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This article is about the people and dialect of Tyneside. For other uses, see Geordie (disambiguation).

Geordie /ˈɔrdi/ is both a regional nickname for a person from the larger Tyneside[1] region of North East England and the name of the English language dialect spoken by its inhabitants. The term is concomitant with Tyneside, South Northumberland northern parts of County Durham and North East of England. Depending on who is using it, the catchment area for the term "Geordie" can be as large as the whole of North East England.

In many respects Geordie speech is a direct continuation and development of the language spoken by the Anglo-Saxon settlers of this region. They were mercenaries employed by the ancient Brythons to fight the Pictish invaders after the end of Roman rule in Britannia in the 5th century; the Angles, Saxons and Jutes who thus arrived became over time ascendant politically and – through population transfer from tribal homelands in Northern Europe – culturally over the native British. The Anglo-Saxon kingdoms that emerged during the Dark Ages spoke largely mutually intelligible varieties of what is now called Old English, each varying somewhat in phonology, morphology, syntax and lexicon. This linguistic conservatism can be seen today to the extent that poems by the Anglo-Saxon scholar the Venerable Bede translate more successfully into Geordie than into present day Standard English.[2] Thus in Northern England and the Scottish borders, then dominated by the kingdom of Northumbria was found a distinct "Northumbrian" Old English dialect. Later Irish (who, while relatively small in numbers, influenced Geordie phonology from the early 19th century onwards) [3][4] and Scottish admixture influenced the dialect. In more recent years (20th century to present) the North East area has seen migrants from the rest of the world as well.

In recent times, "Geordie" has been used to refer to a supporter of Newcastle United,[5] despite many Geordies supporting other local teams, and the Newcastle Brown Ale[6] schooner glassware used to serve beer in the United States.

Geographical coverage[edit]

When referring to the people, as opposed to the dialect, dictionary definitions of a Geordie typically refer to "a native or inhabitant of Newcastle upon Tyne, England, or its environs",[7] an area that encompasses Blyth, Ashington, North Tyneside, Newcastle, South Tyneside and Gateshead.[8][9]

The term itself, using Brockett, originated from all the North East coal mines.[10] Depending on who is using it, the catchment area for the term "Geordie" can be as large as the whole of North East England[11][12] or as small as the city of Newcastle upon Tyne and the metropolitan boroughs of Tyneside.[1]

People from Sunderland have been nicknamed "Mackems" in recent decades. The earliest known recorded use of the term found by an Oxford English Dictionary word hunt occurred only as late as 1988.[13][14] People from Middlesbrough are nicknamed Smoggies due to its industrial heritage.

Just as a Cockney is often colloquially defined as someone "born within the sound of the Bow bells", the term Geordie is sometimes defined as "within spitting distance of the Tyne"[15] and thus Geordieland could be thought of as the watershed and bioregion of the River Tyne, and Geordies as its inhabitants. Geordie is occasionally called Tyneside English.[16][17][18][19]

Etymology[edit]

A number of rival theories explain how the term came about, though all accept that it derives from a familiar diminutive form of the name George,[20] "a very common name among the pitmen"[10][21] (coal miners) in North East England; indeed, it was once the most popular name for eldest sons in the region.[citation needed]

One explanation is that it was established during the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745. The Jacobites declared that the natives of Newcastle were staunch supporters of the Hanoverian kings, in particular of George II during the 1745 rebellion. This contrasted with rural Northumbria, which largely supported the Jacobite cause. If true, the term may have derived from the popular anti-Hanoverian song "Cam Ye O'er Frae France?",[22] which calls the first Hanoverian king "Geordie Whelps", a play on "George the Guelph".

Another explanation for the name is that local miners in the northeast of England used Geordie safety lamps, designed by George Stephenson, known locally as "Geordie the engine-wright",[23] in 1815[24] rather than the competing Davy lamps, designed by Humphry Davy, used in other mining communities. Using the chronological order of two John Trotter Brockett books, Geordie was given to North East pitmen; later he acknowledges that the pitmen also christened their Stephenson lamp Geordie.[10][21]

Linguist Katie Wales[25] also dates the term earlier than does the current Oxford English Dictionary; she observes that Geordy (or Geordie) was a common name given to coal mine pitmen in ballads and songs of the region, noting that such usage turns up as early as 1793. It occurs in the titles of two songs by songwriter Joe Wilson (1841–1875): "Geordy, Haud the Bairn" and "Keep your Feet Still, Geordie". Citing such examples as the song "Geordy Black", written by Rowland Harrison of Gateshead, she contends that, as a consequence of popular culture, the miner and the keelman had become icons of the region in the 19th century, and "Geordie" was a label that "affectionately and proudly reflected this," replacing the earlier ballad emblem, the figure of Bob Crankie.

Newcastle publisher Frank Graham's Geordie Dictionary states:

The origin of the word Geordie has been a matter of much discussion and controversy. All the explanations are fanciful and not a single piece of genuine evidence has ever been produced.

In Graham's many years of research, the earliest record he found of the term's use was in 1823 by local comedian Billy Purvis. Purvis had set up a booth at the Newcastle Races on the Town Moor. In an angry tirade against a rival showman, who had hired a young pitman called Tom Johnson to dress as a clown, Billy cried out to the clown:

Ah man, wee but a feul wad hae sold off his furnitor and left his wife. Noo, yor a fair doon reet feul, not an artificial feul like Billy Purvis! Thous a real Geordie! gan man an hide thysel! gan an' get thy picks agyen. Thou may de for the city, but never for the west end o' wor toon.

(Rough translation: "Oh man, who but a fool would have sold off his furniture and left his wife? Now, you're a fair downright fool, not an artificial fool like Billy Purvis! You're a real Geordie! Go on, man, and hide yourself! Go on and get your picks [axes] again. You may do for the city, but never for the west end of our town!")

Graham is backed up historically by John Camden Hotten, who wrote in 1869: "Geordie, general term in Northumberland and Durham for a pitman, or coal-miner. Origin not known; the term has been in use more than a century."[12] Using Hotten[12] as a chronological reference, Geordie has been documented for at least 245 years as meaning the whole of the North East of England.

Bad-weather Geordy was a name applied to cockle sellers:

As the season at which cockles are in greatest demand is generally the most stormy in the year – September to March – the sailors' wives at the seaport towns of Northumberland and Durham consider the cry of the cockle man as the harbinger of bad weather, and the sailor, when he hears the cry of 'cockles alive,' in a dark wintry night, concludes that a storm is at hand, and breathes a prayer, backwards, for the soul of Bad-Weather-Geordy.

—S. Oliver, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835

Travel writer Scott Dobson used the term "Geordieland" in a 1973 guidebook to refer collectively to Northumberland and Durham.[11]

Phonology[edit]

Monophthongs of Geordie (from Watt & Allen (2003:268)). Note that these values are representative only for some speakers.
Diphthongs of Geordie (from Watt & Allen (2003:268))

Geordie consonants generally follow those of Received Pronunciation. Some phonological characteristics specific to Geordie are listed as follows:

  • Geordie is non-rhotic, like most Anglo-English dialects. This means speakers do not pronounce /r/ unless it is followed by a vowel sound in that same phrase or prosodic unit. The rhotic sound (/r/) in Geordie is pronounced as [ɹ].
  • There is some differentiation in pronunciation in the Geordie dialect based upon the speaker's sex. For example, English sound /aʊ/, pronounced generically in Geordie as [əʊ], may also have other, more specific pronunciations depending upon whether one is male or female. Males alone often pronounce the sound /aʊ/ as [uː], for example, the word house (/haʊs/) pronounced as [huːs]. Females, on the other hand, will often pronounce this sound as [eʉ], thus: [heʉs].
  • /ɪŋ/ appearing in an unstressed final syllable of a word (such as in reading) is pronounced as [ən] (thus, reading is [ˈɹiːdən]).
  • /ər/ appearing at the end of a word (such as in sugar) is pronounced as [a] (thus, sugar is [ˈʃʊɡa]).
  • Yod-coalescence in both stressed and unstressed syllables (so that dew becomes [dʒuː]).
  • T glottalization, in which /t/ is realised by [ʔ] before a syllabic nasal (e.g. button as [ˈbʊʔn]), in absolute final position (get as [ɡɛʔ]), and whenever the /t/ is intervocalic so long as the latter vowel is not stressed (pity as [ˈpɪʔi]).
  • /æ/ specifically in the words had, have, has and having is pronounced as [ɛ].[citation needed]
  • /ɛ/ specifically in words with the spelling "ea" (such as bread and deaf) may be pronounced as [iː].
  • /əʊ/ specifically at the ends of words, with the spelling "ow" (such as in throw and follow) is pronounced as [a] in monosyllabic words (thus, throw as [ˈθɹa]) and [ə] in polysyllabic words (window as [ˈwɪndə]).
Vowels and vowel–consonant combinations
English diaphone Geordie phoneme Example
/æ/ a~ɑ back
/ɑː/ ɒː father
/ɒ/ ɒ top
/ɔː/ ɔː thaw
/ə/ ə attack
/ɨ/ ə wasted
/ɪ/ ɪ, ɪ̈ hit
/iː/ feet
/eɪ/ eː, ɪə rain
/ɛ/ ɛ dress
/ɜr/ øː, ʊː first
/ər/ a master
/ʌ/ ʊ strut
/ʊ/ ʊ foot
/uː/ uː, ɪu glue
/aɪ/ ɛɪ shine
/aɪt/ (ə)iːt night
/ɔɪ/ ɛɪ, ɛi choice
/oʊ/ oː, ɵː, ʊə goat
/oʊld/ aːld cold
/aʊ/ əʊ now
/ɑr/ ɒː barn
/ɪər/ ɪa fear
/ɛər/ ɛa, eː chair
/ɔr/ ɔː north
/ʊər/ ʊa poor

In a newspaper survey, the Geordie accent was found to be the "most attractive in England".[26]

Vocabulary[edit]

The Geordie dialect shares similarities with other Northern English dialects, as well as with the Scots language and Hiberno-English.

In her column for the South Shields Gazette, Dorothy Samuelson-Sandvid attested many samples of Geordie language usage, such as the nouns bairn ("child")[27] and clarts ("mud");[28] the adjectives canny ("pleasant")[29] and clag ("sticky");[28] and the imperative verb phrase howay ("hurry up!"; "come on!")[30]

Howay is broadly comparable to the invocation "Come on!" or the French "Allez-y!" ("Go on!"). Examples of common use include Howay man!, meaning "come on" or "hurry up", Howay the lads! as a term of encouragement for a sports team for example (the players' tunnel at St James' Park has this phrase just above the entrance to the pitch), or Ho'way!? (with stress on the second syllable) expressing incredulity or disbelief.[31] The literal opposite of this phrase is haddaway ("go away"); although not as common as howay, it is perhaps most commonly used in the phrase "Haddaway an' shite" (Tom Hadaway, Figure 5.2 Haddaway an' shite; 'Cursing like sleet blackening the buds, raging at the monk of Jarrow scribbling his morality and judgement into a book.'[32]).

Another word, divvie or divvy ("idiot"), seems to come from the Co-op dividend,[33] or from the two Davy lamps (the more explosive Scotch Davy[34] used in 1850, commission disapproved of its use in 1886 (inventor not known, nicknamed Scotch Davy probably given by miners after the Davy lamp was made perhaps by north east miners who used the Stephenson Lamp[24][35]), and the later better designed Davy designed by Humphry Davy also called the Divvy.[36]) As in a north east miner saying 'Marra, ye keep way from me if ye usin a divvy.' It seems the word divvie then translated to daft lad/lass. Perhaps coming from the fact one would be seen as foolish going down a mine with a Scotch Divvy when there are safer lamps available, like the Geordie, or the Davy.

The Geordie word netty,[37] meaning a toilet and place of need and necessity for relief[37][38][39] or bathroom,[37][38][39] has an uncertain origin,[40] though some have theorised that it may come from slang used by Roman soldiers on Hadrian's Wall,[41] which may have later become gabinetti in the Romanic Italian language[41] (such as in the Westoe Netty, the subject of a famous painting from Bob Olley[41][42]). However gabbinetto is the Modern Italian diminutive of gabbia, which actually derives from the Latin cavea ("hollow", "cavity", "enclosure"), the root of the loanwords that became the Modern English cave,[43] cage,[44] and gaol.[45] Thus, another explanation would be that it comes from a Modern Romanic Italian form of the word gabinetti,[40] though only a relatively small number of Italians have migrated to the North of England, mostly during the 19th century.[46]

Some etymologists connect the word netty to the Modern English word needy. John Trotter Brockett, writing in 1829 in his A glossary of north country words...,[39] claims that the etymon of netty (and its related form neddy) is the Modern English needy[47] and need.[48]

Bill Griffiths, in A Dictionary of North East Dialect, points to the earlier form, the Old English níd; he writes: "MS locates a possible early ex. "Robert Hovyngham sall make... at the other end of his house a knyttyng" York 1419, in which case the root could be OE níd 'necessary'".[38] Another related word, nessy is thought (by Griffiths) to derive from the Modern English "necessary".[38]

A poem called "Yam" narrated by author Douglas Kew, demonstrates the usage of a lot of Geordie words.[49][50]

Media[edit]

Singer Cheryl Cole is a famous Geordie speaker from the younger generation.

In recent times, the Geordie dialect has featured prominently in the British media, not only due to its alien dialect to much of the population but also its perceived friendly appeal. Television presenters such as Ant and Dec (who first found fame in the Newcastle-set children's drama Byker Grove) are now happy to use their natural accents on air.[83] Marcus Bentley, the commentator on the UK edition of Big Brother, is often perceived by southerners to have a Geordie dialect. However, he grew up in Stockton on Tees. Brendan Foster[84] and Sid Waddell[85] have both worked as television sports commentators. Cheryl Cole, a member of Girls Aloud and judge on The X Factor, has a Geordie accent,[86] she says that she's "proud to be Geordie!" as does Joe McElderry the winner of the sixth series of The X Factor.[86] In May 2011 Cheryl Cole was let go from the American version of The X Factor because its "producers feared the American audience would not understand her Geordie accent."[87] While hosting during a May 2011 taping of Britain's Got Talent, Dec Donnelly (one half of the popular Geordie duo Ant & Dec) made an apparent attempt to stand up for Cole by asking co-producer and judge Simon Cowell on the show, "Can you understand my accent?".[87]

Little Mix members Perrie Edwards and Jade Thirlwall are both Geordies.

The song "Why Aye Man" is also a popular Geordie song by Mark Knopfler.

The dialect was also popularized by the comic magazine Viz, where the dialect is often conveyed phonetically by unusual spellings within the comic strips. Viz magazine was founded on Tyneside by two locals, Chris Donald and his brother Simon.

The Steve Coogan-helmed BBC comedy I'm Alan Partridge featured a Geordie named Michael (Simon Greenall) as the primary supporting character and de facto best friend of the eponymous hero, despite Partridge's referring to Michael at one point as 'just the Work Geordie' and having great difficulty understanding what he says.

The movie Goal!, which stars Kuno Becker and Alessandro Nivola, prominently exposes the Newcastle football club, as well as exposing the Geordies and their dialect.

Mike Neville and George House (aka Jarge Hoose), presenters of the BBC local news programme Look North, in the 1960s and 1970s, not only incorporated Geordie into the show, albeit usually in comedy pieces pointing up the gulf between ordinary Geordies and officials speaking Standard English, but were responsible for a series of recordings, beginning with Larn Yersel' Geordie[88] which attempted, not always seriously, to bring the Geordie dialect to the rest of England.

The creator of Larn Yersel' Geordie was local humorist Scott Dobson,[89] who wrote several booklets on the theme in the early 1970s, including History O' the Geordies,[90] Advanced Geordie Palaver,[91][92] The Geordie Joke Book (with Dick Irwin)[93] and The Little Broon Book (Bringing out The New Little Broon Book in 1990[94]).

The Jocks and the Geordies was a Dandy comic strip running from 1975 to the early 1990s.

In the lyrics of the song "Sailing to Philadelphia" by Mark Knopfler, Jeremiah Dixon describes himself as a "Geordie boy. Jeremiah Dixon, surveyor of the Mason-Dixon line".[95] Knopfler also includes a "Geordie" reference in the song "5:15 am," from the album Shangri-La: "the bandit man / came up the great north road / up to geordieland / to mine the motherlode." In an earlier live album and video, Alchemy: Dire Straits Live, the band are seen in a pub – on the wall hangs a scoreboard for darts featuring "Geordies" vs. "All Others."

Dorfy, real name Dorothy Samuelson-Sandvid, was a noted Geordie dialect writer who once wrote for the South Shields Gazette.[96][97][98][99][100]

Auf Wiedersehen, Pet was a popular fictional British comedy-drama series about three Geordies (Dennis, Oz and Neville) leaving England to go and find work in Germany during the heights of unemployment in Thatcher's Britain. Finding work on a building site in Düsseldorf, they lived there on-site in a basic wooden hut (not dissimilar from ones seen in a WWII-era POW camp) as part of a group of seven British migrant construction workers: the other four were Wayne from London, Bomber from somewhere in the West Country, Barry from the West Midlands, and Moxey from Liverpool.[101][102] The three Geordie characters were supposed to be from Birtley Co. Durham (Dennis, played by Tim Healy), Gateshead (Oz, played by Jimmy Nail), and North Shields (Neville, played by Kevin Whately) and all three actors who played them were Geordies themselves.

The Hairy Bikers' Cookbook with Geordie Simon King and Dave Myers. The duo's lifestyle TV show is a mixture of cookery and travelogue.[103]

In 1974, Alan Price's "Jarrow Song" reached number one in the old RNI International Service, and number 4 in the UK charts, which brought to the attention once again of the Jarrow March.[104]

The character Detective Inspector Robert "Robbie" Lewis (formerly Detective Sergeant) in the long-running ITV series Inspector Morse is a self-described Geordie – although not a "professional" one. His speech variety serves as a foil to Morse's pedantry and RP.

The character "Geordie Georgie", as portrayed by Catherine Tate in her eponymous TV show, is a Geordie, complete with a thick affected accent, and is portrayed regularly taking part in (mostly ridiculously ambitious) sponsored events for a North East based charity – the charity in question usually has a website with an outrageous domain name, for instance, the site for the charity she supports for battered husbands is "www.chinnedbythemissus.co.uk". The sketches usually conclude with her remonstrating her co-worker Martin, sometimes by violent means, for his apparent non-support of her charitable crusades.[105]

The MTV programme Geordie Shore is set in Newcastle. It is a spin-off of Jersey Shore.

Richard Adams novel The Plague Dogs features a fox who speaks 'Northumbrian' Geordie, with a pronunciation guide and glossary. Scott Dobson provided assistance on the dialect. Actor Robson Green is a Geordie. Standup comic Ross Noble, a Newcastle native, has been known to make jokes about being Geordie.

Capitalizing on pride in speaking Geordie, a number of objects are sold that highlight Geordie speech and culture, such as a "Borth Sortificat for a genuine Geordie", coffee mugs, etc.[106]

Charlie Hunnam, who hails from Newcastle, refers to the swagger he walks with in Pacific Rim as a "Geordie walk."[107]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "AskOxford.com – a person from Tyneside". Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 1 September 2007. 
  2. ^ Simpson, David (2009). "Venerable Bede". Retrieved 6 August 2010. "Bede's Latin poems seem to translate more successfully into Geordie than into modern day English!" 
  3. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=xhOzSXmrrR0C&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=%22irish+in+tyneside%22&source=bl&ots=4VxOjKvVP0&sig=9nABLjmt7srZoue92ZdGuEceA4U&hl=en&sa=X&ei=tjuDUu_ENM_PigLAtYGwBw&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=%22irish%20in%20tyneside%22&f=false
  4. ^ Migration of Irish to Newcastle upon Tyne and Weetslade Northumberland
  5. ^ Andy Gray & Richard Keys: EPL predictions
  6. ^ Ewalt, David M. "Meet The Geordie Schooner". Forbes. 
  7. ^ geordie – Definitions from Dictionary.com
  8. ^ "Jarrow Song". allyrics.net. Retrieved 7 October 2008. 
  9. ^ "Blaydon Races". Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2007. 
  10. ^ a b c Brockett, John Trotter (1829). A Glossary of North Country Words in Use with Their Etymology and Affinity to Other Languages, and Occasional Notices of Local Customs and Popular Superstitions. E. Charnley. p. 131. "GEORDIE, George-a very common name among the pitmen. "How! Geordie man! how is't"" 
  11. ^ a b Dobson, Scott (1973). A Light Hearted Guide to Geordieland. Graham. ISBN 978-0-902833-89-0. "Plus Geordieland means Northumberland and Durham" 
  12. ^ a b c Camden Hotten, John (1869 [2004 reprint]). The Slang Dictionary: Or Vulgar Words, Street Phrases and Fast Expressions of High and Low Society. p. 142. Retrieved 11 October 2007. "Geordie, general term in Northumberland and Durham for a pitman, or coal-miner. Origin not known; the term has been in use more than a century" 
  13. ^ "New Entry for OED Online: Mackem, n. (Draft Entry Jan. 2006)". OED.com. 11 January 2006. pp. "OED News: BBC Balderdash and Piffle (Series One)" section. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2011. 
  14. ^ "The Mackem Wordhunt!". BBC News. 21 June 2005. pp. "Wear > Voices 2005" section. Retrieved 31 July 2011. 
  15. ^ Geordie Dialect – BBC
  16. ^ Keuchler (2010)
  17. ^ Simmelbauer (2000:27)
  18. ^ Watt (2000:69–101)
  19. ^ Watt & Allen (2003:267–271)
  20. ^ "AskOxford.com – from the given name George". Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 1 September 2007. 
  21. ^ a b Brockett, John Trotter (1846). A Glossary of North Country Words (revised ed.). p. 187. "GEORDIE, George – a very common name among the pitmen. 'How! Geordie man! How is't' The Pitmen have given the name of Geordie to Mr George Stephenson's lamp in contra-distinction of the Davy, or Sir Humphry Davy's Lamp." 
  22. ^ Recorded by the folk group Steeleye Span on their album Parcel of Rogues, 1973.
  23. ^ Smiles, Samuel (1862). "chapter 8". The lives of the engineers III. 
  24. ^ a b Smiles, Samuel (1859). The Life of George Stephenson, Railway Engineer. p. 120. "As to the value of the invention of the safety lamp, there could be no doubt; and the colliery owners of Durham and Northumberland, to testify their sense of its importance, determined to present a testimonial to its inventor." 
  25. ^ Katie Wales (2006). Northern English: A Cultural and Social History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 134–136. ISBN 978-0-521-86107-6. 
  26. ^ Published on 24/09/2008 22:31 (2008-09-24). "Scots accent is UK's second favourite - UK - Scotsman.com". Thescotsman.scotsman.com. Retrieved 2013-06-15. 
  27. ^ a b "Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "Aa wuz a bairn." 
  28. ^ a b c d "Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "Wor Geordie taalk is hyemly taalk; an wawds like 'clag' and 'clarts'" 
  29. ^ a b "Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "Is canny, friendly, hyemly wawds that waarms aall Geordie hearts." 
  30. ^ a b "Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "wawds y've nigh forgot – ""Howay!"" ""Gan on!""" 
  31. ^ a b c d e "Dorphy dialog". Archived from the original on 13 April 2003. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  32. ^ Colls, Robert; Lancaster, Bill; Bryne, David; Carr, Barry; Hadaway, Tom; Knox, Elaine; Plater, Alan; Taylor, Harvey; Williamson; Younger, Paul (2005). Geordies. Northumbria University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-904794-12-7. "Hadaway an' shite; 'Cursing like sleet blackening the buds, raging at the monk of Jarrow scribbling his morality and judgement into a book.'" 
  33. ^ IMS: Customer Satisfaction: BIP2005 (Integrated Management Systems). BSI Standards. 2003. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-580-41426-8. "An early example, which may be remembered by older readers was the Co-op dividend or 'divvie'. On paying their bill, shoppers would quote a number recorded ..." 
  34. ^ Henderson, Clarks. "NEIMME: Lamps – No. 14. SCOTCH DAVY LAMP.". Retrieved 2 December 2007. "CONSTRUCTION. Gauzes. Cylindrical, 2 ins diameter. 41/2" high with conical top, a double gauze 1 ins. in depth at the peak. 24 mesh iron. Light. Candle." 
  35. ^ Henderson, Clarks. "NEIMME: Lamps – No. 16. STEPHENSON (GEORDIE) LAMP.". Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
  36. ^ Henderson, Clarks. "NEIMME: Lamps – No. 1 – DAVY LAMP.". Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
  37. ^ a b c Graham, Frank ((November 1986)). The Geordie Netty: A Short History and Guide. Butler Publishing; New Ed edition. ISBN 978-0-946928-08-8. 
  38. ^ a b c d Griffiths, Bill (1 December 2005). A Dictionary of North East Dialect. Northumbria University Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-904794-16-5. "Netty outside toilet, Ex.JG Annfield Plain 1930s. "nessy or netty" Newbiggin-in-Teesdale C20/mid; "outside netties" Dobson Tyne 1972; 'lavatory' Graham Geordie 1979. EDD distribution to 1900: N'd. NE 2001: in circulation. ?C18 nessy from necessary; ? Ital. cabinette; Raine MS locates a possible early ex. "Robert Hovyngham sall make… at the other end of hys house knyttyng" York 1419, in which case root could be OE nid 'necessity'. Plus "to go to the Necessary" (public toilet) Errington p.67 Newcastle re 1800s: "lav" Northumbrian III C20/2 re Crawcrook; "oot back" G'head 2001 Q; "larty – toilet, a children's word, the school larties'" MM S.Shields C20/2 lavatory" 
  39. ^ a b c Trotter Brockett, John (1829). A glossary of north country words, in use. From an original manuscript, with additions.. Oxford University. p. 214. "NEDDY, NETTY, a certain place that will not bear a written explanation; but which is depleted to the very life in a tail-piece in the first edition of Bewick's Land Birds, p. 285. In the second edition a bar is placed against the offending part of this broad display of native humour. Etymon needy, a place of need or necessity." 
  40. ^ a b "Netty". "although some theories suggest it is an abbreviation of Italian gabbinetti, meaning 'toilet'" 
  41. ^ a b c Wainwright, Martin (4 April 2007). "Urinal finds museum home". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 8 October 2007. "the urinals have linguistic distinction: the Geordie word "netty" for lavatory derives from Roman slang on Hadrian's Wall which became "gabinetto" in Italian" 
  42. ^ "Famed Geordie netty is museum attraction". The Northern Echo. 31 March 2007. 
  43. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2013-06-15. 
  44. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2013-06-15. 
  45. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2013-06-15. 
  46. ^ Saunders, Rod. "Italian Migration to Nineteenth Century Britain: Why and Where, Why?". anglo-italianfhs.org.uk. Retrieved 3 September 2008. "They were never in great numbers in the northern cities. For example, the Italian Consul General in Liverpool, in 1891, is quoted as saying that the majority of the 80–100 Italians in the city were organ grinders and street sellers of ice-cream and plaster statues. And that the 500–600 Italians in Manchester included mostly Terrazzo specialists, plasterers and modellers working on the prestigious, new town hall. While in Sheffield 100–150 Italians made cutlery." 
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  49. ^ YAM narrated by author Douglas Kew. 29 July 2007. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  50. ^ Kew, Douglas (7 February 2001). A Traveller's Tale. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55212-552-6. 
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  53. ^ "A housewife's lot, according to Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 22 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "Aa aalwiz…" 
  54. ^ "Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "Aa gan alang the streets…" 
  55. ^ "Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "It larnt us alreet…" 
  56. ^ "Dorfy loses her bus ticket". South Shields Gazette. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "when y' cannit produce a ticket?" 
  57. ^ "Dorfy's school days, with just pennies for uniforms". South Shields Gazette. 5 August 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "the whole o' me childhud" 
  58. ^ "A taste of domestic service for Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "Aa cud dee aall these things." 
  59. ^ "Dorfy on the stress of Christmas shopping". South Shields Gazette. 2009-12-16. Retrieved 2013-10-01. "Y' divvent see onny salt so..." 
  60. ^ "We divvn't want ta gan…". Evening Chronicle. 2004-02-06. Retrieved 2013-10-01. 
  61. ^ "Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "that on Frida's.." 
  62. ^ "Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "wor fud." 
  63. ^ a b c d e f g "Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 
  64. ^ a b c d e f "Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 
  65. ^ "Dorfy loses her bus ticket". South Shields Gazette. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "Wheor d' the' gan t'?" 
  66. ^ a b "Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "Thor's music in the hyemly soond o' 'howk,' or 'haadaway.'" 
  67. ^ "Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 
  68. ^ "Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "an' w' had nivvor hord o'…" 
  69. ^ a b c "Dorfy's school days, with just pennies for uniforms". South Shields Gazette. 5 August 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 
  70. ^ "Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "o' ivry parent wuz t' own…" 
  71. ^ "Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "one 'musical' bairn that wuz sent t' larn music." 
  72. ^ a b c "Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields Gazette. 26 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 
  73. ^ "A housewife's lot, according to Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 22 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "NEEBODY seems t' reelise that a hooswife aalwiz…" 
  74. ^ "Dorfy loses her bus ticket". South Shields Gazette. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 
  75. ^ "Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "that had been shifted oot.." 
  76. ^ "Dorfy loses her bus ticket". South Shields Gazette. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "y' warn't reet." 
  77. ^ "Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "come roond an’..." 
  78. ^ "A taste of domestic service for Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "a bucket o' smaall coal t’…" 
  79. ^ "A taste of domestic service for Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "o' watt sh'…" 
  80. ^ "A taste of domestic service for Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "Cud Aa wesh?" 
  81. ^ "Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "w' got worsel's interested…" 
  82. ^ "Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "y' kin set doon as..." 
  83. ^ "ANT & DEC". celebrity.itv.com. 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2011. 
  84. ^ Smith, Graeme (17 April 2000). "The long road well taken; Graeme Smith FACE TO FACE with Brendan Foster". The Herald (Glasgow). 
  85. ^ Walters, Mike (18 December 2008). "Darts commentary legend Sid Waddell hopes he discovered the next Doctor Who". Daily Mirror. 
  86. ^ a b "X-Factor's Cheryl and Joe's Geordie banter". Metro. 4 December 2009. 
  87. ^ a b "Cheryl Cole in talks with over return to UK X Factor". The Daily Telegraph (London). 28 May 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2011. 
  88. ^ "Neville,Mike: George House – Very Best Of Larn Yersel: Geordie & Geordierama". TV Presenter. 13 December 1995. Retrieved 6 November 2007. 
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  92. ^ Dobson, Scott (April 1993). Advanced Geordie Palaver. Butler Publishing. ISBN 978-0-946928-43-9. 
  93. ^ Irwin, Dick; Milne, Maurice; Dobson, Scott (1970). The Geordie Joke Book. Graham. ISBN 978-0-900409-79-0. 
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  98. ^ Sandvid, D (1988). Basinful o' Geordie: Tyneside Readings. Sandhill P. ISBN 978-0-946098-12-5. 
  99. ^ Sandvid, D (1969). Between Ye an' Me. H Hill. ISBN 978-0-900463-08-2. 
  100. ^ Sandvid, D (1976). I Remember. Tree P. ISBN 978-0-904790-02-3. 
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  102. ^ Wayne Winston Norris, Denis Patterson, Leonard "Oz" Osborne, Brian "Bomber" Busbridge, Barry Taylor, Neville Hope, Albert Arthur Moxey (7 October 2002). Auf Wiedersehen Pet Box Set – The Complete Series 1 and 2 [1983] (PAL). Region 2. ASIN B00005UPJX. Retrieved 17 January 2008. 
  103. ^ Ferguson, Euan (11 December 2005). "Meet the new Delia and Nigella". Observer Food Monthly (London). "'just no relation to what you get late on a Geordie night out,' recalls Si." 
  104. ^ "RNI International Service Number One Hits, 1971–1974". 14 June 1974. Retrieved 28 August 2009. "14-06, "Jarrow Song", Alan Price" 
  105. ^ "The Catherine Tate Show Series 3". seesaw.com. Retrieved 23 February 2011. "Geordie Georgie drums up support for all the little folk in the North East who suffer from sex addiction." 
  106. ^ p. 146, 147. Joan C. Beal. 2009. Enregisterment, commodification, and historical context: “Geordie” versus “Sheffieldish”. American Speech vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 138-156.
  107. ^ "Charlie Hunnam brings swagger to world of 'Pacific Rim'" by Brian Tutt, USA Today July 11, 2013

References[edit]

  • Keuchler, Karsten (2010), Geordie Accent and Tyneside English, GRIN Verlag, ISBN 978-3640742738 
  • Simmelbauer, Andrea (2000), The dialect of Northumberland: A lexical investigation, Anglistische Forschungen, Universitätsverlag C. Winter, ISBN 978-3825309343 
  • Watt, Dominic (2000), "Phonetic parallels between the close–mid vowels of Tyneside English: are they internally or externally motivated?", Language variation and change 12 (1): 69–101 
  • Watt, Dominic; Allen, William (2003), "Tyneside English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 267–271, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001397 

External links[edit]


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13603 news items

Daily Mail

Daily Mail
Mon, 29 Sep 2014 09:01:59 -0700

Although the European summer is officially over, Geordie Shore's Vicky Pattison joined a handful of lucky celebrities cashing in on the last breath of warm weather in Ibiza, Spain. On Sunday the 25-year-old showed off her trim body in a sexy white ...

ChronicleLive

ChronicleLive
Sun, 28 Sep 2014 23:56:57 -0700

Alan Pardew believes that the Geordie players at the club can play a big part in the club's battle to climb off the bottom of the Premier League table. The Magpies go in against Stoke City knowing that defeat could see them losing touch with those ...

The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph
Thu, 25 Sep 2014 19:09:55 -0700

They made exposed male breasts and manicured brows mainstream fashion for men and Geordie Shore star James Tindale would be the first to admits it's a high maintenance look. But when Tindale is not hitting the gym for his customary 14 hours a week, ...

Metro

Metro
Fri, 26 Sep 2014 05:13:55 -0700

Geordie Shore's Holly Hagan has spoken out to say she regrets having one too many romps in the sack. She's best known for having had her fair share of blokes on the reality show, including most of the men in the house, but now the reality star has ...

Metro

Metro
Wed, 24 Sep 2014 12:13:49 -0700

Vicky Pattison may have lost a shed load of weight but the Geordie Shore babe says it ain't pretty when she strips off. Yep, 26-year-old Vicky P reckons she's hiding the body of a '90-year-old bird' underneath all that fake tan – and now she's thinking ...
 
The Bolton News
Mon, 29 Sep 2014 01:42:45 -0700

HUNDREDS of college and university students flocked to a shopping centre for a new “student night”. The Market Place was hosting the shopping centre's first freshers' week event. Students from Bolton College and the University of Bolton were treated to ...

Daily Mail

Daily Mail
Tue, 23 Sep 2014 00:37:24 -0700

While she's now boasting a trim new figure thanks to stepping up her workouts and adopting a healthier eating plan, her style evolution is also to be commended. Vicky Pattison, 25, was the picture of daytime elegance when she stepped out to promote her ...

Showbiz Spy

Showbiz Spy
Sat, 20 Sep 2014 08:34:00 -0700

It looks as though Holly Hagan and Geordie Shore newbie Kyle Christie could be headed for relationship bliss. YAY! Holly says the pair have been hanging out non-stop outside of the Geordie Shore house and that he treats her way better than James or ...
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