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Gomburza.jpg
Gomburza marker at Luneta Park

Gomburza or GOMBURZA is an acronym denoting the surnames of the priests Mariano Gomez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora, three Filipino priests who were executed on 17 February 1872 at Luneta Park in Bagumbayan, Philippines by Spanish colonial authorities on charges of subversion arising from the 1872 Cavite mutiny. Their execution had a profound effect on many Filipinos; José Rizal, the national hero, would dedicate his novel El filibusterismo to their memory.[1]

The uprising by workers in the Cavite Naval Yard was the pretext[2][3] needed by the authorities to redress a perceived humiliation from the principal objective, José Burgos, who threatened the established order.

Background[edit]

During the Spanish colonial period, four social class distinctions were observed in the islands. These were 1) Spaniards who were born in Spain— peninsulares, 2) Spaniards born in the colonies of Spain (Latin America or the Philippines)—insulares or criollos, 3) Spanish mestizos, Chinese mestizos or 'Indios' (natives) dwelling within or near the city (or town) and the church, and, finally, 4) Chinese or Sangley and rural Indios.[4]

Burgos was a criollo, a Doctor of Philosophy[citation needed] whose prominence extended even to Spain, such that when the new Governor and Captain-General Carlos María de la Torre arrived from Spain to assume his duties, he invited Burgos to sit beside him in his carriage during the inaugural procession, a place traditionally reserved for the Archbishop and who was a peninsular Spaniard. The arrival of the liberal de la Torre was opposed by the ruling minority of friars, regular priests who belonged to an order (Dominicans, Augustinians, Recollects, and Franciscans) and their allies in civil government, but supported by the secular priests, most of whom were mestizos and indios assigned to parishes and far-flung communities, who believed that the reforms and the equality they wanted with peninsular Spaniards coming. In less than two years, de la Torre was replaced by Rafael de Izquierdo.

The Cavite Mutiny[edit]

Main article: 1872 Cavite mutiny

The so-called Cavite Mutiny of workers in the arsenal of the naval shipyard over pay reduction owing to increased taxation produced a willing witness to implicate the three priests, who were summarily tried and sentenced to death by garrote on February 17, 1872. The bodies of the three priests were buried in a common, unmarked grave in the Paco Cemetery, in keeping with the practice of burying enemies of the state.[2] Significantly, in the archives of Spain, there is no record of how Izquierdo, himself a liberal, could have been influenced to authorize these executions.[citation needed] Gregorio Meliton Martinez, then the Archbishop of Manila, refused to defrock the priests, citing they did not break any canon law. He ordered the bells of every church to be rung in honor of the executed priests. The aftermath of the investigation produced scores of suspects, most of whom were exiled to Guam in the Marianas. Except for a few who managed to escape to other ports like Hong Kong, most of the suspects died.

Recovery of remains[edit]

Grave site of Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora in Paco Park, Manila.

Early in 1998, bones believed to belong to one of the three executed priests were discovered at the Paco Park Cemetery by the Manila City Engineers Office.[5]

Gomburza sculpture at Parish of the Holy Sacrifice.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984). Philippine History and Government. National Bookstore Printing Press. 

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Nationalista Party History". Archived from the original on 2007-06-27. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  2. ^ a b "The Secularization Issue and the Execution of Gomburza". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  3. ^ "Padre Jose Ma. Burgos". Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  4. ^ "Hidalgo and Luna: Vexed Modernity". Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  5. ^ Casipit, Jennifer R. "GOMBURZA. Reluctant martyrs started it all". Retrieved 2007-07-30. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gomburza — Please support Wikipedia.
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5 news items

Banat

Banat
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 01:48:45 -0700

MANILA, Philippines - In line with the celebration of the National Heroes Day, let us all relive the greatness of our heroes who struggled and sacrificed their lives to free the Philippines from oppression and from the chains of other countries who ...
 
Inquirer.net
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 11:22:30 -0700

Long before he led Katipuneros in tearing up their cedula, a symbol of their defiance of Spanish colonial authority, so many of his country folk, like Gomburza, bravely defied the Spaniards. While many others, like the weeping Filipinos in the vignette ...
 
Sun.Star
Sun, 14 Sep 2014 08:11:15 -0700

Burgos, named after martyred priest Jose Burgos of the famous Gomburza, is the last town in the northwest corner of Ilocos Norte. It is where the historic Cape Bojeador Lighthouse, also known as the Burgos Lighthouse, which was established during the ...
 
BusinessWorld Online Edition
Thu, 11 Sep 2014 08:27:32 -0700

17, 1872, execution of Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora -- insulares reformists in the Spanish clergy -- became a catalyst for the Propaganda Movement of Jose Rizal and Marcelo del Pilar, among other patriots, and “GomBurZa” resonated ...
 
Sun.Star
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 05:51:11 -0700

Two of the three in GOMBURZA were born this month. The "GOM", Father Mariano Gomez on August 2, 1799 and the "ZA", Father Jacinto Zamora on August 14, 1835. Marcelo H. Del Pilar, editor of the La Solidaridad, was born on August 30, 1850. Nationalist ...
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