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The Germanic Wars is a name given to a series of wars between the Romans and various Germanic tribes between 113 BCE and 596 CE. The nature of these wars varied through time between Roman conquest, Germanic uprisings and later Germanic invasions in the Roman Empire that started in the late 2nd century. The series of conflicts which began in the 5th century, under the Western Roman Emperor Honorius, led (along with internal strife) to the ultimate downfall of the Western Roman Empire.

Chronology[edit]

3rd century BCE[edit]

2nd century BCE[edit]

The Defeat of the Cimbri by Alexandre Gabriel Décamps

1st century BCE[edit]

Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Julius Caesar by Lionel Noel Royer, 1899
The Death of Cleopatra by Reginald Arthur, 1892

1st century[edit]

The Varus battle by Otto Albert Koch, 1909

2nd century[edit]

3rd century[edit]

The area (Agri Decumates) between Main and Rhine was evacuated in 259 CE, dozens of Roman camps were abandoned.

4th century[edit]

Empire of the Huns, pushing the Germanic tribes over the Limes into the Roman Empire.

5th century[edit]

Kingdom of the Vandals (yellow) and their allies the Sarmatian Alans before the Invasion of Roman Africa, c. 418
Kingdom of the Vandals in North Africa, c. 429.
Europe in the late 5th century (476 CE-486 CE).

6th century[edit]

Kingdom of the Visigoths (orange), Kingdom of the Suebi (green), Kingdom of the Burgundians, Kingdom of the Franks (purple), Kingdom of the Vandals (yellow), c. 490.
The Byzantine Empire at the End of the Antiquity in 565 CE.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Mommsen, Theodor. "History of Rome: Book IV - The Revolution". p. 67. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  2. ^ a b c d Theodor Mommsen, Römische Geschichte. Vol. 2. Von der Schlacht von Pydna bis auf Sullas Tod.. 3.Ed. Weidmann, Berlin 1861, S. 178. (German) (Roman History: From the battle of Pydna down to Sulla's death.) Römische Geschichte: Bd. Von der Schlacht von Pydna bis auf Sullas Tod
  3. ^ a b c d Mossman, Theodor (1908). History of Rome. New York: Charles Scribner's SOns. p. 71. Retrieved 9 October 2009. 
  4. ^ Florus, Epitome 1.38.16-17 and Valerius Maximus, Factorum et Dictorum Memorabilium 6.1.ext.3 (in Latin)
  5. ^ Caesar. In: Hans Herzfeld(de) (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 1: A-E. Das Fischer Lexikon(de) 37, Frankfurt 1963, p. 214. "Hauptquellen [betreffend Caesar]: Caesars eigene, wenn auch leicht tendenziöse Darstellungen des Gallischen und des Bürgerkrieges, die Musterbeispiele sachgemäßer Berichterstattung und stilistischer Klarheit sind" ("Main sources [regarding Caesar]: Caesar's own, even though slightly tendentious depictions of the Gallic and the Civil Wars, which are paradigms of pertinent information and stylistic clarity")
  6. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 1.31-53
  7. ^ Dio Cassius, Roman History 38.34-50; see also Plutarch, Life of Caesar 19
  8. ^ Smith, William (1867). "Ambiorix". In William Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 138–139. 
  9. ^ Florus, III. 10. § 8.
  10. ^ Birkhan, Helmut, 1997, Die Kelten, p. 238. (German) (The Celts)
  11. ^ Dio 54.1, 6, 10.
  12. ^ Eck, Werner, 2003, The age of Augustus, p. 55.
  13. ^ Suetonius, Augustus, 23, Tiberius, 12; Tacitus, Annals, I.10, III.48; Velleius II.97, 102; Pliny, Nat. Hist. IX.35 (58); Dio, liv.6.
  14. ^ Dio, Roman History, LIV.33.
  15. ^ Eck, Werner; translated by Deborah Lucas Schneider; new material by Sarolta A. Takács. (2003) The Age of Augustus. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing (hardcover, ISBN 0-631-22957-4; paperback, ISBN 0-631-22958-2).
  16. ^ Several examples by Max Ihm, s. v. Cheruski, in: Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (RE) III.2, Stuttgart 1899, cols. 2270–2272. (German))
  17. ^ "Chatti in Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopædia Britannica. September 2010. 
  18. ^ Velleius, Compendium of Roman History, book 2, 104,2.
  19. ^ Wells, Peter S. The Battle that stopped Rome. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 2003, p. 187 ISBN 0-393-32643-8
  20. ^ "The Ambush That Changed History". Fergus M. Bordewich, Smithsonian Magazine. September 2005. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  21. ^ "Germans under Arminius Revolt Against Rome". Edward Shepherd Creasy, The Great Events by Famous Historians, Vol. 2. 1905. 
  22. ^ Kevin Sweeney, Scholars look at factors surrounding Hermann’s victory. www.nujournal.com 2010-10.
  23. ^ Tacitus, Annals, XII.27
  24. ^ Dean-Jones, Lesley (1992), p. 144
  25. ^ a b Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, p. 18.
  26. ^ Jordanes, The Goths in the Third Century AD in THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS, translated by Charles C. Mierow, www.earth-history.com
  27. ^ Zosimus, Historia Nova, book 1.43
  28. ^ Syncellus, George, Extract of Chronography, p. 720.
  29. ^ Potter, David S., A Companion to the Roman Empire, p. 270
  30. ^ Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, book 1, chapter 8 & book 2, chapter 34.
  31. ^ Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 83-84.
  32. ^ Origo Constantini 6.32 mention the actions.
  33. ^ Eusebius, The Life of the Blessed Emperor Constantine, IV.6
  34. ^ Odahl, Charles M., Constantine and the Christian Empire, chapter X.
  35. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 27, chapter 5.
  36. ^ Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 115-116.
  37. ^ a b c Zosimus, Historia Nova, book 4.
  38. ^ a b Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 31, chapter 3.
  39. ^ a b c Philostorgius, Ecclesiastical history, book 9, chapter 17.
  40. ^ a b c Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, book 6, chapter 37.
  41. ^ a b Heather, Peter, 1998, The Goths, pp. 98-104.
  42. ^ a b Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 124-128.
  43. ^ Heather, Peter, 2010, Empires and barbarians, p. 215.
  44. ^ Heather, Peter, 1995, The English Historical Review, The Huns and the end of the Roman Empire in Western Europe
  45. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 31, chapters 5-16.
  46. ^ Socrates Scholasticus, The Ecclesiastical History, book 4, chapters 34-38 & book 5, chapter 1.
  47. ^ Heather, Peter, 1998, The Goths, pp. 130-138.
  48. ^ Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 130-153.
  49. ^ Hahn, Irene (2007). "The Day of the Barbarians: The Battle That Led to the Fall of the Roman Empire". Book review. http://romanhistorybooksandmore.freeservers.com. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  50. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 31, chapters 12–14.
  51. ^ Zosimus, Historia Nova, book 4.
  52. ^ Roman Empire – Adrianople roman-empire.net. Illustrated History of the Roman Empire. Retrieved April 2, 2007.
  53. ^ a b Heather, Peter, The Goths, p. 205
  54. ^ Jaques, Tony. Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007, ISBN 978-0-313-33538-9, p. 345.
  55. ^ a b Heather, Peter, The Goths, p. 194
  56. ^ Nennius (1859). J. A. Giles tr., ed. History of the Britons. London: Bohn. 
  57. ^ a b History of the Goths. University of California Press. 13 February 1990. Retrieved 5 April 2012. 
  58. ^ Vandals in Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)
  59. ^ ASC 485 Parker MS : This year Ælle fought with the Welsh nigh Mecred's- Burnsted.
  60. ^ ASC Parker MS. 491AD.
  61. ^ He was baptized by Saint Remigius, bishop of Reims.
  62. ^ See Daly 1994:640 and note).
  63. ^ The date of the death of Childeric, commonly given as 481/82, is thus calculated as fifteen years before Tolbiac, as dated by Gregory.
  64. ^ On-line text in English translation.
  65. ^ A single Frankish-Alemannic combat, in summer 506, is presented, for example, in J.M. Wallace-Hadrill, Long-Haired Kings p 168, or Rolf Weiss, Chlodwigs Taufe: Reims 508 (Bern) 1971; the debate is briefly summarised in William M. Daly, "Clovis: How Barbaric, How Pagan?" Speculum 69.3 (July 1994, pp. 619-664) p 620 note.
  66. ^ Ashe, Geoffrey, From Caesar to Arthur pp.295-8
  67. ^ R. Ernest Dupuy and Trevor N. Dupuy, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History From 3500 B.C. to the Present, Fourth Edition (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1993), 193.
  68. ^ C. Warren Hollister, The Making of England to 1399, Eighth Edition (New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), 31.
  69. ^ a b c "World Timeline of Europe AD 400-800 Early medieval". The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2009-04-06. 
  70. ^ Haldon, John, 2008, The Byzantine Wars, p. 39.
  71. ^ Amory, Patrick, 2003, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554.
  72. ^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 577.
  73. ^ Macbean, Lachlan (1924), Kirkcaldy Burgh and Schyre.

Further reading[edit]


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