][6] The 16th century witnessed a major increase in the introduction of Gospel harmonies and the parallel column structure became widespread.[7] At this time visual representations also started appearing, depicting the Life of Christ in terms of a "pictorial gospel harmony", and the trend continued into the 19th–20th centuries.[8][9]

Overview[edit]

A Gospel harmony is an attempt to collate the Christian canonical gospels into a single gospel account.[1] Gospel harmonies are constructed and studied by scholars to establish a coherent chronology of the events depicted in the four canonical gospels in the life of Jesus, to better understand how the accounts relate to each other, and to critically evaluate their differences.[2][10]

One approach to harmonising consists of merging the stories into a single narrative, although as John Barton points out, it is impossible to construct a single account from the four Gospels without changing the individual accounts.[11] This approach, almost as old as the gospels themselves, has largely been abandoned in the modern era.[12] Another approach is that of rationalisation – attempting to show that inconsistencies between Gospel accounts are only apparent, an approach Barton says is associated, in the English-speaking world at least, with fundamentalism.[13] A major problem with harmonizing the accounts is that events are often described in a different order – the Synoptic Gospels, for instance, describe Jesus overturning tables in the Temple at Jerusalem at the end of his visit to the city, whereas in the Gospel of John account it happens at the beginning. Harmonists must either choose which they think is correct, or conclude that distinct events are described. Lutheran Theologian Andreas Osiander, for instance, proposed in Harmonia evangelica (1537) that there were three separate episodes.[14] A similar problem arises with the centurion whose servant is healed, at a distance. In the Matthew Gospel he comes to Jesus,[15] in the Luke version he sends Jewish elders.[16] Since these are clearly describing the same event, the harmonist must decide which is the more accurate description.[17]

The modern view, based on the broadly accepted principle that the Gospels of Matthew and Luke were written using the Gospel of Mark as a source, seeks to explain the differences between the texts in terms of this process. For example, the Mark Gospel describes John the Baptist as preaching the forgiveness of sins, a detail which is dropped by Matthew, perhaps in the belief that the forgiveness of sins was exclusive to Jesus.[18]

The terms harmony and synopsis have been used to refer to approaches that aim to achieve Gospel harmony, although they are different approaches.[1] Technically, a "harmony" weaves together sections of scripture into a narrative, merging the four Gospels. There are four main types of harmony: radical, synthetic, sequential and parallel.[1] A "synopsis", much like a parallel harmony focuses on key events and brings together similar texts or accounts in parallel format, usually in columns.[1] Harmonies may also have a visual form and be undertaken to create narratives for artistic purposes, as in the creation of picture compositions depicting the Life of Christ.[8]

To illustrate the concept of parallel harmony, a simple example of a "synopsis fragment" is shown here, consisting of just four episodes from the Passion.[19] A more comprehensive parallel harmony appears in a section below.

Event Matthew Mark Luke John
Crown of thorns Matthew 27:29 Mark 15:17 John 19:2–5
Blood curse Matthew 27:24–25
Carrying the cross Matthew 27:27–33 Mark 15:20–22 Luke 23:26–32 John 19:16–17
Crucifixion of Jesus Matthew 27:34–61 Mark 15:23–47 Luke 23:33–54 John 19:18–38

Unlike the example above, a textual approach to harmony does not use tables and columns but combines the verses in the gospels into a merged narrative, producing a piece of text longer than any individual gospel.[2]

The gospels accounts show a great deal of overall similarity, but the scholarly process for constructing a detailed harmony is complicated by issues of text or the uniqueness of material in each Gospel.[1] Specific issues at times resists distillation into a single harmonized chronology, as the variety of readings that appear in multiple harmony efforts attests. An example is determining whether Jesus cursed the fig tree before or after the Cleansing of the Temple.[1] However, the construction of harmonies remains an important element of biblical study and to gain a better understanding of the Gospel accounts of the life of Jesus.[1]

Early Church and Middle Ages[edit]

6–7th-century use of the Eusebian Canons to organize the contents of the gospels in the London Canon Tables.

Tatian's influential Diatessaron harmony which dates to about AD 160 was perhaps the very first harmony.[5][1][20] The Diatessaron reduced the number of verses in the four gospels from 3,780 to 2,769 without missing any event of teaching in the life of Jesus from any of the gospels.[1] Some scholars believe Tatian may have drawn on one or more noncanonical Gospels.[21] The Gospel of the Ebionites, composed about the same time, is believed to have been a gospel harmony.[22]

Variations based on the Diatessaron continued to appear in the Middle Ages, e.g. Codex Sangallensis (based on the 6th century Codex Fuldensis) dates to 830 and has a Latin column based on the Vulgate and an Old High German column that often resembles the Diatessaron, although errors frequently appear within it.[6] The Liege harmony in the Limburg dialect (Liege University library item 437) is a key Western source of the Diatessaron and dates to 1280, although published much later.[6][23] The two extant recensions of the Diatessaron in Medieval Italian are the single manuscript Venetian from the 13th or 14th century and the 26 manuscript Tuscan from the 14–15th century.[6][23]

In the 3rd century Ammonius of Alexandria developed the forerunner of modern synopsis (perhaps based on the Diatessaron) as the Ammonian Sections in which he started with the text of Matthew and copied along parallel events.[1][24] There are no extant copies of the harmony of Ammonius and it is only known from a single reference in the letter of Eusebius to Carpianus.[24] In the letter Eusebius also discusses his own approach, i.e. the Eusebian Canons in which the texts of the gospels are shown in parallel to help comparison among the four gospels.[24]

In the 5th century, Saint Augustine wrote extensively on the subject in his book Harmony of the Gospels.[25] Augustine viewed the variations in the gospel accounts in terms of the different focuses of the authors on Jesus: Matthew on royalty, Mark on humanity, Luke on priesthood and John on divinity.[26]

No major advances in Gospel harmony beyond Augustine emerged in the Middle Ages until the 15th century.[7] However, throughout the Middle Ages harmonies based on the principles of the Diatessaron continued to appear, e.g. the Liege harmony by Plooij in Middle Dutch, and the Pepysian harmony in Middle English.[23][24] The Pepysian harmony (Magdalene college, Cambridge, item Pepys 2498) dates to about 1400 and its name derives from having been owned by Samuel Pepys.[23]

15th–20th centuries[edit]

Cover of Branteghem's 1537 visual Gospel harmony, Antwerp[27]

In the 15th and the 16th centuries some new approaches to harmony began to appear, e.g. Jean Gerson produced a harmony which gave priority to the Gospel of John.[24] On the other hand John Calvin's approach focused on the three synoptic Gospels, and excluded the Gospel of John. [28][29]

By this time visual representations had also started appearing, for instance the 15th-century artist Lieven de Witte produced a set of about 200 woodcut images that depicted the Life of Christ in terms of a "pictorial gospel harmony" which then appeared in Willem van Branteghem's harmony published in Antwerp in 1537.[8][27] The importance of imagery is reflected in the title of Branteghem's well known work: The Life of Jesus Christ Skillfully Portrayed in Elegant Pictures Drawn from the Narratives of the Four Evangelists[27]

The 16th century witnessed a major increase in the introduction of Gospel harmonies. In this period the parallel column structure became widespread, partly in response to the rise of biblical criticism.[7] This new format was used to emphasize the trustworthiness of the Gospels. It is not clear who produced the very first parallel harmony, but Gerhard Mercator's 1569 system is a well-known example.[7][30] In terms of content and quality, Johann Jacob Griesbach's 1776 synopsis was a notable case.[7][30]

At the same time, the rise of modern Biblical criticism was instrumental in the decline of the traditional apologetic gospel harmony. The Enlightenment writer, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, observed:

Oh that most excellent Harmony, which can only reconcile two contradictory reports, both stemming from the evangelists, by inventing a third report, not a syllable of which is to be found in any individual evangelist![31]

W. G. Rushbrooke's 1880 Synopticon is at times considered a turning point in the history of the synopsis, as it was based on Markan priority, i.e. the assumption that the Gospel of Mark was the first to be written.[7] Thirteen years later, John Broadus used historical accounts to assign priorities in his harmony, while previous approaches had used feasts as the major milestones for dividing the life of Christ.[7]

In the 20th century, the Synopsis of the Four Gospels by Kurt Aland[32] came to be seen by some as "perhaps the standard for an in-depth study of the Gospels."[7] A key feature of Aland's work is the incorporation of the full text of the Gospel of John.[7] John Bernard Orchard's synopsis (which has the same title)[33] was of note in that it took the unusual approach of abandoning Markan priority and assuming the synopics were written in this order: Matthew, Luke, Mark.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Orville Daniel: A Harmony of the Four Gospels, 2nd Ed, Baker Books Pub.
  • R. Thomas & S. Gundry: The NIV Harmony of the Gospels, HarperCollins Pub.
  • Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8

Notes[edit]

This article incorporates work from A Harmony of the Gospels in Greek by Edward Robinson, a publication now in the public domain.
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Steven L. Cox, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels B&H Publishing ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 3–4
  2. ^ a b c Steven L. Cox, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels B&H Publishing ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 page 18
  3. ^ Steven L. Cox, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels B&H Publishing ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 1–2
  4. ^ The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Vol.4 (Eerdmans Publishing, 2005), page 39.
  5. ^ a b The Westminster Dictionary of New Testament and Early Christian Literature by David Edward Aune (Nov 30, 2003) ISBN 0664219179 page 190
  6. ^ a b c d Tatian and the Jewish Scriptures by Robert F. Shedinger (Jan 1, 2002) ISBN 9042910429 pages 28–32
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 6–8
  8. ^ a b c Seeing Beyond the Word: Visual Arts and the Calvinist Tradition by Paul Corby Finney 1999 ISBN 080283860X page 389
  9. ^ James Tissot: the Life of Christ : the complete set of 350 watercolors by Judith F. Dolkart, James Jacques 2009 ISBN 0872731642 pages 70–71
  10. ^ The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Vol.4 (Eerdmans Publishing, 2005), page 39.
  11. ^ John Barton, The Old Testament: Canon Literature and Theology Collected Essays of John Barton (Ashgate Publishing, 2013) page 59.
  12. ^ The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Vol.4 (Eerdmans Publishing, 2005), page 39.
  13. ^ John Barton, The Old Testament: Canon Literature and Theology Collected Essays of John Barton (Ashgate Publishing, 2013) page 59.
  14. ^ Graham Stanton, Gospel Truth? New Light on Jesus and the Gospels (HarperCollins, 1995) page 8; John S. Kloppenborg Verbin, "Is There a New Paradigm?", in Horrell, Tuckett (eds), Christology, Controversy, and Community: New Testament Essays in Honour of David R. Catchpole (BRILL, 2000), page 39.
  15. ^ Matthew 8:8–9
  16. ^ Luke 7:6–8
  17. ^ Mark Allan Powell, Jesus as a Figure in History: How Modern Historians View the Man from Galilee (Westminster John Knox Press, 1998), page 12–13.
  18. ^ Francis Watson, "Must the Gospels Agree?" in Stuart G. Hall, Jesus Christ Today: Studies of Christology in Various Contexts (Walter de Gruyter, 2009) page 72–73.
  19. ^ Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 207–211
  20. ^ The Westminster Dictionary of New Testament and Early Christian Literature by David Edward Aune (Nov 30, 2003) ISBN 0664219179 pages 127 and 211
  21. ^ Bart Ehrman, Zlatko Plese, The Apocryphal Gospels: Texts and Translations (Oxford University Press, 2011) page 231.
  22. ^ Ron Cameron, The Other Gospels: Non-canonical Gospel Texts (Westminster John Knox Press, 1982) page 103.
  23. ^ a b c d Patristic and Text-Critical Studies by Jan Krans and Joseph Verheyden (Dec 31, 2011) ISBN 9004192891 pages 188–190
  24. ^ a b c d e Encyclopedia Christianity: v. 4 by Erwin Fahlbusch (1 Jul 2004) ISBN 0802824161 page 41
  25. ^ Augustine through the ages: an encyclopedia by John C. Cavadini 1999 ISBN 0-8028-3843-X page 132
  26. ^ Christology, Controversy and Community by David G. Horell and Christopher M. Tuckett (8 Aug 2000) ISBN 9004116796 pages 37–40
  27. ^ a b c The Authority of the Word: Reflecting on Image and Text in Northern Europe, 1400–1700 by Celeste Brusati, Karl A. E. Enenkel and Walter S. Melion (Nov 2011) ISBN 9004215158 pages 2–6
  28. ^ John Calvin And the Printed Book by Jean François Gilmont (Nov 30, 2005) ISBN 1931112568 page 50
  29. ^ A Harmony of the Gospels: Matthew, Mark, and Luke by John Calvin, David W. Torrance,(Jul 17, 1995) ISBN 0802808026
  30. ^ a b What Have They Done to the Bible?: A History of Modern Biblical Interpretation by John Sandys-Wunsch (20 Aug 2005) ISBN 0814650287 page 35
  31. ^ Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Werke, 8.51-52, cited in Francis Watson, Gospel Writing: A Canonical Perspective (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2013), page 80.
  32. ^ Kurt Aland, 1982 Synopsis of the Four Gospels United Bible Societies ISBN 0-8267-0500-6
  33. ^ John Bernard Orchard, 1983 Synopsis of the Four Gospels T&T Clark Publishers ISBN 0-567-09331-X

External links[edit]


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