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For other uses, see Gaucho (disambiguation).
Portrait of a gaucho from Argentina photographed in Peru, 1868.

Gaucho (Spanish: [ˈɡautʃo]) or gaúcho (Portuguese: [ɡaˈuʃu]) is a resident of the South American pampas, Gran Chaco, or Patagonian grasslands, found mainly in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Southeastern Bolivia, Southern Brazil and Southern Chile. In Brazil, gaúcho is also the main demonym of the people from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. In the Argentine pampas gauchos are the main workers on an estancia. Their duty is to herd cattle all year round. They are excellent horsemen. They also use different types of weapons like the bola and lassos for herding cattle.

Gaucho is an equivalent of the North American "cowboy" (vaquero, in Spanish), the Chilean huaso, the Peruvian chalan, the Cuban guajiro, the Puerto Rican jibaro, the Venezuelan or Colombian llanero, the Ecuadorian chagra, the Hawaiian Paniolo, and the Mexican charro, which are terms that often connote the 19th century more than the present day; then, gauchos made up the majority of the rural population, herding cattle on the vast estancias, and practicing hunting as their main economic activities.

The Gaucho is a nationalistic symbol in both Argentina and Uruguay. The Gauchos became greatly admired and renowned in legends, folklore and in literature and became an important part of their regional cultural tradition. Beginning late in the 19th century, after the heyday of the gauchos, they were celebrated by South American writers.

Etymology[edit]

Gaucho in ring lancing contest, Buenos Aires Province.

There are several hypotheses concerning the origin of the term. It may derive from the Spanish term chaucho (in turn derived from Arabic chauia which means herdsman). The first recorded use of the term dates to Argentine independence in 1816. Another scenario indicates the word may derive from the Portuguese gaudério, which was designated to the inhabitants of the vast regions of Rio Grande do Sul and Río de la Plata in the 18th century or the Portuguese garrucho that points to an instrument used by the gauchos to trap and hamstring cattle. Another possible origin of the word could be from the he Moorish word hawsh which was possibly used to designate the shepherd and the wanderer, pointing the possible influence of Moorish immigrants in the Gaucho region. The 18th century chronicler Alonso Carrió de la Vandera speaks of "Gauderios" when it mentions the Gauchos or "Huasos" as poorly dressed men.

Culture[edit]

Gauchos drinking mate and playing the guitar in the Argentine Pampas.
Segundo Ramírez, who inspired Ricardo Güiraldes to write Don Segundo Sombra.

The gaucho plays an important symbolic role in the nationalist feelings of this region, especially that of Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. The epic poem Martín Fierro by José Hernández (considered by some[1] the national epic of Argentina) used the gaucho as a symbol against corruption and of Argentine national tradition, pitted against Europeanising tendencies. Martín Fierro, the hero of the poem, is drafted into the Argentine military for a border war, deserts, and becomes an outlaw and fugitive. The image of the free gaucho is often contrasted to the slaves who worked the northern Brazilian lands. Further literary descriptions are found in Ricardo Güiraldes' Don Segundo Sombra. Like the North American cowboys, as discussed in Richard W. Slatta, Cowboys of the Americas, gauchos were generally reputed to be strong, honest, silent types, but proud and capable of violence when provoked. The gaucho tendency to violence over petty matters is also recognized as a typical trait. Gauchos' use of the famous "facón" (large knife generally tucked into the rear of the gaucho sash) is legendary, often associated with considerable bloodletting. Historically, the facón was typically the only eating instrument that a gaucho carried.

Also like the cowboy, as shown in Richard W. Slatta, Cowboys of the Americas, gauchos were and remain proud and great horseriders. Typically, a gaucho's horse constituted most of what he owned in the world. During the wars of the 19th century in the Southern Cone, the cavalries on all sides were composed almost entirely of gauchos. In Argentina, gaucho armies such as that of Martín Miguel de Güemes, slowed Spanish advances. Furthermore, many caudillos relied on gaucho armies to control the Argentine provinces.

The gaucho diet was composed almost entirely of beef while on the range, supplemented by yerba mate (erva mate in Portuguese), an herbal infusian made from the leaves of the yerba tree, a type of holly rich in caffeine and nutrients.

Gauchos[2] dressed quite distinctly from North American cowboys, and used bolas or boleadoras - in Portuguese boleadeiras - (three leather bound rocks tied together with approximately three feet long leather straps) in addition to the familiar "North American" lariat or riata. The typical gaucho outfit would include a poncho (which doubled as a saddle blanket and as sleeping gear), a facón (large knife), a rebenque (leather whip), and loose-fitting trousers called bombachas, belted with a tirador, or a chiripá, a loincloth. During winters, gauchos wore heavy wool ponchos to protect against cold.

Modern influences[edit]

Gaúcho is also the common denomination of the current inhabitants of the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul.

Gauchito (a boy in the Argentine colors and a gaucho hat) was the mascot for the 1978 FIFA World Cup.

In popular culture[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Leopoldo Lugones 1 in "El Payador" (1916)2 and Ricardo Rojas 3 established the canonical view regarding the Martín Fierro as the National Epic of Argentina. The consequences of these considerations are discussed by Jorge Luis Borges in his essay "El Martín Fierro". An assessment of the years-long discussion here, since p. 18
  2. ^ South-images.com Photos: gauchos in Argentina, Photo library South-Images

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaucho — Please support Wikipedia.
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82219 news items

The Seattle Times

The Seattle Times
Wed, 22 Jul 2015 10:40:48 -0700

The summer sockeye fishery remains very good at places such as Baker Lake, and in Brewster Pool and below Wanapum on the Columbia River. In this week's seafood recipe of the week, Executive Chef Jonathan Garcia of El Gaucho Events has a delightful ...
 
Fox News Latino
Mon, 20 Jul 2015 08:45:00 -0700

Cultural groups from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay agreed over the weekend to join forces to get UNESCO to recognize the gaucho as part of the world's Intangible Cultural Heritage, International Gaucha Tradition Confederation, or CITG, president Manuel ...

SBS

Yahoo Eurosport UK
Sat, 11 Jul 2015 17:34:52 -0700

RIO DE JANIERO, July 11 (Reuters) - Two-times former World Player of the Year Ronaldinho Gaucho has signed an 17-month contact with Fluminense, the club said on Saturday. He joined the Rio de Janeiro side after terminating his contract with Mexican ...

Manchester Evening News

Manchester Evening News
Fri, 24 Jul 2015 05:34:26 -0700

And during that time, drinks are all included in the price too - which include fresh-made juices, Gaucho's famous Bloody Mary, breakfast cocktails and sparkling Argentine Domaine Chandon - with the fizz definitely flowing at the launch of the event ...

City A.M.

City A.M.
Sun, 19 Jul 2015 20:02:54 -0700

Gaucho lost managing director Martin Williams last year. Williams left the chain to start M restaurants, while the managing director of CAU, Charlie McLean, departed in 2013 and has since backed ventures such as Cafe Pistou on Exmouth Market.

Rating Cero

Rating Cero
Fri, 31 Jul 2015 19:48:45 -0700

¿Es argentino o turco? Ergun Demir se vistió de tanguero y gaucho y se reconcilió con el jurado. 31/07/2015 23:48 hs. El actor internacional limó asperezas con el estrado después de que lo mandaran a la sentencia y sorprendió con su coreografía.

Foodepedia

Foodepedia
Fri, 24 Jul 2015 03:30:00 -0700

For many whiskey aficionados, the finest whiskey in the world is to be found in Japan. With a passion for offering the best of the best, Gaucho Smithfield will be hosting a one-off masterclass, exploring the history and heritage of celebrated Japanese ...

Virginia Tech Collegiate Times

Virginia Tech Collegiate Times
Fri, 31 Jul 2015 09:54:08 -0700

Gaucho Brazilian Grille offers Brazilian and Latin American-infused food in a relaxing environment. Before the soft opening, the couple provided a taste of what to expect over the past year at the Blacksburg Farmers Market. Now, community members can ...
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