digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

For New Zealand rugby league international, see George Beadle (rugby league).
Professor George Beadle
George Wells Beadle.jpg
Born George Wells Beadle
(1903-10-22)October 22, 1903[1]
Wahoo, Nebraska, United States
Died June 9, 1989(1989-06-09) (aged 85)
Chicago, Illinois, United States
Fields Genetics
Institutions California Institute of Technology
University of Chicago
Harvard University
Stanford University
Alma mater University of Nebraska
Cornell University
Thesis Genetical and Cytological Studies of Mendelian Asynapsis in Zea mays (1930)
Doctoral advisor Franklin D. Keim[citation needed]
Known for One gene-one enzyme hypothesis
Gene regulation of biochemical events within cells
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1958)
Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal (1984)

George Wells Beadle (October 22, 1903 – June 9, 1989) was an American scientist in the field of genetics, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Nobel laureate who with Edward Lawrie Tatum discovered the role of genes in regulating biochemical events within cells in 1958.[2][3]

Beadle and Tatum's key experiments involved exposing the bread mold Neurospora crassa to x-rays, causing mutations. In a series of experiments, they showed that these mutations caused changes in specific enzymes involved in metabolic pathways. These experiments led them to propose a direct link between genes and enzymatic reactions, known as the One gene-one enzyme hypothesis.[4]

Education and early life[edit]

George Wells Beadle was born in Wahoo, Nebraska. He was the son of Chauncey Elmer Beadle and Hattie Albro, who owned and operated a 40-acre (160,000 m2) farm nearby.[5] George was educated at the Wahoo High School and might himself have become a farmer if one of his teachers at school had not directed his mind towards science and persuaded him to go to the College of Agriculture in Lincoln, Nebraska. In 1926 he took his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Nebraska and subsequently worked for a year with Professor F.D. Keim, who was studying hybrid wheat. In 1927 he took his Master of Science degree, and Professor Keim secured for him a post as Teaching Assistant at Cornell University, where he worked, until 1931, with Professors R.A. Emerson and L.W. Sharp on Mendelian asynapsis in Zea mays.[6] For this work he obtained, in 1931, his Doctor of Philosophy degree.[6]

Career[edit]

In 1931 Beadle was awarded a National Research Council Fellowship at the California Institute of Technology at Pasadena, where he remained from 1931 until 1936. During this period he continued his work on Indian corn and began, in collaboration with Professors Theodosius Dobzhansky, S. Emerson, and Alfred Sturtevant, work on crossing-over in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.[citation needed]

In 1935 Beadle visited Paris for six months to work with Professor Boris Ephrussi at the Institut de Biologie physico-chimique. Together they began the study of the development of eye pigment in Drosophila which later led to the work on the biochemistry of the genetics of the fungus Neurospora for which Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum were together awarded the 1958 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

In 1936 Beadle left the California Institute of Technology to become Assistant Professor of Genetics at Harvard University. A year later he was appointed Professor of Biology (Genetics) at Stanford University and there he remained for nine years, working for most of this period in collaboration with Tatum. In 1946 he returned to the California Institute of Technology as Professor of Biology and Chairman of the Division of Biology. Here he remained until January 1961 when he was elected Chancellor of the University of Chicago and, in the autumn of the same year, President of this University.

After retiring, Beadle undertook a remarkable experiment in maize genetics. In several laboratories he grew a series of Teosinte/Maize crosses. Then he crossed these progeny with each other. He looked for the rate of appearance of parent phenotypes among this second generation. The vast majority of these plants were intermediate between maize and Teosinte in their features, but about 1 in 500 of the plants were identical to either the parent maize or the parent teosinte. Using the mathematics of Mendelian genetics, he calculated that this showed a difference between maize and teosinte of about 5 or 6 genetic loci. This demonstration was so compelling that most scientists now agree that Teosinte is the wild progenitor of maize.[7][8]

During his career, Beadle has received many honors. These include the Honorary Doctor of Science of the following Universities: Yale (1947), Nebraska (1949), Northwestern University (1952), Rutgers University (1954), Kenyon College (1955), Wesleyan University (1956), the University of Birmingham and the University of Oxford, England (1959), Pomona College (1961), and Lake Forest College (1962). In 1962 he was also given the honorary degree of LL.D. by the University of California, Los Angeles. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1946.[9] He also received the Lasker Award of the American Public Health Association (1950), the Dyer Award (1951), the Emil Christian Hansen Prize of Denmark (1953), the Albert Einstein Commemorative Award in Science (1958), the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958 with E.L. Tatum and J. Lederberg, the National Award of the American Cancer Society (1959), and the Kimber Genetics Award of the National Academy of Sciences (1960).

Awards and honours[edit]

In addition to the Nobel Prize, Beadle received numerous other awards. Beadle was a member of several learned societies, among which the National Academy of Sciences (Chairman of Committee on Genetic Effects of Atomic Radiation), the Genetics Society of America (President in 1946), the American Association for the Advancement of Science (President in 1955), the American Cancer Society (Chairman of Scientific Advisory Council), the Royal Society of London,[1] and the Danish Royal Academy of Science.

The George W. Beadle Award of the Genetics Society of America is named in his honour. George Beadle Middle School in Millard, Nebraska (Part of the Millard Public Schools district) was named after him. It opened in 2001. The Beadle Center, which houses the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, is also named after George Beadle.

Personal life[edit]

Beadle was married twice. By his first wife he had a son, David, who now lives at The Hague, the Netherlands. His second wife, Muriel McClure (1915-1994), a well-known writer, was born in California. Beadle's chief hobbies were rockclimbing, skiing, and gardening.

George Beadle died on June 9, 1989.

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b Horowitz, N. H. (1995). "George Wells Beadle. 23 October 1903-9 June 1989". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 41: 44–26. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1995.0003.  edit
  2. ^ George W. BeadleBiographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences
  3. ^ Stern, C. (1954). "George W. Beadle". Science 119 (3086): 229–230. doi:10.1126/science.119.3086.229. PMID 13135519.  edit
  4. ^ Beadle, G. W.; Tatum, E. L. (1941). "Genetic Control of Biochemical Reactions in Neurospora". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 27 (11): 499. doi:10.1073/pnas.27.11.499.  edit
  5. ^ Beadle, G. W. (1974). "Recollections". Annual Review of Biochemistry 43 (0): 1–13. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.43.070174.000245. PMID 4605017.  edit
  6. ^ a b Beadle, George Wells (1930). Genetical and Cytological Studies of Mendelian Asynapsis in Zea mays (PhD thesis). Cornell University. 
  7. ^ Beadle, G. W. (1980). "The ancestry of corn." Scientific American, 242 (1), 112–119.
  8. ^ Beadle, George. "The Ancestry of Corn". Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  9. ^ "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter B". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved May 28, 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Paul Berg and Maxine Singer. George Beadle: An Uncommon Farmer. The Emergence of Genetics in the 20th Century. Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory Press, 2003. ISBN 0-87969-688-5
  • Key Participants: George Beadle - It's in the Blood! A Documentary History of Linus Pauling, Hemoglobin, and Sickle Cell Anemia
Academic offices
Preceded by
Lawrence A. Kimpton
President of the University of Chicago
1961—1968
Succeeded by
Edward H. Levi

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Wells_Beadle — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
37 videos foundNext > 

Bastidores do trabalho George Wells Beadle (Fê)

Trabalho do 3º A de 2007 do Centrão...

Biology op1 Stephanie

Biology Biography about George Wells Beadle by Stephanie.

Beadle & Tatum

A video portrayal of Beadle and Tatum's experiment.

Ray Beadle and the Silver Dollars

Who do you love.......

FIFA14 Newport County Youth Squad AFTER May Update

Youth players' overalls update the first of May every season. This is after the update.

Paul Chantler at Tun Wells Carnival OB 1984.wmv

The completion of the first ever Outside Broadcast from TWHTV Tunbridge Wells Hosp Television. Paul Chantler takes a moment to reflect......................

A Christmas Carol: The Musical at Pioneer Theatre Company

Salt Lake City - Pioneer Theatre Company presents A Christmas Carol: The Musical November 30 -- December 15, 2012. Following a ten-year run of sold-out perfo...

Pioneer Theatre Company's "A Christmas Carol: The Musical"

Rehearsal footage from Pioneer Theatre Company's production of "A Christmas Carol: The Musical" in Salt Lake City, Utah, November 30 to December 15th. "Fezzi...

Why I Drink with John Forsyth

Great 3 minute monolog with actor John Forsyth John began acting in Sarasota around 1988 when a friend of his had written a play that had to do with alcoholi...

Charles Dickens 200th Anniversary Collection - Volume 4 - FULL Audio Book

Charles Dickens 200th Anniversary Collection - Volume 4 - FULL Audio Book SUBSCRIBE to https://www.youtube.com/user/GreenAudioBooks - Charles John Huffam Dic...

37 videos foundNext > 

We're sorry, but there's no news about "George Wells Beadle" right now.

Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About George Wells Beadle

You can talk about George Wells Beadle with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!