digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Friedrich Zander
Friedrich Zander big.jpg
Born 11 August [O.S. 23 August] 1887
Riga
Died 28 March 1933 (aged 45)
Kislovodsk
Nationality Soviet
Fields astronautics

Friedrich Zander (Russian: Фридрих Артурович Цандер Fridrikh Arturovich Tsander. Latvian: Frīdrihs Canders, 11 August [O.S. 23 August] 1887 – 28 March 1933), was a Baltic German pioneer of rocketry and spaceflight in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. He designed the first liquid-fueled rocket to be launched in the Soviet Union, GIRD-X, and made many important theoretical contributions to the road to space.

Biography[edit]

Zander was born in Riga, Russian Empire, into a Baltic German family.[1][2] His father Artur was a doctor, but Friedrich Zander was fascinated by other natural sciences. Zander was enrolled in the Riga urban technical high school in 1898, for a seven-year program in which he was a top student. During this time, he became acquainted with the work of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and space travel became his foremost scientific passion. While studying engineering at the Riga Polytechnic Institute, he carried out trajectory calculations for a flight to Mars. Mars held a special fascination to Zander, and "Forward to Mars!" (Вперед, на Марс!) became his famous motto.

He graduated with his engineering degree in 1914, moved to Moscow in 1915. He worked at the "Provodnik" rubber plant, then in 1919 worked at Aircraft Factory No. 4 ("Motor"). In 1923, he was married to A.F. Milyukova, and they had a daughter named Astra and a son named Mercury. Mercury died of scarlet fever in 1929. After several years of unemployment and intensive research on rocketry and space travel, in 1926, Tsander began work at the Central Design Bureau of Aviation, and in 1930 worked at the Central Institute of Aviation Motor Construction (TsIAM).[3][4][5]

Scientific Contributions[edit]

Collection of articles of Friedrich Zander exhibited in the Memorial Museum of Astronautics, Moscow

In 1908, he made notes about the problems of interplanetary travel in which he addressed issues such as life support and became the first to suggest growing plants in greenhouses aboard a spacecraft. In 1911, he published plans for a spacecraft built using combustible alloys of aluminum in its structure that would take off like a conventional aircraft and then burn its wings for fuel as it reached the upper atmosphere and no longer needed them. In 1921, he presented his material to the Association of Inventors (AIIZ), where he met and discussed space travel with V.I. Lenin, who was attending the conference. In 1924, he published it in the journal of Technology and Life (Tekhnika i Zhizn).

1924 was a particularly active year for Zander. The year before, Hermann Oberth had published the influential theoretical work "Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen" ("The rocket to interplanetary space"), which in turn introduced Zander and other Russian enthusiasts to the ground breaking work by Robert Goddard ("A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes" published in 1919).[6] Zander took advantage of this by promoting Tsiolkovsky's work, and developing it further. Together with Vladimir Vetchinkin and members of a rocketry club at the airforce academy, he founded the Society for Studies of Interplanetary Travel. In an early publication, they would be the first to suggest using the Earth's atmosphere as a way of braking a re-entering spacecraft. The same year, Zander lodged a patent in Moscow for a winged rocket that he believed would be suitable for interplanetary flight, and in October gave a lecture to the Moscow Institute on the possibility of reaching Mars by rocket. During questioning after the lecture, he summarised the importance of reaching this planet in particular: "because it has an atmosphere and the capacity to support life. Mars is also known as 'the red star' and this is the emblem of our grand Soviet army."

Around this time, Zander became the first to suggest the solar sail as a means of spacecraft propulsion, although Johannes Kepler had suggested a solar wind sail in the 17th century.

In 1925 Zander presented a paper, "Problems of flight by jet propulsion: interplanetary flights," in which he suggested that a spacecraft traveling between two planets could be accelerated at the beginning of its trajectory and decelerated at the end of its trajectory by using the gravity of the two planets' moons — a method known as gravity assist.[7]

In 1929-1930, while at the IAM, Zander worked on his first engine, OR-1, which ran on compressed air and gasoline and was based on a modified blowtorch. He also taught courses at the Moscow Aviation Institute during this time. In 1931, Zander was a founding member of GIRD (Group for the Investigation of Reaction Propulsion) (Группа изучения реактивного движения (ГИРД)) in Moscow. As head of brigade #1, Zander worked on the OR-2 (GIRD-02) rocket engine, to power the "216" winged cruise missile. He also worked on the engine and rocket GIRD-10, which flew successfully on 25 November 1933. Zander had designed the rocket, but did not live to see it fly, having died of typhus in March of that year in the city of Kislovodsk.

Tributes[edit]

  • The crater Tsander on the Moon is named after him.
  • The Latvian Academy of Sciences awards a physics and mathematics prize in his honour.
  • In 1964, the Soviet Union issued a postal stamp honoring Zander, with his picture in the center.[8]
  • Zander's family home in Riga was a museum (until the recent change in its ownership), and the street it is located on is named after him.
  • Streets named after Zander are also in Moscow and in Kislovodsk.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Friedrich Zander (born into a German family in Riga, Latvia), T Romanovskis, Comment on ‘Families of Keplerian orbits’, European Journal of Physics Eur. J. Phys. 25 (2004) L17–L19 PII: S0143-0807(04)64910-5 [1]
  2. ^ Another distinguished German from Riga was Friedrich Zander (1887-1933), who graduated from the Mechanics Department of Riga Polytechnic Institute in 1914 and remained there to pursue research which culminated in the construction of the first rocket., Contribution of Baltic Germans to Science The Latvian Institute
  3. ^ Tsander, FA, "Autobiography of Fridrikh Arturovich Tsander, Production Engineer" (in Russian), March 12, 1927.
  4. ^ Freeman, Marsha, "The contributions of Fridrikh Tsander: a memoir", Acta Astronautica 52 (2003) 591-599.
  5. ^ Petrovich, G.V., "The Soviet Encyclopedia of Space Flight", p 468, University Press of the Pacific, 2002
  6. ^ Siddiqi, Asif, "Deep Impact: Robert Goddard and the Soviet Space Fad of the 1920s", History and Technology 20:2
  7. ^ Zander‘s 1925 paper, “Problems of flight by jet propulsion: interplanetary flights,” was translated by NASA. See NASA Technical Translation F-147 (1964); specifically, Section 7: Flight Around a Planet’s Satellite for Accelerating or Decelerating Spaceship, pages 290-292.
  8. ^ postal stamp

Bibliography[edit]

  • Цандер, Фридрих Артурович (1967). Из научного наследия (in Russian). Moscow: Nauka. 
    • Technical translation by NASA: Tsander, Fridrikh Arturovich (1969). From a scientific heritage. Washington D.C.: NASA. 
  • Tsander, Fridrikh Arturovich (1977). Selected Papers (in Russian). Riga: Zinātne. 
  • Golovanov, Yaroslav (1985). The Martian:Tsander (in Russian). Moscow: Molodaya Gvardiya. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Zander — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
1689 videos foundNext > 

Фридрих Цандер / Friedrich Zander. Гении и злодеи.

Гении и злодеи. Кому обязано человечество нынешним своим существованием в третьем тысячелетии? Гениям...

How to pronounce Friedrich Arturovich Zander (Russian/Russia) - PronounceNames.com

Audio and video pronunciation of Friedrich Arturovich Zander brought to you by Pronounce Names (http://www.PronounceNames.com), a website dedicated to ...

The birth of astronautical sciences and the GIRD group (ГИРД) - russian

The theory of space exploration had a solid basis in the Russian Empire before the First World War with the writings of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935), who ...

Zellkommunikation: die Sprache des Lebens. Das Kristallwasser von NovaVitalis.

Neuer Querdenken-Kanal! Bitte abonnieren: https://www.youtube.com/user/IIQuerdenkenTVII ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Dr.-Ing.

Grade 5 - L'Orage - Burgmüller

B1 - Grade 5 ABRSM Piano Exam: L'Orage by Johann Friedrich Franz Burgmüller. Played By - Zander.

GIRD (Group for the Study of Reactive Motion)

The Moscow-based Group for the Study of Reactive Motion was a Soviet research bureau founded in 1931 to study various aspects of rocketry (Russian: Группа ...

Benjamin Zander Masterclass 2.5 (Part 2) Franz Schubert, Du bist die Ruh; Lachen und Weinen

Part 2 of the Fifth Episode of the Second Season of Benjamin Zander's "Interpretations of Music, Lessons for Life" Masterclasses. We hear Abigail Lee, soprano ...

ZANDER EXTREM GETROLLT - CRAFT ATTACK PRANK #1

Mehr Craft Attack Pranks? F!ckt den Daumen to the top! Komplettes Video gibt es bei Earliboy: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ld7zkSPwP-M »Yollonieren: ...

32 - Das weite Land - Leuwerik, Sinjen, Fischer - 1970

Um die Ehe der Hofreiters steht es nicht zum Besten. Als sich ein junger Mann erschießt, da Genia ihn aus Liebe zu ihrem Mann abgewiesen hat, macht ihr der ...

20 - Die ideale Frau - Leuwerik, Benrath - 1960

Fanny Becker, Bürgermeisterin einer Kleinstadt, ist verheiratet mit dem Führer der Oppositionspartei. Davon darf jedoch niemand wissen. Regie: Josef von Baky ...

1689 videos foundNext > 

14 news items

Russia-InfoCenter

Russia-InfoCenter
Thu, 07 May 2009 07:03:45 -0700

Friedrich Zander was curious about shape of space vehicles, fuel storage, solar heat conversion, moving force preferences and many more things. At that time, Zander made his first calculations on gas escape from vessels, on necessary work for escaping ...

baotintuc.vn

baotintuc.vn
Thu, 04 Feb 2016 07:11:15 -0800

Cùng với Friedrich Zander, Korolyov đã thành lập “Nhóm nghiên cứu về chuyển động phản lực”, một trong những tổ chức đầu tiên của Liên Xô nghiên cứu về tên lửa được chính phủ tài trợ. Sau một số thành công, nhóm của ông đã được quân đội tài trợ.

The Rockefeller University Newswire

The Rockefeller University Newswire
Tue, 01 Dec 2015 12:03:45 -0800

Part of the reason people find smoking difficult to quit is that each time they have a cigarette, feelings of craving, irritability and anxiety melt away. This component of addiction is known as negative reward and is controlled in part by a region of ...

Public broadcasting of Latvia

Public broadcasting of Latvia
Mon, 07 Dec 2015 01:22:30 -0800

The lunar meteorite Northwest Africa 8783 is from Monday on display at the University of Latvia Friedrich Zander's Museum of Space, reported Latvian Radio Monday. "Of course everyone should look at the meteorite, and all the more if it can be held in ...

Digital Trends

Digital Trends
Sun, 17 May 2015 03:06:00 -0700

At any given moment there are approximately a zillion different crowdfunding campaigns happening on the Web. Take a stroll through Kickstarter or Indiegogo and you'll find there's no shortage of weird, useless, and downright stupid projects out there ...
 
Derwesten.de
Mon, 20 Jul 2015 23:42:23 -0700

Das Zepter ging nach dem 64. Schuss an Ellen Seelbach, der Apfel mit Treffer 69 an Henning Röcher. Als noch drei Schützen im Wettbewerb waren, sicherte sich Karl Horsten schließlich die Königswürde und löste damit seinen Vorgänger Friedrich Zander ...

Descopera

Descopera
Tue, 12 Mar 2013 15:06:24 -0700

Cercetări similare realizaseră şi alţi oameni de ştiinţă precum Serghei Koroliov şi Friedrich Zander, care, la datele de 18 august şi 25 noiembrie 1933, lansaseră deja primele prototipuri de rachete cu combustibil lichid produse în URSS. Pe baza ...

L'Expression

L'Expression
Wed, 29 Aug 2012 16:14:23 -0700

Elles furent mises au point par les Russes Youri Kondratiouk et Friedrich Zander. Kondratiouk étudia tout particulièrement les problèmes liés à la dynamique et la construction des fusées. En 1929, il publiera l'ouvrage La conquête des espaces ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight