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Gomburza.jpg
Gomburza marker at Luneta Park

Gomburza or GOMBURZA is an acronym denoting the surnames of the priests Mariano Gomez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora, three Filipino priests who were executed on 17 February 1872 at Luneta Park in Bagumbayan, Philippines by Spanish colonial authorities on charges of subversion arising from the 1872 Cavite mutiny. Their execution had a profound effect on many Filipinos; José Rizal, the national hero, would dedicate his novel El filibusterismo to their memory.[1]

The uprising by workers in the Cavite Naval Yard was the pretext[2][3] needed by the authorities to redress a perceived humiliation from the principal objective, José Burgos, who threatened the established order.

Background[edit]

During the Spanish colonial period, four social class distinctions were observed in the islands. These were 1) Spaniards who were born in Spain— peninsulares, 2) Spaniards born in the colonies of Spain (Latin America or the Philippines)—insulares or criollos, 3) Spanish mestizos, Chinese mestizos or 'Indios' (natives) dwelling within or near the city (or town) and the church, and, finally, 4) Chinese or Sangley and rural Indios.[4]

Burgos was a criollo, a Doctor of Philosophy[citation needed] whose prominence extended even to Spain, such that when the new Governor and Captain-General Carlos María de la Torre arrived from Spain to assume his duties, he invited Burgos to sit beside him in his carriage during the inaugural procession, a place traditionally reserved for the Archbishop and who was a peninsular Spaniard. The arrival of the liberal de la Torre was opposed by the ruling minority of friars, regular priests who belonged to an order (Dominicans, Augustinians, Recollects, and Franciscans) and their allies in civil government, but supported by the secular priests, most of whom were mestizos and indios assigned to parishes and far-flung communities, who believed that the reforms and the equality they wanted with peninsular Spaniards coming. In less than two years, de la Torre was replaced by Rafael de Izquierdo.

The Cavite Mutiny[edit]

Main article: 1872 Cavite mutiny

The so-called Cavite Mutiny of workers in the arsenal of the naval shipyard over pay reduction owing to increased taxation produced a willing witness to implicate the three priests, who were summarily tried and sentenced to death by garrote on February 17, 1872. The bodies of the three priests were buried in a common, unmarked grave in the Paco Cemetery, in keeping with the practice of burying enemies of the state.[2] Significantly, in the archives of Spain, there is no record of how Izquierdo, himself a liberal, could have been influenced to authorize these executions.[citation needed] Gregorio Meliton Martinez, then the Archbishop of Manila, refused to defrock the priests, citing they did not break any canon law. He ordered the bells of every church to be rung in honor of the executed priests. The aftermath of the investigation produced scores of suspects, most of whom were exiled to Guam in the Marianas. Except for a few who managed to escape to other ports like Hong Kong, most of the suspects died.

Recovery of remains[edit]

Grave site of Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora in Paco Park, Manila.

Early in 1998, bones believed to belong to one of the three executed priests were discovered at the Paco Park Cemetery by the Manila City Engineers Office.[5]

Gomburza sculpture at Parish of the Holy Sacrifice.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984). Philippine History and Government. National Bookstore Printing Press. 

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Nationalista Party History". Archived from the original on 2007-06-27. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  2. ^ a b "The Secularization Issue and the Execution of Gomburza". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  3. ^ "Padre Jose Ma. Burgos". Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  4. ^ "Hidalgo and Luna: Vexed Modernity". Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  5. ^ Casipit, Jennifer R. "GOMBURZA. Reluctant martyrs started it all". Retrieved 2007-07-30. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gomburza — Please support Wikipedia.
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87 news items

Inquirer.net

Inquirer.net
Sun, 22 Mar 2015 12:31:21 -0700

Gomburza” is dated 1970—three years before the centennial of the martyrdom of three priests who agitated for the nationalization of the Spaniard-dominated clergy. More dark colors in Jaime's bold expressionist strokes recapture that spark that ...
 
Inquirer.net
Tue, 17 Feb 2015 10:45:00 -0800

Textbook history makes it easier for us to remember the three priests as “Gomburza” (for Gomez, Burgos and Zamora). Who thought up this sequence? If we follow the alphabetical order, the acronym should be “Burgomza.” If we follow seniority at the time ...

Inquirer.net

Inquirer.net
Thu, 26 Feb 2015 10:00:00 -0800

So the Mamasapano massacre will not be like the execution of Gomburza, or Rizal, not if it does not stir us to love more our country, our freedom and our collective well-being. If we instead succumb to the fascination of speculation, of rumor or gossip ...
 
BusinessWorld Online Edition
Thu, 05 Mar 2015 07:00:00 -0800

Beside the former city jail is the house of José Burgos, one of the three martyred priests (along with Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora -- thus the portmanteau GomBurZa) who were accused of mutiny and garroted in 1872. The house is also under the care ...
 
Inquirer.net
Tue, 02 Sep 2008 00:00:00 -0700

The error etched and perpetuated in bronze is that Gomburza were martyred by strangulation using the garrote. That is what it looks like, but aren?t executions designed to be swift and relatively painless? To do otherwise is to indulge in cruel and ...

Rappler

Rappler
Thu, 22 Jan 2015 00:37:30 -0800

Consider Isaiah, St Francis (the Pope's namesake), Muntzer, Gomburza, Martin Luther King Jr, and Cardinal Arns of Sao Paulo (1983): to "subvert means to turn a situation around and look at it from the other side... the side of people who have to die so ...

Philippine Star

Philippine Star
Sun, 11 Jan 2015 07:56:15 -0800

Well before Rizal's martyrdom, or even that of GomBurZa, it had become an arena for executions, “as early as 1843 with the execution of 82 non-commissioned officers and soldiers of the Tayabas regiment.” While the numbers remain a gray area, it has ...
 
Inquirer.net
Mon, 12 Jan 2015 13:03:57 -0800

7; 143rd anniversary of the martyrdom of Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora (Gomburza), Feb. 17; 29th Edsa People Power anniversary, Feb. 22-25;. The 164th birth anniversary of Paciano Rizal, revolutionary and older brother of ...
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