digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Fritz Crisler
Fritz Crisler.png
Crisler from 1948 Michiganensian
Sport(s) Football, basketball, baseball
Biographical details
Born (1899-01-12)January 12, 1899
Earlville, Illinois, USA
Died August 19, 1982(1982-08-19) (aged 83)
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Playing career
Football
1919–1921

Chicago
Position(s) End
Coaching career (HC unless noted)
Football
1922–1929
1930–1931
1932–1937
1938–1947

Basketball
1932–1934

Baseball
1927–1929

Chicago (assistant)
Minnesota
Princeton
Michigan


Princeton


Chicago
Administrative career (AD unless noted)
1930–1932
1941–1968
Minnesota
Michigan
Head coaching record
Overall 116–32–9 (football)
32–11 (basketball)
22–25 (baseball)
Bowls 1–0
Statistics
College Football Data Warehouse
Accomplishments and honors
Championships
Football
3 National (1933, 1935, 1947)
2 Big Ten (1943, 1947)
Awards
Football
AFCA Coach of the Year (1947)
Amos Alonzo Stagg Award (1979)
College Football Hall of Fame
Inducted in 1954 (profile)

Herbert Orin "Fritz" Crisler (January 12, 1899 – August 19, 1982) was an American college football coach who is best known as "the father of two-platoon football,"[1] an innovation in which separate units of players were used for offense and defense. Crisler developed two-platoon football while serving as head coach at the University of Michigan from 1938 to 1947. He also coached at the University of Minnesota (1930–1931) and Princeton University (1932–1937). Before coaching, he played football at the University of Chicago under Amos Alonzo Stagg, who nicknamed him Fritz after violinist Fritz Kreisler.

During his 18-year career as a head football coach, Crisler's teams won 116 games, lost 32, and tied 9. At Michigan, Crisler won 71 games, lost 16, and tied 3 for a winning percentage of .806. Crisler introduced the distinctive winged football helmet to the Michigan Wolverines in 1938. The Michigan football team has worn a version of the design ever since. Crisler had first introduced the winged helmet design at Princeton in 1935.[2] He was also the head basketball coach at Princeton for two seasons from 1932 to 1934, tallying a mark of 32–11.

Crisler's 1947 Michigan Wolverines football team, dubbed the "Mad Magicians," had an undefeated campaign, ending with a 49–0 triumph over Southern California in the 1948 Rose Bowl. Afterwards, the team was selected the national champion by the Associated Press in an unprecedented post-bowl vote. Crisler retired from coaching after the 1947 season and served as the University of Michigan's athletic director from 1941 to 1968. Crisler was also a member of the NCAA football rules committee for 41 years and its chairman for nine years.

Crisler Arena, home of the Michigan men's and women's basketball teams, was renamed in honor of Crisler in 1970. In addition, one "extra" seat in Michigan Stadium was added to honor Crisler for his special place in the history of Michigan football. However, its location is unknown.

University of Chicago athlete[edit]

Crisler was born in Earlville, Illinois in 1899. He participated in football at Mendota High School and was an outstanding student.[3] Articles in the October 7, 1915 and October 19, 1916 Sun Bulletins of Mendota, Illinois, show him to be a powerful football player who, "sent shivers up and down the spinal colums of the opposing team.", April 2012  Missing or empty |title= (help) Crisler enrolled at the University of Chicago on an academic scholarship with plans to become a doctor.[3] Crisler often told the story of his introduction to college football. Crisler recalled that he wandered over the football field as a freshman, where he saw the legendary coach, Amos Alonzo Stagg, directing a practice session. According to Crisler, Stagg knocked him over on the sideline while trying to get out of the way of an end sweep play. Stagg reportedly told the diminutive Crisler, "If you're going to play football, why don't you put on a suit?" Crisler worked out with the football team for a few days, but Crisler gave it up to return to his studies. When Stagg encountered Crisler a short time later on campus, Stagg said, "I would have never picked you for a quitter."[3] Crisler recalled that he returned to the team in response to Stagg's taunt and noted, "I've been in athletics ever since."[3] Stagg was also responsible for Crisler's nickname. After Crisler fouled up four consecutive plays during a practice session, Stagg told him, "Crisler, from now on you are 'Fritz' after the master violinist. Not because you resemble him, but because you are so different."[3]

Crisler played at the end position for Stagg's Chicago Maroons from 1919 to 1921. In 1921, he was selected as a first-team All-American by Walter Eckersall,[4] a second-team All-American by Football World (based on a poll of 267 coaches),[5] and a third-team All-American by Walter Camp.[6] Crisler became an all-around athletic star at the University of Chicago, winning a total of nine varsity letters, three each in football, baseball and basketball teams.[7]

Football coach[edit]

Chicago (1922–1929)[edit]

After receiving his degree from the University of Chicago in 1922, Crisler accepted a position as assistant coach at his alma mater, working as an assistant to his mentor, Amos Alonzo Stagg. Crisler remained an assistant coach at Chicago for eight years.[8] By 1925, he was also an assistant athletic director at Chicago and was reportedly "being groomed to replace Old Man Stagg, when the veteran coach retires."[9][10]

Minnesota (1930–1931)[edit]

In 1930, Crisler was hired as the athletic director and head football coach at the University of Minnesota.[8][11] Crisler was the head coach of the Minnesota Golden Gophers football program for two seasons in 1930 and 1931.[12] In the 1930 season, Crisler's team won three games, lost four and tied one.[13] Guard Biggie Munn was awarded the Team MVP Award.[14] In 1931, Crisler's team improved to a record of 7–3.[13] Minnesota guard Biggie Munn was named a first-team All-American in 1931 and received the Chicago Tribune Silver Football as the most valuable player of the Big Ten.[15] Munn later became Crisler's rival as the football coach at Michigan State University from 1947 to 1953.

Princeton (1932–1937)[edit]

Crisler was the head football coach at Princeton from 1932 to 1937 where he compiled a record of 35–9–5. Two of his teams, the 1933 and 1935 teams, compiled perfect 9–0 records and were recognized by some as national champions. The 1933 team was invited to the Rose Bowl, but administration turned down the offer. Columbia, which has lost only one game, to Princeton, accepted the invitation and defeated Stanford.[16] Crisler introduced two innovations that later came into general usage. The first was his development of a faster starting stance for offensive linemen, and the second was a practice of having his quarterback stand apart from the huddle until ready to call a play.[3]

Michigan (1938–1947)[edit]

Crisler and Bob Chappuis pose with Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy prior to 1948 Rose Bowl.

Crisler served as Michigan's head football coach from 1938 to 1947. When he took over as head coach at Michigan in 1938, Crisler introduced the distinctive winged football helmet which has since become one of the symbols of Michigan Wolverines athletics programs. Crisler developed a similar winged helmet pattern in 1935 while coaching at Princeton.[17] At Michigan, he added to the innovation by painting the helmets maize and blue, thus highlighting the winged pattern. Crisler created the distinctive design to help his halfbacks find receivers downfield. Crisler later recalled, "There was a tendency to use different colored helmets just for receivers in those days, but I always thought that would be as helpful for the defense as for the offense."[17]

In his ten years as coach, the Wolverines compiled a record of 71–16–3. His Michigan teams finished lower than second in the Big Ten Conference only twice. The 1943 team won the school's first Big Ten championship in ten years with a 8–1 record, losing only to Notre Dame, a game which would spark another 30 years of Michigan refusing to schedule a game against Notre Dame "Blue Gray Sky". . His 80.5 winning percentage ranks him second in school history behind only Fielding H. Yost (minimum 50 games coached).[8]

Crisler's most noted players at Michigan included Heisman Trophy winner Tom Harmon, Bob Chappuis, Forest Evashevski (who later became athletic director at Iowa), Bump Elliott, Pete Elliott, Albert Wistert and Julius Franks.[3]

While coaching at Michigan, Crisler developed the platoon system in which separate groups play offense and defense.[1][18] He unveiled the system in 1945 in a game played at Yankee Stadium against Army. Before Crisler switched to the platoon system, players handled both offensive and defensive duties with only occasional substitutions.[19] Using a single wing formation, Crisler also conceived the buck lateral series and the spinning fullback play.[3]

Crisler's greatest success as head football coach at Michigan came with the 1947 Michigan Wolverines football team. The 1947 team, known as the "Mad Magicians" due to Crisler's complex shifts, stunts, and schemes,[20] went undefeated and untied with a 10–0 record. Though ranked #2 in the Associated Press poll at the end of the regular season, the Wolverines defeated the USC Trojans by a score of 49–0 in the 1948 Rose Bowl game, and were selected as the nation's #1 team by a 226–119 margin over Notre Dame in an unprecedented post-bowl Associated Press poll. The 1947 team has been selected as the best team in the history of Michigan football.[21] Led by team captain, Bruce Hilkene, quarterback Howard Yerges, and All-American halfbacks Bob Chappuis and Bump Elliott, the 1947 Wolverines outscored their opponents, 394–53. The Wolverines victory in the 1948 Rose Bowl tied Michigan's final in the first ever 1902 Rose Bowl, as the most points scored, and the largest margin of victory, in the history of the "Granddaddy of Them All".

The 1947 Michigan team was also the first fully to embrace the concept of defensive and offensive specialization. Crisler established fully separate offensive and defensive squads. Only Bump Elliott and Jack Weisenberger played on both squads. In November 1947, Time magazine ran a feature article about the 1947 Wolverines (with Bob Chappuis’ photograph on the cover) called, "The Specialist."[22] The Time article focused on the new era of specialization marked by Crisler’s decision to field separate offensive and defensive units.[22] The article noted: "Michigan's sleight-of-hand repertory is a baffling assortment of double reverses, buck-reverse laterals, crisscrosses, quick-hits and spins from seven different formations. Sometimes, watching from the side lines, even Coach Crisler isn't sure which Michigan man has the ball. Michigan plays one team on offense, one on defense . . . Whenever Michigan's defensive team regains the ball, Crisler orders: 'Offense unit, up and out,' and nine men pour onto the field at once."[22]

One of the stars of the 1947 team, Dan Dworsky, went on to a career as an architect and designed Crisler Arena. Interviewed in 2007, Dworsky recalled: "Crisler was not only an intellectual in strategy, but also in the way he ran practices. . . . He ran practices rigidly and we called him 'The Lord.' He would allow it to rain, or not. He was a Douglas MacArthur-type figure, handsome and rigid. . . . I sculpted him and gave him the bust in 1971."[20] Dworsky also kept another bust of Crisler in his office.[20]

University of Michigan athletic director (1941–1968)[edit]

Crisler from 1962 Michiganensian

When Crisler was recruited from Princeton to Michigan, it was agreed that he would also take over as Michigan's athletic director when Fielding H. Yost retired. Yost retired in 1941, and Crisler became the athletic director at that time. He continued to hold that position for 27 years until his retirement in 1968.[18] He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1954.[1]

During Crisler's tenure as athletic director, the university's athletic programs experienced a period of extraordinary success, in every branch of varsity sports. Highlights of the athletic programs during the 28 years of the Crisler era include the following:

  • Hockey — seven national championships (1948, 1951–1953, 1955–1956, and 1964) and 12 appearances in the Frozen Four;[23]
  • Men's swimming — six national championships (1941, 1948, 1957–1959, 1961) and 25 finishes in the top four in the country;[24]
  • Football — two national championships (1947 and 1948), six Big Ten championships (1943, 1947–1950 and 1964) and three Rose Bowl victories (1948, 1951 and 1965);
  • Baseball — two national championships (1953 and 1962) and ten Big Ten championships (1941–1942, 1944–1945, 1948–1950, 1952–1953 and 1961);[25]
  • Basketball — two appearances in the Final Four (1964 and 1965) and four Big Ten championships (1948 and 1964–1966);[26]
  • Men's gymnastics — one national championship (1963) and seven Big Ten championships (1961–1966 and 1968);[27]
  • Men's tennis — one national championship (1957) and 12 Big Ten championships (1941, 1944–1945, 1955–1962 and 1965–1966);[28]
  • Wrestling — 17 Big Ten championships (1943, 1944, 1951–1957, 1960–1967);[29] and
  • Track and field — 18 Big Ten team championships (11 indoor and 7 outdoor) and nine individual NCAA event championships[30]

As athletic director, Crisler also led two expansions of Michigan Stadium, helping to make it the nation's largest college stadium.[19] The first expansion in 1949 involved the installation of permanent steel stands around the stadium concourse, increasing the seating capacity to 97,239.[31] In 1956, renovations expanded the seating capacity to more than 101,001. The 1956 expansion included 542 seats in a new communications center and 1,247 seats in a new press box. According to a newspaper article quoting an Athletic Department staff member, "Fritz wanted to end up with a figure of 100,001, but he came up with a thousand seats too many. But he still got that 001 at the end."[31] Through subsequent renovations, Michigan has continued the tradition of ending official seating capacity numbers with the digit 1, and the final seat has been said to be reserved in Crisler's honor.[31]

Crisler also invested revenues from the school's successful football program to build a $1 million pool for the women's swimming team, a men's varsity competition pool, a modern baseball grandstand and a large press box at Michigan Stadium.[3]

With the success of the Michigan Wolverines men's basketball under the leadership of Cazzie Russell, Crisler led the effort to build a new basketball arena in the mid-1960s. The new arena was opened in 1967 at a cost of $7.2 million and with seating for 15,000.[3] The new arena was originally named the University Events Building. In February 1970, the arena was renamed Crisler Arena in honor of Crisler.[32]

At the time of Crisler's retirement in 1968, the Associated Press credited him with helping to "lift college football from a 'rah, rah' campus pastime in the 1930s into the modern multimillion dollar enterprise of today."[3] Crisler was succeeded as Michigan's athletic director by Don Canham, whom Crisler had hired as the school's track coach in the late 1940s.[3] At the time of his appointment, Canham noted that replacing Crisler was "a little like stepping up to bat after Babe Ruth."[33]

Later years[edit]

After retiring in 1968, Crisler continued to live in Ann Arbor. When Bo Schembechler took over as Michigan's football coach in 1969, he recalled that he went out of his way to get to know Crisler. Schembechler considered Crisler "a giant" and made time to go over to Crisler's house and sit in his basement, listening to Crisler's theories and stories.[34] In 1978, Crisler and Fielding H. Yost became the first coaches inducted into the University of Michigan Athletic Hall of Honor; the only persons inducted ahead of Crisler and Yost were athletes, Gerald R. Ford, Bill Freehan, Tom Harmon, Ron Kramer, Bennie Oosterbaan, Cazzie Russell, and Bob Ufer.[35] He died in Ann Arbor in 1982 at age 83. He had been hospitalized twice in his final months, once for pneumonia.[19]

Head coaching record[edit]

Football[edit]

Year Team Overall Conference Standing Bowl/playoffs AP#
Minnesota Golden Gophers (Big Ten Conference) (1930–1931)
1930 Minnesota 3–4–1 1–3 T–6th
1931 Minnesota 7–3 3–2 5th
Minnesota: 10–7–1 4–5
Princeton Tigers (Independent) (1932–1937)
1932 Princeton 2–2–3
1933 Princeton 9–0
1934 Princeton 7–1
1935 Princeton 9–0
1936 Princeton 4–2–2
1937 Princeton 4–4
Princeton: 35–9–5
Michigan Wolverines (Big Ten Conference) (1938–1947)
1938 Michigan 6–1–1 3–1–1 T–2nd 16
1939 Michigan 6–2 3–2 T–3rd 20
1940 Michigan 7–1 3–1 2nd 3
1941 Michigan 6–1–1 3–1–1 T–2nd 5
1942 Michigan 7–3 3–2 T–3rd 9
1943 Michigan 8–1 6–0 T–1st 3
1944 Michigan 8–2 5–2 2nd 8
1945 Michigan 7–3 5–1 2nd 6
1946 Michigan 6–2–1 5–1–1 2nd 6
1947 Michigan 10–0 6–0 1st W Rose 1
Michigan: 71–16–3 42–11–3
Total: 116–32–9
      National championship         Conference title         Conference division title
#Rankings from final AP Poll.

Coaching tree[edit]

Crisler worked under only one head coach:

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Fritz Crisler Hall of Fame profile". College Football Hall of Fame. 
  2. ^ After 61 years, "Tiger" helmet returns to Princeton. Princeton Alumni Weekly (PAW), September 9, 1998
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Vet Fritz Crisler Retiring". Big Spring Daily Herald (AP wire story). 1968-06-30. 
  4. ^ "W. Eckersall Lauds Aldrich in Selection: Chicago Expert Chooses Yale Half-Back Captain of All-American Eleven". Eau Claire Leader. 1921-12-13. 
  5. ^ "All-American Football Team Is Selected By 267 Coaches: Both McMillin and Aubrey Devine Are Accorded". The Colorado Spring Gazette. 1921-12-22. 
  6. ^ "Walter Camp's All-America Eleven". Iowa City Press-Citizen. 1921-12-20. 
  7. ^ "FRITZ CRISLER WAS ALL-AROUND MAROON". Appleton Post-Crescent. 1926-11-16. 
  8. ^ a b c "University of Michigan Football Coaches: Herbert 0. (Fritz) Crisler". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library. 
  9. ^ "Sport Summary". Waterloo Evening Courier. 1925-06-23. 
  10. ^ Al Warden (1926-04-26). "Into the Sports Dope". Ogden Standard-Examiner.  ("Herbert O. 'Fritz' Crisler, former University of Chicago all-around athlete, is slated to succeed Alonzo Stags as head coach of the Maroon institution. And this change is booked for the near future. This information was whispered to the writer by authorities at Chicago. Crisler has been serving as one of the assistant coaches at the Maroon school for the past five years and is one of the most popular coaches in the Big Ten.")
  11. ^ "Fritz Crisler New Gopher Coach, Report". Burlington Hawk-Eye. 1930-02-08. 
  12. ^ Keiser, Jeff (2007), 2007 Media Guide, p. 195 
  13. ^ a b Keiser, Jeff (2007), 2007 Media Guide, p. 197 
  14. ^ Keiser, Jeff (2007), 2007 Media Guide, p. 181 
  15. ^ Keiser, Jeff (2007), 2007 Media Guide, p. 180 
  16. ^ Football's Last Iron Men: 1934, Yale vs. Princeton, And One Stunning Upset, Macht, Norman L. University of Nebraska Press|Lincoln and London, 2010, p. 24
  17. ^ a b "University of Michigan Football: Michigan's Winged Helmet". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library. 
  18. ^ a b "Football Platoon System Originator Fritz Crisler Dies". Tyrone Daily Herald (UPI story). 1982-08-21. 
  19. ^ a b c "Former Michigan coach, AD dies". Gettysburg Times. 1982-08-21. 
  20. ^ a b c Florence, Mal (December 27, 1988). "The Magicians: Split Personality in 1947 Helped Michigan Drive Everyone Crazy". Los Angeles Times. 
  21. ^ Jones, Todd (2007). "Michigan". In MacCambridge, Michael. ESPN Big Ten College Football Encyclopedia. ESPN Enterprises. p. 60. ISBN 1-933060-49-2. 
  22. ^ a b c "The Specialist". Time. 1947-11-03. 
  23. ^ "Michigan Ice Hockey Year-by-Year Results". University of Michigan. 
  24. ^ "Michigan Men's Swimming and Diving Year-by-Year Results". University of Michigan. 
  25. ^ "Michigan Baseball Year-By-Year Results". University of Michigan. 
  26. ^ "2009-2010 Michigan Men's Basketball Yearbook". University of Michigan. 
  27. ^ "Michigan Men's Gymnastics Year-By-Year Results". University of Michigan. 
  28. ^ "Michigan Men's Tennis Year-By-Year Results". University of Michigan. 
  29. ^ "Michigan Wrestling Year-By-Year Results". University of Michigan. 
  30. ^ http://www.mgoblue.com/sports/m-track/spec-rel/061709aaa.html
  31. ^ a b c "The Michigan Stadium Story: Expansion and Renovation, 1928-1997". University of Michigan. 
  32. ^ "University Events Building - Crisler Arena". University of Michigan. 
  33. ^ "Canham Given Michigan Post". Holland Evening Sentinel. 1968-03-16. 
  34. ^ Bo Schembechler and John U. Bacon (Sep 2007). "Bo's lasting lesson #5: Respect your history". Michigan Today. 
  35. ^ "Hall of Honor". M Club. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Crisler — Please support Wikipedia.
A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
50 videos foundNext > 

Kreisler plays Kreisler-Liebesleid

This is Fritz Kreisler playing his own peice Liebeslied (sorry I don't have a video). I am in love with Kreisler's sound. His playing is so romantic, elegant...

Fritz Kreisler - LOVE'S JOY

Fritz Kreisler - LOVE'S JOY.

Red Simmons Interview Part 3: Hired by Fritz Crisler - MVictors.com

A portion of the MVictors.com interview with 99 year-old former women's track coach Red Simmons. In this segment, Simmons discusses why former Michigan coach...

Jim Cogdul Doge Crisler Jeep

Shot with 8mm App.

Red Simmons Interview Part II: Police Dept and More - MVictors.com

A portion of the MVictors.com interview with 99 year-old former women's track coach Red Simmons. In this segment, Simmons briefly discusses his days at the D...

Tom Harmon against Ohio State - 1940

The only known footage of Old 98's performance against the Buckeyes in Columbus in 1940. Though, there are some highlights missing. In this game, Harmon... *...

Red Simmons Interview Part 4: Workout Routine - MVictors.com

A portion of the MVictors.com interview with 99 year-old former women's track coach Red Simmons. In this segment, Simmons discusses his work-out routine. He ...

LAUREN CRISLER #13 FENCOR CHAPMAN

Rizzoproduction.

Michigan Wolverines Fans¡¡¡¡¿¿¿¿

The Michigan Wolverines football program represents the University of Michigan in college football at the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (formerly...

University of Michigan Men's Lacrosse Video Blog: The Boys Are Back in Town

Follow Pat on Twitter: http://twitter.com/patstansik Like Pat on Facebook: http://facebook.com/patstansik A few days in the life of the Michigan Lacrosse tea...

50 videos foundNext > 

6 news items

Escanaba Daily Press

Escanaba Daily Press
Fri, 18 Apr 2014 21:41:15 -0700

"Fritz Crisler was the head coach. Wally Weber, Ray Fisher and Cliff King were the freshman coaches," said Altese. "My grades weren't very good and after two weeks, Crisler called me in and said I couldn't play until I had a C average. "I ended up ...
 
Sports On Earth
Thu, 10 Apr 2014 20:56:15 -0700

To locate a gap that pronounced in Michigan's storied and (schadenfreude alert) oppressively self-congratulatory history, you have to hearken back to the pre-Schembechler era, to the gap between Fritz Crisler and Bo, when men named Bennie Oosterbaan ...

ESPN

ESPN
Tue, 08 Apr 2014 09:53:06 -0700

Fritz Crisler's seat at the Big House: When Michigan Stadium was renovated in 1956, the school's athletic director, former head football coach Fritz Crisler, decided to add one extra seat to make its capacity 101,001. The current capacity at the Big ...
 
The Plain Dealer
Fri, 28 Mar 2014 14:09:04 -0700

The $600 answer focused on the long-ago redesign of the Michigan helmets by legendary coach Fritz Crisler. Michigan's basketball arena is named for him, and his last name is pronounced with a long i, like the car company. The video guy that Alex Trebek ...

SI.com

SI.com
Wed, 02 Apr 2014 10:08:03 -0700

You won't find a much prouder fan base, as Wolverines faithful will happily give you a history lesson on Fritz Crisler and Bo Schembechler at a moment's notice. But Michigan hasn't lived up to its billing for a while. After enduring the three-year Rich ...

Bleeding Yankee Blue (blog)

Bleeding Yankee Blue (blog)
Mon, 31 Mar 2014 16:50:04 -0700

Whether this was reminiscent of actual tigers or Princeton University, whose teams are called the Tigers, depends on who's telling the story. But it was at Princeton, in orange on black (since revived, but reversed to black on orange) that Herbert ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Fritz Crisler

You can talk about Fritz Crisler with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!