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For other uses, see Gaucho (disambiguation).
Portrait of a gaucho from Argentina photographed in Peru, 1868.

Gaucho (Spanish: [ˈɡautʃo]) or gaúcho (Portuguese: [ɡaˈuʃu]) is a resident of the South American pampas, Gran Chaco, or Patagonian grasslands, found principally in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Southeastern Bolivia, Southern Brazil and Southern Chile. In Brazil, gaúcho is also the main demonym of the people from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. In the Argentine pampas gauchos are the main workers on an estancia. Their duty is to herd cattle all year round. They are excellent horsemen. They also use different types of weapons like the bola and lassos for herding cattle.

Gaucho is an equivalent of the North American "cowboy" (vaquero, in Spanish), the Chilean huaso, the Cuban guajiro, the Venezuelan or Colombian llanero, the Puerto Rican jibaro, and the Mexican charro, which are terms that often connote the 19th century more than the present day; then, gauchos made up the majority of the rural population, herding cattle on the vast estancias, and practicing hunting as their main economic activities.

The Gaucho plays a nationalistic symbol in both Argentina and Uruguay. The Gauchos became greatly admired and renowned in legends, folklore and in literature and became an important part of their regional cultural tradition. Beginning late in the 19th century, after the heyday of the gauchos, they were celebrated by South American writers.

Etymology[edit]

Gaucho in ring lancing contest, Buenos Aires Province.

There are several hypotheses concerning the origin of the term. It may derive from the Spanish term chaucho (in turn derived from Arabic chauia which means herdsman). The first recorded use of the term dates to Argentine independence in 1816. Another scenario indicates the word may derive from the Quechua word huachu (orphan, wanderer), or the Portuguese gaudério, which was designated to the inhabitants of the vast regions of Rio Grande do Sul and Río de la Plata in the 18th century or the Portuguese garrucho that points to an instrument used by the gauchos to trap and hamstring cattle. Another possible origin of the word could be from the he Moorish word hawsh which was possibly used to designate the shepherd and the wanderer, pointing the possible influence of Moorish immigrants in the Gaucho region. The 18th century chronicler Alonso Carrió de la Vandera speaks of "Gauderios" when it mentions the Gauchos or "Huasos" as poorly dressed men.

Culture[edit]

Gauchos drinking mate and playing the guitar in the Argentine Pampas.
Segundo Ramírez, who inspired Ricardo Güiraldes to write Don Segundo Sombra.

The gaucho plays an important symbolic role in the nationalist feelings of this region, especially that of Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. The epic poem Martín Fierro by José Hernández (considered by some[1] the national epic of Argentina) used the gaucho as a symbol against corruption and of Argentine national tradition, pitted against Europeanising tendencies. Martín Fierro, the hero of the poem, is drafted into the Argentine military for a border war, deserts, and becomes an outlaw and fugitive. The image of the free gaucho is often contrasted to the slaves who worked the northern Brazilian lands. Further literary descriptions are found in Ricardo Güiraldes' Don Segundo Sombra. Like the North American cowboys, as discussed in Richard W. Slatta, Cowboys of the Americas, gauchos were generally reputed to be strong, honest, silent types, but proud and capable of violence when provoked. The gaucho tendency to violence over petty matters is also recognized as a typical trait. Gauchos' use of the famous "facón" (large knife generally tucked into the rear of the gaucho sash) is legendary, often associated with considerable bloodletting. Historically, the facón was typically the only eating instrument that a gaucho carried.

Also like the cowboy, as shown in Richard W. Slatta, Cowboys of the Americas, gauchos were and remain proud and great horseriders. Typically, a gaucho's horse constituted most of what he owned in the world. During the wars of the 19th century in the Southern Cone, the cavalries on all sides were composed almost entirely of gauchos. In Argentina, gaucho armies such as that of Martín Miguel de Güemes, slowed Spanish advances. Furthermore, many caudillos relied on gaucho armies to control the Argentine provinces.

The gaucho diet was composed almost entirely of beef while on the range, supplemented by yerba mate (erva mate in Portuguese), an herbal infusian made from the leaves of the yerba tree, a type of holly rich in caffeine and nutrients.

Gauchos[2] dressed quite distinctly from North American cowboys, and used bolas or boleadoras - in Portuguese boleadeiras - (three leather bound rocks tied together with approximately three feet long leather straps) in addition to the familiar "North American" lariat or riata. The typical gaucho outfit would include a poncho (which doubled as a saddle blanket and as sleeping gear), a facón (large knife), a rebenque (leather whip), and loose-fitting trousers called bombachas, belted with a tirador, or a chiripá, a loincloth. During winters, gauchos wore heavy wool ponchos to protect against cold.

Modern influences[edit]

Gaúcho is also the common denomination of the current inhabitants of the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul.

Gauchito (a boy in the Argentine colors and a gaucho hat) was the mascot for the 1978 FIFA World Cup.

The Gaucho is the mascot of University of California, Santa Barbara.

In popular culture[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Leopoldo Lugones 1 in "El Payador" (1916)2 and Ricardo Rojas 3 established the canonical view regarding the Martín Fierro as the National Epic of Argentina. The consequences of these considerations are discussed by Jorge Luis Borges in his essay "El Martín Fierro". An assessment of the years-long discussion here, since p. 18
  2. ^ South-images.com Photos: gauchos in Argentina, Photo library South-Images

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaucho — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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Daily Nexus
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 05:09:34 -0700

Fuertes continued to play through high school and was a third team All-Orange County selection from 2010-2013 before she finally committed to becoming a Gaucho. From the moment her collegiate career began, Fuertes' talent was evident. She started in 15 ...

Daily Nexus

Daily Nexus
Thu, 23 Oct 2014 05:00:00 -0700

The UCSB Gaucho Certified Farmers Market is a great place to get some fresh organic produce and artisan goods, get familiar with your food and meet local farmers and artisans. Every Wednesday from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m., vendors set out on the lawn by ...

mySanAntonio.com

mySanAntonio.com
Wed, 22 Oct 2014 21:57:47 -0700

Gaucho Gourmet offers imported deli meats, cheeses and other hard-to-find foods. It offers lunch take-out and is expanding its selection and a Seasonal Saturday Market starting in November 2014. Luciano Ciociari is a co-owner at Gaucho Gourmet, which ...
 
Presidio Sports
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 16:03:45 -0700

MALIBU – UC Santa Barbara doubles teams fell just short of a semifinals berth in the main draw of the ITA Southwest Regionals as both Gaucho duos lost to teams from UCLA on Sunday. Meanwhile in singles play, three UCSB players advanced to the ...
 
Presidio Sports
Sat, 18 Oct 2014 22:26:15 -0700

The UCSB men's swimming team opened its season with a 152-107 loss against USC on Saturday. Gaucho senior Wade Allen racked up 12 points for the Gauchos today, beginning with a second place finish in the 200 free. Chase Lemley placed fourth in the ...

Puget Sound Business Journal (Seattle) (blog)

Puget Sound Business Journal (Seattle) (blog)
Wed, 01 Oct 2014 14:07:24 -0700

Mackay wants to grow the existing business, and also has plans to add a couple of stories onto the existing El Gaucho Inn. He wants to expand the hotel and add a rooftop entertainment area with a retractable roof for corporate events, intimate weddings ...
 
Presidio Sports
Sun, 12 Oct 2014 16:03:45 -0700

Fellow Gaucho teammates Erik Johnsson and Nathan Eshmade captured 3rd and 5th places finishes, respectively, in the B Flight draw. Johnsson beat his opponent from UC Davis, Brett Bacharach, 6-4, 6-2 and Eshmade overpowered UCSD's Eric Tseng 6-0, ...

Daily Nexus

Daily Nexus
Tue, 21 Oct 2014 05:10:41 -0700

url The Daily Nexus has retracted the satirical Nexustentialism blog post titled “ISIS Seizes FT, Establishes Gaucho Caliphate,” published at 5 a.m. on Oct. 21, due to the piece's lack of proper editorial review prior to being posted. The piece does ...
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