digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















Not to be confused with Gluconeogenesis.

Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage. This process is activated during rest periods following the Cori cycle, in the liver, and also activated by insulin in response to high glucose levels, for example after a carbohydrate-containing meal.


  • Glucose is converted into glucose-6-phosphate by the action of glucokinase or hexokinase
  • Glucose-6-phosphate is converted into glucose-1-phosphate by the action of phosphoglucomutase, passing through the obligatory intermediate glucose-1,6-bisphosphate.
  • Glucose-1-phosphate is converted into UDP-glucose by the action of UTP through enzyme UDP-glucose phosphorylase. Pyrophosphate is formed, which is later hydrolysed by pyrophosphatase into two phosphate molecules.
  • Glycogenin, a homodimer, has a tyrosine residue on each subunit that serves as the anchor for the reducing end of glycogen. Initially, about eight UDP-glucose molecules are added to each tyrosine residue by glycogenin, forming α(1→4) bonds.
  • Once a chain of eight glucose monomers is formed, glycogen synthase binds to the growing glycogen chain and adds UDP-glucose to the 4-hydroxyl group of the glucosyl residue on the non-reducing end of the glycogen chain, forming more α(1→4) bonds in the process.
  • Branches are made by glycogen branching enzyme (also known as amylo-α(1:4)→α(1:6)transglycosylase), which transfers the end of the chain onto an earlier part via α-1:6 glycosidic bond, forming branches, which further grow by addition of more α-1:4 glycosidic units.

Control and regulations[edit]

Glycogenesis responds to hormonal control.

One of the main forms of control is the varied phosphorylation of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase. This is regulated by enzymes under the control of hormonal activity, which is in turn regulated by many factors. As such, there are many different possible effectors when compared to allosteric systems of regulation.

Epinephrine (Adrenaline)[edit]

See also: Epinephrine

Glycogen phosphorylase is activated by phosphorylation, whereas glycogen synthase is inhibited.

Glycogen phosphorylase is converted from its less active "b" form to an active "a" form by the enzyme phosphorylase kinase. This latter enzyme is itself activated by protein kinase A and deactivated by phosphoprotein phosphatase-1.

Protein kinase A itself is activated by the hormone adrenaline. Epinephrine binds to a receptor protein that activates adenylate cyclase. The latter enzyme causes the formation of cyclic AMP from ATP; two molecules of cyclic AMP bind to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A, which activates it allowing the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A to dissociate from the assembly and to phosphorylate other proteins.

Returning to glycogen phosphorylase, the less active "b" form can itself be activated without the conformational change. 5'AMP acts as an allosteric activator, whereas ATP is an inhibitor, as already seen with phosphofructokinase control, helping to change the rate of flux in response to energy demand.

Epinephrine not only activates glycogen phosphorylase but also inhibits glycogen synthase. This amplifies the effect of activating glycogen phosphorylase. This inhibition is achieved by a similar mechanism, as protein kinase A acts to phosphorylate the enzyme, which lowers activity. This is known as co-ordinate reciprocal control. Refer to glycolysis for further information of the regulation of glycogenesis.


See also: Insulin

Insulin has an antagonistic effect to epinephrine signaling via the beta-adrenergic receptor (G-Protein coupled receptor). When insulin binds to its receptor (insulin receptor), it results in the activation (phosphorylation) of Akt which in turn activates Phosphodiesterase (PDE). PDE then will inhibit cyclic AMP (cAMP) action and cause inactivation of PKA which will cause Hormone Sensitive Lipase (HSL) to be dephosphorylated and inactive so that lipolysis and lipogenesis is not occurring simultaneously.

Calcium ions[edit]

Calcium ions or cyclic AMP (cAMP) act as secondary messengers. This is an example of negative control. The calcium ions activate phosphorylase kinase. This activates glycogen phosphorylase and inhibits glycogen synthase.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycogenesis — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
2764 videos foundNext > 


www.SalmonellaPlace.com This is a tutorial/lecture on Glycogenesis. We cover some topics important for classes such as Biology, Biochemistry, Physiology, etc...

Human Metabolism Map II - Gluconeogenesis & Glycogenesis

http://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan Song: Angus & Julia Stone - Devil's Tears Image: https://docs.google.com/open?id=0B8Ss3-wJfHrpbTFkM3o0S3lSd1U.



Dr. Pepper delivers the basics on the glycogenesis pathway.

Animation of Glycogenesis

In order to store glycogen, the cell can undergo glycogenesis. This leads to long chains of glycogen molecules. The process of glycogenesis is more thoroughl...

Schneid Guide to Glycogenesis

Description of glycogenesis.

Glycogen: Glycogenesis

Review Questions What type of enzymes catalyze the formation of complex carbs by catalysing the formation of glycosidic bonds? The sugar that's added to the ...

Glycogenesis lecture by Dr. Bon

Glycogenesis lecture by Dr. Bon.

Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis by Dr AA & Dr XX

glycogenesis glycogenolysis

2764 videos foundNext > 

20 news items


Tue, 25 Nov 2014 05:32:55 -0800

WASHINGTON (AP) -- Consumers will soon know how many calories they are eating when ordering off the menu at chain restaurants, picking up prepared foods at supermarkets and even eating a tub of popcorn at the movie theater. The Food and Drug ...
Thu, 10 Apr 2014 09:12:30 -0700

But don't stuff your face with every carb-heavy food in your cabinet. You need to carefully craft your carb consumption. Glycogenesis is the process of storing carbs as energy. This energy source (muscle glycogen) is important to athletic performance ...


Mon, 31 Mar 2014 13:22:44 -0700

As the small intestine absorbs glucose, the pancreas releases insulin, which stimulates body tissues and causes them to absorb this glucose and metabolize it (a process known as glycogenesis). This stored glucose (glycogen) is used to maintain healthy ...

BioNews Texas

BioNews Texas
Mon, 07 Apr 2014 05:45:00 -0700

Overactivity of beta cells in the pancreas produce excess insulin (neonatal hyperinsulinism) due to structural, functional, or genetic abnormalities in the glucose-sensing mechanisms in the body. This causes glycogenesis in high rates in hepatic and ...
The Epoch Times
Sun, 27 Jul 2014 09:25:41 -0700

Could the long-sought after cure for type 1 diabetes be as close as your kitchen cupboard? An accumulating body of scientific research appears to point in exactly that direction. One so-called 'incurable disease' that afflicts millions of people around ...
Fri, 01 Mar 2013 02:28:28 -0800

Promethera Biosciences, a Belgian biotechnology company developing Promethera(R) HepaStem, a cell-based therapy for the treatment of liver-based metabolic diseases including Crigler-Najjar Syndrome and Urea Cycle Disorders, announced that it has ...
Medical News Today
Thu, 28 Apr 2011 10:07:31 -0700

... conditioning factors such as aerobic and anaerobic capacities, by improving physiological markers such as: red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum albumin, fasting glucose levels, a decrease in creatine phophokinase, increased ...
Wed, 18 Jan 2012 14:28:44 -0800

This past weekend, Science-ish was disappointed to read Margaret Wente's column on health evidence, in which she opined: “Today's health wisdom has a way of becoming tomorrow's bunk… This may help explain why all the standard diet and exercise ...

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight