The Germanic Wars is a name given to a series of wars between the Romans and various Germanic tribes between 113 BCE and 596 CE. The nature of these wars varied through time between Roman conquest, Germanic uprisings and later Germanic invasions in the Roman Empire that started in the late 2nd century. The series of conflicts which began in the 5th century, under the Western Roman Emperor Honorius, led (along with internal strife) to the ultimate downfall of the Western Roman Empire.
3rd century BCE
2nd century BCE
- 113–101 BCE, Germanic Collision with the Roman Republic, Cimbrian War, Begin of Germanic Wars.
- 112 BCE, Battle of Noreia, Suicide of Consul Gnaeus Papirius Carbo.
- 107 BCE, Helvetii defeat the Romans in the Battle of Agen, Consul Lucius Cassius Longinus dies in battle, General Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus dies in battle. (Battle against Allies of the Cimbri)
- 105 BCE, Battle of Arausio, Execution of Roman General Marcus Aurelius Scaurus, Proconsul Quintus Servilius Caepio and Consul Gnaeus Mallius Maximus exiled.
- 102 BCE, Consul Gaius Marius defeats the Scirii and Teutons in the Battle of Aquae Sextiae, Capture of King Teutobod, Extermination of the Teutons, Cimbri defeat Consul Quintus Lutatius Catulus in the Adige Valley.
- 101 BCE, Roman consuls Gaius Marius and Manius Aquillius defeat the Cimbri in the Battle of Vercellae, King Boiorix dies in battle, Extermination of the Cimbri.
1st century BCE
Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Julius Caesar
by Lionel Noel Royer
- 58–51 BCE, Cyprus becomes a Roman province, Conquest of Celtic Gaul to the Rhine by Julius Caesar, Gallic Wars.
- 58 BCE, Caesar decisively defeats the Helvetii in the Battle of the Arar and the Battle of Bibracte, Caesar decisively defeats the Suevi, led by Ariovistus, in the Battle of Vosges.
- 57 BCE, Battle of the Sabis.
- 55 BCE, Caesar's intervention against Usipetes and Tencteri, Caesar defeats a Germanic army then massacres the women and children, totalling 430,000 people, somewhere near the Meuse and Rhine rivers, Caesar's first crossing of the Rhine against the Suevi, Caesar's invasions of Britain.
- 54 BCE, Destruction of the legion Legio XIV Gemina by the Eburones led by Cativolcus and Ambiorix, Lucius Aurunculeius Cotta dies in battle, Quintus Titurius Sabinus dies in battle.
- 53 BCE, Caesar's retaliation against the Eburones second crossing of the Rhine, Extermination of the Eburones.
- 52 BCE, Fall of Celtic Gaul, Gaul becomes a Roman province.
- 49–45 BCE, Caesar's Civil War, Caesar appointed Roman dictator in Rome.
- 46 BCE, Execution of Vercingetorix the Celt.
- 44 BCE, Assassination of Julius Caesar.
- 32–30 BCE, Final War of the Roman Republic, Suicide of Mark Antony, Suicide of Cleopatra, Fall of the Ptolemaic Kingdom, Egypt becomes the Roman province of Aegyptus.
- 27 BC E, Octavian becomes Emperor under the name of Caesar Augustus, Begin of Julio-Claudian dynasty, Begin of the Principate, End of the Roman Republic, Octavian creates the Praetorian Guard, Construction of the Pantheon begins.
- 23 BCE, Coinage reform begins, Political crisis in Rome.
- 22–19 BCE, Artaxias II recaptures the throne of Armenia, Riots in Rome, Food shortages in some provinces.
- 20 BCE, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Governor of Transalpine Gaul, Construction of military roads and especially the military road Lugdunum--Divodurum--Treverorum--Agrippinensium (from Lyon to Cologne), Fall of the Kingdom of Armenia.
- 16 BCE, clades Lolliana, Destruction of the legion Legio V Alaudae by Sicambri and their allies, Fall of the Kingdom of Noricum.
- 16–13 BCE, Emperor Augustus on the Rhine, Reorganization of the Three Gauls (capital Trier), Decision to fortify the left bank of the Rhine and conquest of Germania to the Elbe, Rome pays tribute to the Frisii, Begin of invasions east of the Rhine by Rome, Construction of the modern city of Mainz begins.
- 12–9 BCE, Invasions of Drusus I up the Elbe from the North Sea, the Lippe and Main, Battle of the Lupia River, Cherusci and Sicambri subdued, Chatti, Tencteri and Usipetes are overrun, Establishment of new forts by Rome, Arminius and Flavus sent to Rome, Death of Roman General Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa.
- 9 BCE, Pannonia is incorporated in the Roman Empire as part of Illyria, Drusus I dies in an accident, Creation of Magna Germania (capital Cologne), Pacification campaigns against the Germanic tribes by the Roman Empire, Deportation of 40,000 Sicambri west of the Rhine.
- c. 7 BCE, The prophet Jesus is born in Judea.
- 6–2 BCE, A rabbit plague breaks out in the Balearic Islands, Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus' invasions to the Elbe, Construction of the Pontes Longi begins.
- 9, clades Variana, Destruction of the legions XVII, XVIII and XIX by Arminius in the Battle of Teutoburg Forest, Suicide of Administrator Varus, Loss of military camps east of the Rhine., Roman Empire is forced to strategically withdraw from Germania.
- 10–13, Military command of Tiberius in Germania and interventions in the valley of the Lippe, replaced by Germanicus, Construction of Limes Germanicus begins.
- 14, Death of Emperor Augustus, Tiberius becomes Emperor, Mutiny of the legions of Germania.
- 14–16, Roman retaliation against Cherusci, Chatti, Bructeri and Marsi, Capture of Arminius' wife.
- 17, Cessation of military offensives east of the Rhine by Tiberius, Civil war between Germanic tribes.
- 19, Death of Germanicus.
- 21, Assassination of Arminius.
- 28, Revolt of the Frisii, Tax collectors hanged, Romans defeated in the Battle of Baduhenna Wood.
- 37, Death of Emperor Tiberius and Maroboduus.
- 41, Assassination of Emperor Caligula, Raid against the Chauci under Emperor Claudius, Recovery of third legionary standard lost in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest.
- 43, Invasion of Britain by the Roman Empire, Fall of Britain.
- 50, Raid against the Chatti under Emperor Claudius, Liberation of Roman prisoners.
- 54, Death of Emperor Claudius.
- 64, Great Fire of Rome.
- 68, Suicide of Emperor Nero, End of Julio-Claudian dynasty.
- 69–70, Revolt of the Batavi, Destruction of 2 Roman legions by the Batavi, Year of the Four Emperors, Assassination of Emperor Galba, Suicide of Emperor Otho, Execution of Emperor Vitellius, Begin of Flavian dynasty, Fall of Jerusalem.
- 72, Construction of the Colosseum begins, Siege of Masada by Rome.
- 79, Downfall of Pompeii and Herculaneum, Death of Emperor Vespasian.
- 81, Death of Emperor Titus.
- 82–83, Raids against the Chatti under Emperor Domitian.
- 89, Lucius Antonius Saturninus, Legio XIV Gemina and Legio XXI Rapax revolt against Rome with aid of the Chatti.
- 96, Assassination of Emperor Domitian, End of Flavian dynasty, Begin of Nerva–Antonine dynasty.
- 98, Death of Emperor Nerva.
- c. 165, Invasion of Pannonia by Lombards and Ubii.
- 165–180, A pandemic kills an estimated 5 million people throughout the Roman Empire.
- 166–180, Germanic tribes invade the frontiers of the Roman Empire, specifically the provinces of Raetia and Moesia, Marcomannic Wars.
- 192, Assassination of Emperor Commodus, End of Nerva–Antonine dynasty, Roman civil war.
- 193, Year of the Five Emperors, Assassination of Emperor Pertinax by Praetorian Guard, Execution of Emperor Didius Julianus, Begin of Severan dynasty, Silver content of the Roman denarius falls to 50 percent.
- 194, Death of usurper Pescennius Niger.
- 197, Execution of usurper Clodius Albinus.
- 211, Death of Emperor Septimius Severus, Assassination of Emperor Publius Septimius Geta.
- 217, Assassination of Emperor Caracalla by Praetorian Guard.
- 218, Execution of Emperor Macrinus and his son by Praetorian Guard.
- 222, Assassination of Emperor Elagabalus and his mother.
- 224, Fall of the Parthian Empire.
- 235–284, Crisis of the Third Century.
- 235, Battle at the Harzhorn, Assassination of Emperor Alexander Severus, End of Severan dynasty.
- 238, Gothic raid on Istria, Year of the Six Emperors, Assassination of Emperor Maximinus Thrax and his son Gaius Julius Verus Maximus, Death of Emperor Gordian II, Suicide of Emperor Gordian I, Assassination of Emperor Pupienus, Assassination of Emperor Balbinus.
- 244, Assassination of Emperor Gordian III.
- 248–249, Raid in Marcianopolis by Goths.
- 249, Assassination of Emperor Philip the Arab.
- 250, Siege of Philippopolis by Goths led by Cniva.
- 251, Battle of Abritus, Emperor Decius dies in battle, Co-Emperor Herennius Etruscus dies in battle.
- 253, Assassination of Emperor Trebonianus Gallus, Assassination of Emperor Volusianus, Assassination of Emperor Aemilianus.
- 259, 300,000 Alemanni die in the Battle of Mediolanum (Milan).
- 259–260, Evacuation of the agrarian area Agri Decumates by the Roman Empire, Roman Empire retreats behind the Rhine.
- 260–274, Germanic usurper Postumus declares himself Emperor of the Gallic Empire including Roman Gaul, Roman Britain, Roman Spain and Germania.
- 264, Death of Emperor Valerian.
- c. 267–269, Invasion of the Goths, Battle of Thermopylae, Gothic attacks on Marcianopolis and Chrysopolis, Sack of Byzantium.
- 268, Siege of Mainz, Battle of Lake Benacus, Assassination of Emperor Gallienus, Death of Aurelius Heraclianus, Assassination of Gallic Emperor Postumus.
- 269, Siege of Augustodunum Haeduorum, Battle of Naissus, End of Gothic Invasion, Assassination of Gallic Emperor Marcus Aurelius Marius.
- 270, Emperor Claudius Gothicus dies from disease, Suicide of Emperor Quintillus.
- 271, Battle of Placentia, Battle of Fano, Battle of Pavia, Destruction of Alemannic army, Assassination of Gallic Emperor Victorinus, Emperor Aurelian repelled another Gothic invasion but abandoned the province of Dacia north of Danube forever, Construction of the Aurelian Wall begins.
- 273, Fall of the Palmyrene Empire.
- 274, Battle of Châlons, Surrender of the Gallic Empire.
- 275, Assassination of Emperor Aurelian by Praetorian Guard.
- 276, Assassination of Emperor Marcus Claudius Tacitus, Assassination of Emperor Florianus.
- 282, Assassination of Emperor Marcus Aurelius Probus.
- 283, Assassination of Emperor Carus.
- 284, Assassination of Emperor Numerian, Roman Empire divided into Eastern and Western ones, End of the Principate, Begin of the Dominate.
- 285, Assassination of Emperor Carinus, Begin of the Late Antiquity.
- 298, Battle of Lingones.
- 298, Battle of Vindonissa.
- 306, Death of Emperor Constantius Chlorus.
- 306–324, Roman Civil Wars of the Tetrarchy.
- 325, Execution of Emperor Licinius.
- 332, Roman invasion north of the Danube under Emperor Constantine II, Capture of Gothic Prince Ariaricus.
- 337, Death of Emperor Constantine the Great.
- c. 350, Infiltration of Germania Inferior by Franks.
- 353–354, Raids against Alamanni under Emperor Constantius II.
- 356, Recapture of Colonia Agrippina (Cologne) by Julian the Apostate, Siege of Senonae by Alamanni, Siege of Autun by Alemanni, Battle of Reims, Battle of Brumath.
- 357, Invasion of Alemannic territory by Roman General Barbatio and Julian the Apostate, Attack of Lugdunum (Lyon) by Laeti, End of coordinated operation against the Alemanni, Battle of Argentoratum, Capture of Alemannic King Chnodomarius.
- 358, Raid in the province of Raetia by Alemannic Juthungi, Destruction of Castra Regina (Regensburg) by Alemanni.
- 359, Execution of Roman General Barbatio, Recapture of Moguntiacum by Julian the Apostate.
- 361, Death of Emperor Constantius II
- 363, Death of Emperor Julian the Apostate.
- 364, Death of Emperor Jovian.
- 365–366, Invasion of Roman Gaul by Alemanni, Alemanni pushed out of Roman Gaul.
- 367, Sack of Moguntiacum by Alemanni, Battle of Solicinium.
- 367–368, Great Barbarian Conspiracy against Roman Britain and Roman Gaul by Saxons and Franks, Death of Nectaridus.
- 367–369, Attack on Gothic Thervingi under Eastern Emperor Valens.
- 368, Invasion of Alemannic territory under Emperor Valentinian the Great, Crossing of the Rhine by the Roman Empire.
- 369, Destruction of a fortress near Heidelberg by Alemanni.
- 370, Invasion of Roman Gaul by Saxons, Death of all invading Saxons, Invasion of Alemannic territory by Valentinian the Great, Rome captures thousands of Alemannic Bucinobantes, Deposition of Alemannic King Macrian, Hunnic raids on Gothic Greuthungi.
- 374, Assassination of Quadic King Gabinius, Invasion of former Illyricum by Quadi and Sarmatians.
- 375, Pillaging of Quadi lands by the Roman Empire, Western Emperor Valentinian the Great dies during peace negotiations.
- 376, Invasion of the Huns, Hunnic war against Visigoths and Ostrogoths, Suicide of Gothic King Ermanaric, Gothic King Vithimer dies in battle.
- 376–382, Hunnic raids on Gothic Thervingi (Visigoths), Gothic War, Plundering and destruction throughout the Balkans by Goths.
- 377–378, Invasion of Thrace and Moesia by Gothic Greuthungi led by chieftain Alatheus.
- 378, Invasion of Alsace by Alemanni, Battle of Argentovaria, Extermination of Alemannic Lentienses, Alemannic King Priarius dies in battle.
- 380, Battle of Thessalonica, Death of Gothic chieftain Fritigern, Begin of naval raids by Saxons, Begin of the Migration of the Saxons.
- 382, Peace between Rome and the Goths, Large Gothic contingents of Thervingi, Taifali and Victohali settle along the southern Danube frontier in the province of Thrace.
- 383, Assassination of Emperor Gratian, Failed raid in the province of Raetia by Alemannic Juthungi.
- 387, Failed Invasion of Thrace and Moesia by Gothic Greuthungi led by chieftain Alatheus, Greuthungi chieftain Alatheus dies in battle.
- 390, Massacre of Thessalonica.
- 392, Emperor Valentinian II is hanged, Frankish General Arbogast names Eugenius to be Western Emperor.
- 394, 20,000 Gothic mercenaries support Eastern Emperor Theodosius the Great in the Battle of the Frigidus, Suicide of Frankish General Arbogast, Execution of puppet Western Emperor Eugenius.
- 395, Death of Emperor Theodosius the Great, Assassination of Consul Rufinus by Gothic mercenaries.
- 401–402, Raid in Raetia by Vandals.
- 401–403, Invasion of Italy by Visigoths under Alaric I, Gothic War.
- 405, Siege of Florentina, Battle of Faesulae, Execution of Gothic King Radagaisus, 12,000 Gothic higher-status fighters are drafted into the Roman army.
- 406, War between Franks and Vandals, Battle of Moguntiacum, Vandal King Godigisel dies in battle, Alans under King Respendial rescue the Vandals, Invasion of Gaul by Vandals, Suebi, Burgundians and Alans, Fall of Roman Gaul, Begin of the Fall of Roman Britain, Begin of the Fall of Roman Spain.
- 408, Failed invasion of Moesia by Huns and Germanic mercenaries led by Uldin the Hun, Capture of thousands of Germanic mercenaries, Execution of Roman General Stilicho, Slaughter of wives and children of barbarian foederati, Siege of Rome by Visigoths, Attacks on Roman Britain by Saxons, Death of Eastern Emperor Arcadius.
- 409, 2nd Siege of Rome by Visigoths, Invasion of Roman Spain by Vandals, Suebi (Marcomanni, Quadi, Buri) and Alans.
- 410, Sack of Rome by Visigoths, Begin of attacks on Vandals by Visigoths, Visigothic King Alaric I dies from disease, Begin of Barbarian raids by Picts, Scoti and Irish Celts, End of Roman rule in Britain, Fall of Roman Britain, Suevi establish a Kingdom in Galicia.
- 411, Jovinus declares himself Western Roman Emperor with aid of the Burgundians, Franks and Alans, Burgundians establish a Kingdom left of the Rhine under King Gundahar.
- 412, Sarus the Goth is executed, Death of Uldin the Hun.
- 413, Capture of Narbonne and Toulouse by Visigoths led by King Ataulf, Usurper Jovinus is executed, Sack of Trier by Franks.
- 415, Assassination of Visigothic King Ataulf, Assassination of Visigothic King Sigeric.
- 419, Death of Visigothic King Valia.
- 421, Sack of Trier by Franks.
- 422, Capture and Execution of Frankish King Theudemeres by Romans, Attack on Vandals by Romans.
- 423, Death of Western Emperor Honorius.
- 426, War between Visigoths and Alans, Western Alan King Attaces dies in battle, Alans subject to the Vandals.
- 426–436, Campaigns against the Visigoths in southern Gaul under Western Emperor Valentinian III, Battle of Narbonne, Capture of Visigothic chieftain Anaolsus.
- 428, Invasion of Northern Gaul by Salian Franks led by King Chlodio.
- 428–431, Failed Roman campaigns against Salian Franks, Alemannic Juthungi on the Rhine and Danube, Fall of the Kingdom of Armenia.
- 429–439, Invasion of Africa by Vandals led by Vandal King Genseric, Siege of Hippo Regius, Capture of Carthage by Vandals, Capture of Roman navy by Vandals, Pillaging of Sicily, Begin of pirate raids by Vandals.
- 431, Invasion to the Somme River by Salian Franks.
- 436–437, Invasion of Burgundian Rhineland by Hun mercenaries controlled by Rome, Burgundian King Gundahar dies in battle.
- c. 443, Britain plunges into civil war, Groans of the Britons, Britain is abandoned by Western Emperor Valentinian III.
- 448, Defeat of the Salian Franks in the Battle of Vicus Helena by Roman General Aëtius, Frankish King Chlodio dies in battle.
- c. 449, Anglo-Saxon elite mercenaries land in Britain.
- 450, Danes defeat the Frisii in the Battle of Finnsburg, Frisian King Finn dies in battle, Danish Prince Hnæf dies in battle, Eastern Emperor Theodosius II dies in an accident.
- 451, Invasion of Gaul by the Huns with Frankish, Gothic and Burgundian mercenaries led by Attila the Hun, Sack of Trier, Attack on Metz, Siege of Orléans, Coalition of Romans, Franks and Visigoths led by General Aëtius stop the Huns in the Battle of Châlons, Visigothic King Theodoric I dies in battle.
- 452, Invasion of northern Italy under Attila the Hun, Sack of Aquileia, Sack of Vicetia, Sack of Verona, Sack of Brixia, Sack of Bergamum, Sack of Milan, Anglo-Saxons push the Picts back to Scotland.
- c. 452–c. 497, Invasion of Roman Britain by Saxons, food shortages, Rebellion of Anglo-Saxon mercenaries in Britain.
- 453, Attila marries Germanic girl Ildico, Hunnic and Germanic attacks on Constantinople, Attila the Hun dies during heavy drinking.
- 454, Germanic Gepids defeat the Huns in the Battle of Nedao, Hunnic King Ellac dies in battle, Assassination of Roman General Aëtius, Gepids establish a kingdom in Pannonia.
- 455, Battle of Aylesford, Assassination of Western Emperor Valentinian III, Sack of Rome by Vandals, Capture of Empress Licinia Eudoxia by Vandals, Stoning of Western Emperor Petronius Maximus.
- 456, Visigoths defeat the Suebic Kingdom of Galicia in the Battle of Órbigo.
- 457, Execution of Western Emperor Avitus, Eastern Emperor Marcian dies from disease.
- 458, Defeat of the Visigoths in southern Gaul in the Battle of Arelate.
- 459, Seizure of Trier by Franks, Begin of decline of Trier until 1697.
- c. 460, Night of the Long Knives, Death of all British chieftains, Begin of violent land grab by Anglo-Saxons.
- 461, Seventeen Vandal ships destroy forty Roman ships in a surprise attack, Execution of Western Emperor Majorian.
- 463, Battle of Orleans.
- 465, Death of Western Emperor Libius Severus, Ostrogothic King Valamir dies in battle.
- 466, Battle of Wippedesfleot.
- 468, Invasion of the Vandal Kingdom by the Byzantine Empire, Defeat of the Byzantine Empire by the Vandals in the Battle of Cape Bon, Ostrogoths decisively defeat the Huns in the Battle of Bassianae.
- 469, Ostrogoths decisively defeat an alliance of Germanic and Roman forces in the Battle of Bolia, Fall of the Hunnic Empire, Visigoths thwarted an attack by an alliance of Bretons and Romans in the Battle of Déols.
- 472, Execution of Western Emperor Anthemius, Death of puppet Western Emperor Olybrius, Revolt in Thrace by Ostrogoths led by chieftain Theodoric Strabo.
- 474, Deposition of Western Emperor Glycerius, Death of Byzantine Emperor Leo I the Thracian, Poisoning of Byzantine Emperor Leo II.
- 475, Deposition of Western Emperor Julius Nepos.
Europe in the late 5th century (476 CE-486 CE).
- 476, Revolt of Heruli, Scirii and Turcilingi mercenaries, Battle of Ravenna, Execution of Orestes, Deposition of Western Emperor Romulus Augustulus, Germanic Heruli chieftain Odoacer becomes King of Italy, Fall of the Roman Empire, Roman usurper Basiliscus is killed by un-Roman Byzantine Emperor Zeno, End of the Dominate.
- 477, Death of Vandal King Genseric, Begin of decline of the Vandal Kingdom.
- 480, Assassination of Ex-Emperor Julius Nepos.
- 481, Gothic chieftain Theodoric Strabo dies in an accident.
- 485, Battle of Mercredesburne.
- 486, Franks under Merovingian King Clovis I defeat the Kingdom of Soissons in the Battle of Soissons, Fall of the Kingdom of Soissons.
- 489, Theodoric the Great defeats Odoacer in the Battle of Isonzo, Battle of Verona.
- 491, Siege of Pevensey by South Saxons (Sussex), Death of Byzantine Emperor Zeno.
- 493, Assassination of King Odoacer by Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great, Burgundian civil war, Assassination of Burgundian King Chilperic II.
- 496, War between Merovingians and Alemanni for supremacy on the Rhine, Franks defeat the Alemanni in a decisive battle, Alemannic King Gibuld dies in battle, Alemanni subject to the Merovingians, Begin of Christianization of the Franks, Begin of Christianization of Europe.
- c. 497, Defeat of the Anglo-Saxons in the Battle of Mons Badonicus by Britons led by King Arthur.
- 501, Assassination of Burgundian King Godegisel.
- 507, Franks under Merovingian King Clovis I and the Byzantine Empire plot against the Visigoths and defeat them in the Battle of Vouillé, Visigothic King Alaric II dies in battle, Paris becomes capital of the Frankish Kingdom.
- c. 510, Death of Thuringii King Basinus.
- 511, Death of Merovingian King Clovis I.
- 516, Death of Burgundian King Gundobad.
- 518, Death of Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I.
- c. 520, Anglo-Saxons took control of Sussex, Kent, East Anglia and part of Yorkshire, West Saxons founded a Kingdom in Hampshire under Cerdic, Begin of War between the Kingdoms.
- 523, Assassination of Burgundian Prince Sigerich, Political crisis between Burgundians and Ostrogoths, Merovingian Kings Chlodomer, Childebert I and Chlothar I march against the Burgundians.
- 524, Capture and Execution of Burgundian King Sigismund, Prince Gisald and Prince Gondebaud, Recapture of Burgundy by Burgundian King Godomar with aid of Theodoric the Great, Defeat of the Merovingians in the Battle of Vézeronce, Merovingian King Chlodomer dies in battle, Retreat of the Merovingians.
- 526, Death of Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great, Burgundians lose the Ostrogoths as allies, Raid against Gothic Gepidae by Byzantine General Belisarius.
- 527, Death of Byzantine Emperor Justin I.
- 529, Thuringii King Bertachar dies in battle, Beheading of Thuringii King Baderic.
- 531, Merovingian King Theuderic I defeats the Thuringii in the Battle of the Unstrut River.
- 532, Thuringii King Hermanfrid falls to death, Fall of the Thuringii Kingdom.
- 532–534, Merovingian Kings Childebert I and Clothar I conquer the Burgundians in the Battle of Autun, Fall of the Burgundian Kingdom.
- 533–534, Invasion of North Africa by the Byzantine Empire, Vandalic War.
- 535–554, Invasion of Italy by the Byzantine Empire, Ostrogothic War.
- 535, Capture of Sicily by Byzantine General Belisarius.
- 536, Capture of Naples and Rome by Byzantine General Belisarius.
- 537–538, Siege of Rome by Ostrogoths.
- 540, Capture of Mediolanum and the Ostrogothic capital Ravenna by Byzantine General Belisarius, Capture of Ostrogothic King Witiges.
- 541–542, Bubonic plague wipes out most of the farming community of the former Roman Empire and leaving dead an estimated 25 million people across the world, Begin of territorial decline until the 9th century.
- 541–544, Recapture of Northern Italy by Ostrogoths.
- 546, Sack of Rome by Ostrogoths.
- c. 548, Recapture of Rome by the Byzantine Empire.
- 549–550, Siege and Capture of Rome by Ostrogoths.
- 551, Battle of Sena Gallica, Capture of Ostrogothic chieftain Gibal, Demoralization of Gothic army.
- 552, Byzantine Empire with aid of the Heruli and Lombards defeat the Ostrogoths in the Battle of Taginae, Ostrogothic King Totila dies on the run, Defeat of Gothic Gepids in the Battle of Asfeld against Lombards (Longbeards), Gepid King Thurisind dies in battle.
- 552–553, Capture of Rome and Siege of Cumae by Byzantine General Narses, Battle of Mons Lactarius, Ostrogothic king Teia dies in battle, Fall of the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
- 554, Byzantine General Narses defeats the Franks and Alemanni in the Battle of the Volturnus.
- c. 558–561, Failed Uprising of the Ostrogoth Widin.
- 565, Death of Byzantine Emperor Justinian the Great, Death of Byzantine General Belisarius.
- 567, Lombards decisively defeat the Gepids, Gepid King Cunimund dies in battle, Fall of the Kingdom of the Gepidae.
- 568–c. 572, Invasion of Northern Italy by Lombards, Bavarians, Gepids and Saxons, Longbeards (Lombards) establish a Kingdom in Northern Italy (capital Pavia), Begin of End of Byzantine rule.
- c. 570, The prophet Muhammad is born in Mecca.
- 573, Death of Byzantine General Narses.
- 574, Byzantine Emperor Justin II went insane.
- 577, Battle of Deorham, Capture of Glevum, Corinium, Aquae Sulis by Anglo-Saxons (Wessex) led by Cealin.
- 578, Death of Byzantine Emperor Justin II.
- 582, Assassination of Byzantine Emperor Tiberius II Constantine.
- 585, Invasion of Suevic Gallaecia by Visigoths, Fall of the Suebic Kingdom of Galicia.
- 592, West Saxons are defeated in the Battle of Woden's Burg (Wōden's Burg).
- 596, Angles defeated an alliance of Britons, Scots and Picts in the Battle of Raith.
- ^ a b Mommsen, Theodor. "History of Rome: Book IV - The Revolution". p. 67. Retrieved 2009-04-18.
- ^ a b c d Theodor Mommsen, Römische Geschichte. Vol. 2. Von der Schlacht von Pydna bis auf Sullas Tod.. 3.Ed. Weidmann, Berlin 1861, S. 178. (German) (Roman History: From the battle of Pydna down to Sulla's death.) Römische Geschichte: Bd. Von der Schlacht von Pydna bis auf Sullas Tod
- ^ a b c d Mossman, Theodor (1908). History of Rome. New York: Charles Scribner's SOns. p. 71. Retrieved 9 October 2009.
- ^ Florus, Epitome 1.38.16-17 and Valerius Maximus, Factorum et Dictorum Memorabilium 6.1.ext.3 (in Latin)
- ^ Caesar. In: Hans Herzfeld(de) (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 1: A-E. Das Fischer Lexikon(de) 37, Frankfurt 1963, p. 214. "Hauptquellen [betreffend Caesar]: Caesars eigene, wenn auch leicht tendenziöse Darstellungen des Gallischen und des Bürgerkrieges, die Musterbeispiele sachgemäßer Berichterstattung und stilistischer Klarheit sind" ("Main sources [regarding Caesar]: Caesar's own, even though slightly tendentious depictions of the Gallic and the Civil Wars, which are paradigms of pertinent information and stylistic clarity")
- ^ Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 1.31-53
- ^ Dio Cassius, Roman History 38.34-50; see also Plutarch, Life of Caesar 19
- ^ Smith, William (1867). "Ambiorix". In William Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 138–139.
- ^ Florus, III. 10. § 8.
- ^ Birkhan, Helmut, 1997, Die Kelten, p. 238. (German) (The Celts)
- ^ Dio 54.1, 6, 10.
- ^ Eck, Werner, 2003, The age of Augustus, p. 55.
- ^ Suetonius, Augustus, 23, Tiberius, 12; Tacitus, Annals, I.10, III.48; Velleius II.97, 102; Pliny, Nat. Hist. IX.35 (58); Dio, liv.6.
- ^ Dio, Roman History, LIV.33.
- ^ Eck, Werner; translated by Deborah Lucas Schneider; new material by Sarolta A. Takács. (2003) The Age of Augustus. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing (hardcover, ISBN 0-631-22957-4; paperback, ISBN 0-631-22958-2).
- ^ Several examples by Max Ihm, s. v. Cheruski, in: Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (RE) III.2, Stuttgart 1899, cols. 2270–2272. (German))
- ^ "Chatti in Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopædia Britannica. September 2010.
- ^ Velleius, Compendium of Roman History, book 2, 104,2.
- ^ Wells, Peter S. The Battle that stopped Rome. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 2003, p. 187 ISBN 0-393-32643-8
- ^ "The Ambush That Changed History". Fergus M. Bordewich, Smithsonian Magazine. September 2005. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
- ^ "Germans under Arminius Revolt Against Rome". Edward Shepherd Creasy, The Great Events by Famous Historians, Vol. 2. 1905.
- ^ Kevin Sweeney, Scholars look at factors surrounding Hermann’s victory. www.nujournal.com 2010-10.
- ^ Tacitus, Annals, XII.27
- ^ Dean-Jones, Lesley (1992), p. 144
- ^ a b Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, p. 18.
- ^ Jordanes, The Goths in the Third Century AD in THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS, translated by Charles C. Mierow, www.earth-history.com
- ^ Zosimus, Historia Nova, book 1.43
- ^ Syncellus, George, Extract of Chronography, p. 720.
- ^ Potter, David S., A Companion to the Roman Empire, p. 270
- ^ Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, book 1, chapter 8 & book 2, chapter 34.
- ^ Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 83-84.
- ^ Origo Constantini 6.32 mention the actions.
- ^ Eusebius, The Life of the Blessed Emperor Constantine, IV.6
- ^ Odahl, Charles M., Constantine and the Christian Empire, chapter X.
- ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 27, chapter 5.
- ^ Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 115-116.
- ^ a b c Zosimus, Historia Nova, book 4.
- ^ a b Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 31, chapter 3.
- ^ a b c Philostorgius, Ecclesiastical history, book 9, chapter 17.
- ^ a b c Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, book 6, chapter 37.
- ^ a b Heather, Peter, 1998, The Goths, pp. 98-104.
- ^ a b Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 124-128.
- ^ Heather, Peter, 2010, Empires and barbarians, p. 215.
- ^ Heather, Peter, 1995, The English Historical Review, The Huns and the end of the Roman Empire in Western Europe
- ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 31, chapters 5-16.
- ^ Socrates Scholasticus, The Ecclesiastical History, book 4, chapters 34-38 & book 5, chapter 1.
- ^ Heather, Peter, 1998, The Goths, pp. 130-138.
- ^ Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 130-153.
- ^ Hahn, Irene (2007). "The Day of the Barbarians: The Battle That Led to the Fall of the Roman Empire". Book review. http://romanhistorybooksandmore.freeservers.com. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
- ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 31, chapters 12–14.
- ^ Zosimus, Historia Nova, book 4.
- ^ Roman Empire – Adrianople roman-empire.net. Illustrated History of the Roman Empire. Retrieved April 2, 2007.
- ^ a b Heather, Peter, The Goths, p. 205
- ^ Jaques, Tony. Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007, ISBN 978-0-313-33538-9, p. 345.
- ^ a b Heather, Peter, The Goths, p. 194
- ^ Nennius (1859). J. A. Giles tr., ed. History of the Britons. London: Bohn.
- ^ a b History of the Goths. University of California Press. 13 February 1990. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- ^ Vandals in Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)
- ^ ASC 485 Parker MS : This year Ælle fought with the Welsh nigh Mecred's- Burnsted.
- ^ ASC Parker MS. 491AD.
- ^ He was baptized by Saint Remigius, bishop of Reims.
- ^ See Daly 1994:640 and note).
- ^ The date of the death of Childeric, commonly given as 481/82, is thus calculated as fifteen years before Tolbiac, as dated by Gregory.
- ^ On-line text in English translation.
- ^ A single Frankish-Alemannic combat, in summer 506, is presented, for example, in J.M. Wallace-Hadrill, Long-Haired Kings p 168, or Rolf Weiss, Chlodwigs Taufe: Reims 508 (Bern) 1971; the debate is briefly summarised in William M. Daly, "Clovis: How Barbaric, How Pagan?" Speculum 69.3 (July 1994, pp. 619-664) p 620 note.
- ^ Ashe, Geoffrey, From Caesar to Arthur pp.295-8
- ^ R. Ernest Dupuy and Trevor N. Dupuy, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History From 3500 B.C. to the Present, Fourth Edition (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1993), 193.
- ^ C. Warren Hollister, The Making of England to 1399, Eighth Edition (New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), 31.
- ^ a b c "World Timeline of Europe AD 400-800 Early medieval". The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2009-04-06.
- ^ Haldon, John, 2008, The Byzantine Wars, p. 39.
- ^ Amory, Patrick, 2003, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554.
- ^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 577.
- ^ Macbean, Lachlan (1924), Kirkcaldy Burgh and Schyre.
- Florus on the Germanic wars, translated by E.S. Forster, www.livius.org 2010-10.
- The Germanic Wars, 2nd century, www.unrv.com 2010-10.
- Roman Germanic Wars, 12 BC to 17 AD, www.heritage-history.com 2010-10.
- Timeline of Ancient Europe, www.earth-history.com 2010-10.
- Speidel, Michael, 2004, Ancient Germanic warriors: Warrior styles from Trajan's column to Icelandic sagas. (book)
Ancient Roman wars
|Wars of the Roman Republic
- Roman-Etruscan Wars
- Roman–Latin wars
- Roman-Hernician wars
- Roman-Volscian wars
- Samnite Wars
- Pyrrhic War
- Punic Wars (First, Second, Third)
- Illyrian Wars (First, Second, Third)
- Macedonian Wars (First, Second, Seleucid, Third, Fourth)
- Jugurthine War
- Cimbrian War
- Servile Wars (First, Second, Third)
- Social War
- Civil wars of Lucius Cornelius Sulla (First, Second)
- Mithridatic Wars (First, Second, Third)
- Gallic Wars
- Caesar's invasions of Britain
- Caesar's Civil War
- End of the Republic (Post-Caesarian, Liberators', Sicilian, Fulvia's, Final)
|Wars of the Roman Empire
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