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Gangga Negara
2nd century–1025/1026
Beruas, Manjung previously known as Dinding as seen in the Straits Settlement of Malaya map.
Capital Beruas
Languages Malay language
Religion Hindu
Government Monarchy
Raja Gangga Shah Johan
 -  Coronation 2nd century
 -  Defeated by Chola Empire 1025/1026
Today part of  Malaysia
Part of a series on the
History of Malaysia
The independence of Malaya and the merger proclamation of North Borneo and Sarawak to formed Malaysia.
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Gangga Negara is believed to be a lost semi-legendary Hindu kingdom mentioned in the Malay Annals that covered present day Beruas, Dinding and Manjung in the state of Perak, Malaysia with Raja Gangga Shah Johan as one of its kings. Researchers believe that the kingdom was centered at Beruas and it collapsed after an attack by King Rajendra Chola I of Coromandel, South India, between 1025 and 1026. Another Malay annals Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa known as Kedah Annals, Gangga Negara may have been founded by Merong Mahawangsa's son Raja Ganjil Sarjuna of Kedah, allegedly a descendant of Alexander the Great or by the Khmer royalties no later than the 2nd century.


A photo taken from the National History Museum of Kuala Lumpur. An 8th-9th century bronze standing 8-armed Buddhist Avalokitesvara statue found at Anglo Oriental, Bidor, Perak tin mine in year 1936. 79cm height.

Gangga Negara means "a city on the Ganges" in Sanskrit,[1] the name derived[citation needed] from Ganganagar in northwest India where the Kambuja peoples inhabited. The Kambujas are an Indo-Iranian clan of the Indo-European family, originally localized in Pamirs and Badakshan. Commonly known as Hindu traders, they built their colonies[citation needed] in Southeast Asia around 2000 years ago at the Mekong valley and also at the Malay archipelago in Funan, Chenla, Champa, Khmer, Angkor, Langkasuka, Sailendra, Srivijaya, etc. Historians[who?] found the Kambuja traders travelled from Gujarat to Sri Lanka and then to Ligor (Nakhon Sri Thammarat) of the northern Malay peninsular, overland to Thailand and Cambodia.


6th century Buddha statues (left) found at Ipoh. 9th century Hindu priest teacher statue found at Jalong, Perak.

The first research into the Beruas kingdom was conducted by Colonel James Low in 1849 and a century later, by H.G. Quaritch Wales. According to the Museum and Antiquities Department, both researchers agreed that the Gangga Negara kingdom existed between 100 ce - 1000 [2] but could not ascertain the exact site. For years, villagers had unearthed artefacts believed to be from the ancient kingdoms, most of which are at present displayed at the Beruas Museum. Artefacts on display include a 128 kg cannon, swords, kris, coins, tin ingots, pottery from the Ming Dynasty and various eras, and large jars. They can be dated back to the 5th and 6th century.[3] Through these artifacts, it has been postulated that Pengkalan (Ipoh), Kinta Valley, Tanjung Rambutan, Bidor and Sungai Siput were part of the kingdom. Artifacts also suggest that the kingdom's center might have shifted several times. Gangga Negara was renamed to Beruas after the establishment of Islam there.

Beruas tree[edit]

The district of Beruas has found some royal Acehnese gravestones and this evidence has it linked to another historical source that a Samudera Pasai prince from Aceh of Sumatra rested at Beruas tree (Pokok Beruas), his name was Malik. History of Pasai did mentioned a Malik ul Salih who was the first local Hindu Malay king to convert to Islam in 1267. Today the beruas trees have become extinct but can still be found in the nearby villages of Pengkalan Baru and Batang Kubu[unreliable source?].

See also[edit]


  1. ^ S. Durai Raja Singam Printed by Liang Khoo Printing Co., 1962 -Language Arts & Disciplines -253 pages
  2. ^ Research on the Early Malay Doctors 1900-1957 Malaya and Singapore, By Faridah Abdul Rashid
  3. ^ Neutron radiography: proceedings of the second world conference, Paris, France, June 16-20, 1986 John Penrose Barton, Commission of the European Communities, D. Reidel, 1987 -928 pages

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gangga_Negara — Please support Wikipedia.
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14 news items

The Star Online
Sat, 09 Nov 2013 18:09:32 -0800

Any historian will tell you that Beruas was part of the ancient Gangga Negara kingdom, which is believed to be the Hindu Malay kingdom mentioned in the Malay Annals and historic cities with crossover cultures are often treasure troves of extraordinary ...
The Borneo Post
Sat, 23 Feb 2013 15:19:38 -0800

According to several local Malaysian historians, the area used to be part of the Gangga Negara (based on the 8-9th century bronze Buddhist Avalokitesvara statue found in 1935 in Bidor). The people in this area accepted Hindu-Buddhism around 900 years ...
Utusan Malaysia
Sun, 13 Apr 2014 06:30:19 -0700

Dari menara Kota Gangga Negara, Puteri Dara menyaksikan kekandanya Raja Gangga, berperang habis-habisan mempertahankan ibu kota. Dialah kapitan perang negara. Raja Suran melanggar kota hingga roboh. Kekandanya memanah. Kena gumba ...
Malaysia Kini
Fri, 20 Jan 2012 17:51:23 -0800

The introduction of Madras-1 (LDH B) genetic variants into the receptive Proto-Malay gene pool could have begun as early as 1025 or 1026 when King Rajendra Chola 1 of the Chola dynasty of Coromandel, South India, conquered Gangga Negara (Perak) ...
ASEAN Automotive News
Tue, 05 Jun 2012 00:46:17 -0700

A tiny car making big waves in USA? One with a brand most Americans never heard of? Yes, Chrysler has stopped taking orders for the 2012 Fiat 500 Abarth in just over a month after the first units arrived in US showrooms. Some dealers might still have ...


Tue, 05 May 2015 10:37:30 -0700

Buku setebal 623 muka surat itu mengulas mengenai takrif perkataan Melayu dan asal usul bangsa Melayu serta kewujudan Kerajaan Awal Melayu seperti Kerajaan Funan, Kerajaan Kutai, Kerajaan Gangga Negara dan Kerajaan Kedah Tua. Selain itu ...
Malaysia Star
Sat, 23 Apr 2011 16:04:46 -0700

He hails from Beruas, Perak, which is believed to be the site of the fabled kingdom of Gangga Negara. “One day I hope to paint it, something like the legendary kingdom of Atlantis.” And what of the urinal? The roots of this lie with the French artist ...
Malaysia Star
Wed, 02 Feb 2005 15:38:48 -0800

The manuscript narrated an account of the devastating raids by Raja Rajendra Cholavarman I, who after destroying the city of Gangga Negara (now Beruas in Lower Perak) turned his attention to Kota Gelanggi. Raimy said he did not expect to find in Kota ...

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