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Georges Canguilhem
Born (1904-06-04)4 June 1904
Castelnaudary, Aude
Died 11 September 1995(1995-09-11) (aged 91)
Era 20th century-philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Rationalism, Vitalism, Anti-positivism
Main interests
History and philosophy of science,
historical epistemology, philosophy of biology, philosophy of medicine

Georges Canguilhem (French: [kɑ̃ɡilɛm]; 4 June 1904 – 11 September 1995) was a French philosopher and physician who specialized in epistemology and the philosophy of science (in particular, biology).

Life and work[edit]

Canguilhem entered the École Normale Supérieure in 1924 as part of a class that included Jean-Paul Sartre, Raymond Aron and Paul Nizan. He aggregated in 1927 and then taught in lycées throughout France, taking up the study of medicine while teaching in Toulouse.

He took up a post at the Clermont-Ferrand based University of Strasbourg in 1941, and received his medical doctorate in 1943, in the middle of World War II. Using the pseudonym "Lafont" Canguilhem became active in the French Resistance, serving as a doctor in Auvergne.

By 1948 he was the French equivalent of department chair in philosophy at Strasbourg as well. Seven years later, he was named a professor at the Sorbonne and succeeded Gaston Bachelard as the director of the Institut d'histoire des sciences, a post he occupied until 1971, at which time he undertook an active emeritus career.

In 1983 he was awarded the Sarton Medal by the History of Science Society. In 1987 he received the médaille d'or, awarded by the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS).

Philosophy of biology[edit]

Canguilhem's principal work in philosophy of science is presented in two books, Le Normal et le pathologique, first published in 1943 and then expanded in 1968, and La Connaissance de la vie (1952). Le Normal et la pathologique is an extended exploration into the nature and meaning of normality in medicine and biology, the production and institutionalization of medical knowledge. It is still a seminal work in medical anthropology and the history of ideas, and is widely influential in part thanks to Canguilhem's influence on Michel Foucault. La Connaissance de la vie is an extended study of the specificity of biology as a science, the historical and conceptual significance of vitalism, and the possibility of conceiving organisms not on the basis of mechanical and technical models that would reduce the organism to a machine, but rather on the basis of the organism's relation to the milieu in which it lives, its successful survival in this milieu, and its status as something greater than "the sum of its parts." Canguilhem argued strongly for these positions, criticising 18th and 19th century vitalism (and its politics) but also cautioning against the reduction of biology to a "physical science." He believed such a reduction deprived biology of a proper field of study, ideologically transforming living beings into mechanical structures serving a chemical/physical equilibrium that cannot account for the particularity of organisms or for the complexity of life. He furthered and altered these critiques in a later book, Ideology and Rationality in the History of the Life Sciences.

More than just a great theoretician, Canguilhem was one of the few philosophers of the 20th century to develop an approach that was shaped by a medical education. He helped define a method of studying the history of science which was practical and rigorous. His work focused on the one hand on the concepts of "normal" and "pathological" and, on the other, a critical history of the formation of concepts such as "reflex" in the history of science. Canguilhem was also a mentor to several French scholars, most notably Foucault, for whom he served as a sponsor in the presentation of Histoire de la folie à l'âge classique (History of Madness) for the Doctorat d'État and whose work he followed throughout the latter's life. Canguilhem also influenced Deleuze.

Institutional role[edit]

As Inspector General and then President of the Jury d'Agrégation in philosophy, Canguilhem had a tremendous and direct influence over philosophical instruction in France in the latter half of the twentieth century and was known to more than a generation of French academic philosophers as a demanding and exacting evaluator who, as Louis Althusser remarked, believed he could correct the philosophical understanding of teachers by bawling them out. This belief did not prevent him from being regarded with considerable affection by the generation of intellectuals that came to the fore in the 1960s, including Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Louis Althusser, and Jacques Lacan. Althusser once wrote to his English translator that "my debt to Canguilhem is incalculable" (italics in the original, from Economy and Society 27, page 171). Likewise, Foucault, in his introduction to Canguilhem's The Normal and the Pathological, wrote:

"Take away Canguilhem and you will no longer understand much about Althusser, Althusserism and a whole series of discussions which have taken place among French Marxists; you will no longer grasp what is specific to sociologists such as Bourdieu, Castel, Passeron and what marks them so strongly within sociology; you will miss an entire aspect of the theoretical work done by psychoanalysts, particularly by the followers of Lacan. Further, in the entire discussion of ideas which preceded or followed the movement of '68, it is easy to find the place of those who, from near or from afar, had been trained by Canguilhem."

Jacques Derrida recalled that Canguilhem advised him early in his career that he would have to distinguish himself as a serious scholar before he could exhibit professionally the particular philosophical sense of humour for which he is at turns famous and notorious, advice which Derrida seemed to have taken in earnest.[citation needed]

After years of neglect, the past decade has seen a great deal of Canguilhem's writings translated into English. Among them are a collection of essays entitled A Vital Rationalist and his most celebrated work, The Normal and the Pathological.


Primary literature[edit]

  • Essai sur quelques problèmes concernant le normal et le pathologique (1943), re-published with the title Le normal et le pathologique, augmenté de Nouvelles réflexions concernant le normal et le pathologique (1966).
  • La connaissance de la vie (1952).
  • La formation du concept de réflexe aux XVII et XVIII siècles (1955).
  • Du développement à l’évolution au XIX siècle (1962).
  • Etudes d’histoire et de philosophie des sciences (1968).
  • Vie et Régulation, articles contributed to Encyclopaedia Universalis (1974).
  • Idéologie et rationalité dans l’histoire des sciences de la vie (1977).
  • La santé, concept vulgaire et question philosophique (1988).

Translations into English[edit]

  • Ideology and Rationality in the History of the Life Sciences, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1988).
  • The Normal and the Pathological, trans. Carolyn R. Fawcett & Robert S. Cohen (New York: Zone Books, 1991).
  • Machine and Organism, trans. Mark Cohen & Randall Cherry, in "Incorporations" Ed. by Jonathan Crary and Sanford Kwinter (New York: Zone Books, 1992).
  • A Vital Rationalist: Selected Writings, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (New York: Zone Books, 1994).
  • Knowledge of Life, trans. Stefanos Geroulanos and Daniela Ginsburg (New York: Fordham UP, 2008).

Secondary literature[edit]

  • Dagognet, François, Georges Canguilhem: Philosophie de la vie (Paris: 1997).
  • Foucault, Michel, "Introduction" to Canguilhem, The Normal and the Pathological.
  • Greco, Monica (February 2005). "On the vitality of vitalism". Theory, Culture & Society (Sage) 22 (1): 15–27. doi:10.1177/0263276405048432. 
  • Gutting, Gary, "Canguilhem's history of science" in Michel Foucault's Archaeology of Scientific Reason: Science and the History of Reason (Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 32–52.
  • Horton, R., "Georges Canguilhem: Philosopher of Disease," Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 88 (1995): 316-319.
  • Lecourt, Dominique, Georges Canguilhem, Paris, PUF/Que sais je ?, February 2008.
  • Rabinow, Paul, "Introduction: A Vital Rationalist," in Canguilhem, A Vital Rationalist: Selected Writings.
  • Roudinesco, Elisabeth, Philosophy in Turbulent Times: Canguilhem, Sartre, Foucault, Althusser, Deleuze, Derrida, Columbia University Press, New York, 2008.
  • Georges Canguilhem, philosophe, historien des sciences, Actes du colloque organisé au Palais de la Découverte les 6, 7 et 8 décembre 1990 par Étienne Balibar, M. Cardot, F. Duroux, M. Fichant, Dominique Lecourt et J. Roubaud, Bibliothèque du Collège International de Philosophie/Albin Michel, Paris, 1993, ISBN 2-226-06201-7.
  • Economy and Society 27:2-3 (1998). Special issue dedicated to Canguilhem.

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Canguilhem — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

194 news items

Le Monde

Le Monde
Sun, 04 Oct 2015 10:26:15 -0700

Elève de Georges Canguilhem, marqué également par la pensée de Gaston Bachelard, François Dagognet a consacré à chacun d'eux un ouvrage. Sa double formation philosophique et scientifique l'a conduit logiquement à des travaux d'épistémologie de ...


Fri, 18 Sep 2015 07:48:45 -0700

Juger et agir, Paris, Vrin, 2013, et le volume collectif dirigé par L. Ferté, A. Jacquard et P. Vermeren, La Formation de Georges Canguilhem. Un entre-deux-guerres philosophique, Paris, Hermann, 2013, réunissant les actes du colloque tenu à Paris 8 les ...
Le Monde
Thu, 11 Jun 2015 00:57:37 -0700

Résistance, philosophie biologique et histoire des sciences. 1940-1965. Œuvres complètes, tome IV, de Georges Canguilhem, édité par Camille Limoges, Vrin, « Bibliothèque des textes philosophiques », 1 288 p., 39 €. Il faudra bien finir par reconnaître ...

Sciences et Avenir

Sciences et Avenir
Sun, 06 Sep 2015 02:02:42 -0700

Le philosophe Georges Canguilhem disait que l'art du médecin c'est d'aider l'organisme à retrouver sa normativité. Or aujourd'hui, on est dans une normopathie, sorte de fétichisme de la norme statistique qui nous enjoint de faire 10.000 pas par jour, ...
Slate Magazine (blog)
Wed, 18 Mar 2015 07:33:28 -0700

A fruit fly without wings isn't necessarily sick if it lives in a very drafty place, according to French philosopher of medicine Georges Canguilhem. The wind, he suggests, is bound to carry the fly to the apples and oranges that provide it with ...
Neue Zürcher Zeitung
Sat, 03 May 2014 03:30:00 -0700

Beide Fachgebiete miteinander verbunden zu haben, zeichnet den Arzt, Wissenschaftshistoriker und Philosophen Georges Canguilhem (1904–1995) aus, der in der jüngeren französischen Geistesgeschichte als wichtiger Inspirator gelten darf.
Il Sole 24 Ore
Wed, 23 Jul 2014 10:03:03 -0700

Successore di Gaston Bachelard sulla cattedra di storia e filosofia delle scienze alla Sorbona, Canguilhelm può essere considerato il fondatore di un'epistemologia storica che grande influenza ha avuto sulla cultura del Novecento. In questa sede ...
Sat, 26 Jan 2013 15:40:11 -0800

Pour comprendre pourquoi nous en sommes venus à cette brève, il suffit de rappeler deux choses, notamment à ceux qui ne connaissent pas Georges Canguilhem, auteur d'ouvrages essentiels comme les Etudes d'histoire et de philosophie des sciences ...

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