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Gangga Negara
2nd century–1025/1026
Beruas, Manjung previously known as Dinding as seen in the Straits Settlement of Malaya map.
Capital Beruas
Languages Malay language
Religion Hindu
Government Monarchy
Raja Gangga Shah Johan
 •  Coronation 2nd century
 •  Defeated by Chola Empire 1025/1026
Today part of  Malaysia
Part of a series on the
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The independence of Malaya and the merger proclamation of North Borneo and Sarawak to formed Malaysia.
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Gangga Negara is believed to be a lost semi-legendary Hindu kingdom mentioned in the Malay Annals that covered present day Beruas, Dinding and Manjung in the state of Perak, Malaysia with Raja Gangga Shah Johan as one of its kings. Researchers believe that the kingdom was centred at Beruas and it collapsed after an attack by King Rajendra Chola I of Coromandel, South India, between 1025 and 1026. Another Malay annals Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa known as Kedah Annals, Gangga Negara may have been founded by Merong Mahawangsa's son Raja Ganjil Sarjuna of Kedah, allegedly a descendant of Alexander the Great or by the Khmer royalties no later than the 2nd century.


A photo taken from the National History Museum of Kuala Lumpur. An 8th-9th century bronze standing 8-armed Buddhist Avalokitesvara statue found at Anglo Oriental, Bidor, Perak tin mine in year 1936. 79cm height.

Gangga Negara means "a city on the Ganges" in Sanskrit,[1] the name derived[citation needed] from Ganganagar in northwest India where the Kambuja peoples inhabited. The Kambujas are an Indo-Iranian clan of the Indo-European family, originally localised in Pamirs and Badakshan. Commonly known as Hindu traders, they built their colonies[citation needed] in Southeast Asia around 2000 years ago at the Mekong valley and also at the Malay archipelago in Funan, Chenla, Champa, Khmer, Angkor, Langkasuka, Sailendra, Srivijaya, etc. Historians[who?] found the Kambuja traders travelled from Gujarat to Sri Lanka and then to Ligor (Nakhon Sri Thammarat) of the northern Malay peninsular, overland to Thailand and Cambodia.


6th century Buddha statues (left) found at Ipoh. 9th century Hindu priest teacher statue found at Jalong, Perak.

The first research into the Beruas kingdom was conducted by Colonel James Low in 1849 and a century later, by H.G. Quaritch Wales. According to the Museum and Antiquities Department, both researchers agreed that the Gangga Negara kingdom existed between 100 ce - 1000 [2] but could not ascertain the exact site. For years, villagers had unearthed artefacts believed to be from the ancient kingdoms, most of which are at present displayed at the Beruas Museum. Artefacts on display include a 128 kg cannon, swords, kris, coins, tin ingots, pottery from the Ming Dynasty and various eras, and large jars. They can be dated back to the 5th and 6th century.[3] Through these artefacts, it has been postulated that Pengkalan (Ipoh), Kinta Valley, Tanjung Rambutan, Bidor and Sungai Siput were part of the kingdom. Artifacts also suggest that the kingdom's centre might have shifted several times. Gangga Negara was renamed to Beruas after the establishment of Islam there.

Beruas tree[edit]

The district of Beruas has found some royal Acehnese gravestones and this evidence has it linked to another historical source that a Samudera Pasai prince from Aceh of Sumatra rested at Beruas tree (Pokok Beruas), his name was Malik. History of Pasai did mentioned a Malik ul Salih who was the first local Hindu Malay king to convert to Islam in 1267. Today the beruas trees have become extinct but can still be found in the nearby villages of Pengkalan Baru and Batang Kubu[unreliable source?].

See also[edit]


  1. ^ S. Durai Raja Singam Printed by Liang Khoo Printing Co., 1962 -Language Arts & Disciplines -253 pages
  2. ^ Research on the Early Malay Doctors 1900-1957 Malaya and Singapore, By Faridah Abdul Rashid
  3. ^ Neutron radiography: proceedings of the second world conference, Paris, France, June 16-20, 1986 John Penrose Barton, Commission of the European Communities, D. Reidel, 1987 -928 pages

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gangga_Negara — Please support Wikipedia.
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19 news items

The Malaysian Insider (press release)
Tue, 30 Jun 2015 23:11:18 -0700

Historically, the Malay population founded several ancient maritime trading states and kingdoms, notably Brunei, Old Kedah, Langkasuka, Gangga Negara, Old Kelantan, Negara Sri Dharmaraja, Malayu and Srivijaya, and the later Cham and Mon-Khmer ...


Mon, 21 Sep 2015 10:48:45 -0700

Nama Ops Gangga dipilih berdasarkan kepada kawasan pencarian adalah di Beruas, Perak yang terkenal dengan kewujudan Kerajaan Melayu Kuno kurun ke-2 iaitu Gangga Negara. Ekskavasi bermula 17 Ogos lalu itu adalah rentetan daripada beberapa ...
Malaysia Kini
Fri, 20 Jan 2012 17:51:23 -0800

The introduction of Madras-1 (LDH B) genetic variants into the receptive Proto-Malay gene pool could have begun as early as 1025 or 1026 when King Rajendra Chola 1 of the Chola dynasty of Coromandel, South India, conquered Gangga Negara (Perak) ...

The Borneo Post

The Borneo Post
Sat, 23 Feb 2013 15:19:38 -0800

According to several local Malaysian historians, the area used to be part of the Gangga Negara (based on the 8-9th century bronze Buddhist Avalokitesvara statue found in 1935 in Bidor). The people in this area accepted Hindu-Buddhism around 900 years ...

ASEAN Automotive News

ASEAN Automotive News
Tue, 05 Jun 2012 00:46:17 -0700

A tiny car making big waves in USA? One with a brand most Americans never heard of? Yes, Chrysler has stopped taking orders for the 2012 Fiat 500 Abarth in just over a month after the first units arrived in US showrooms. Some dealers might still have ...
Utusan Malaysia
Sun, 13 Apr 2014 06:30:19 -0700

Dari menara Kota Gangga Negara, Puteri Dara menyaksikan kekandanya Raja Gangga, berperang habis-habisan mempertahankan ibu kota. Dialah kapitan perang negara. Raja Suran melanggar kota hingga roboh. Kekandanya memanah. Kena gumba ...

Berita Harian

Berita Harian
Fri, 28 Aug 2015 21:54:00 -0700

Mengulas lanjut, Ahmad Zahid berkata, kegagalan pemimpin serta ahli UMNO dan BN memahami kehendak dan cita rasa golongan Y boleh mengakibatkan parti itu hanya menjadi sejarah pada masa depan sebagaimana kerajaan Melayu Gangga Negara ...
Oriental Daily News
Wed, 05 Aug 2015 07:28:46 -0700

霹靂州擁有豐富的歷史,除了玲瓏谷發現的「霹靂人」化石外,在十世紀時,曼絨一帶也曾有名為剛迦王國(Gangga Negara)的興都教王朝。 霹靂州的現代史是在馬六甲王朝的滅亡后才開始發展,馬六甲的最后一任蘇丹,蘇丹馬末沙的長子拉惹慕札法沙,于1511年在 ...

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