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SPAS-12 stock folded.jpg
SPAS12 with stock folded and butt hook removed - 12 gauge
Type Combat shotgun
Place of origin Italy
Service history
In service 1982-present
Used by See Users
Production history
Designed 1972
Manufacturer Franchi S.p.A.
Produced 1979–2000
Variants LAW12, SAS12.
Weight 4.4 kg (8.75 lb)
Length 1041 mm (41 in), stock extended
Barrel length 18",19-7/8",21-1/2",24"

Cartridge 12 gauge 234 inch shells only
Action Pump-action / gas-actuated
Rate of fire Semi-automatic up to 4 rounds per second.
Effective firing range Dependent on ammunition used
Feed system Tube Extension 5+1, 6+1, 8+1 rounds, internal tube magazine

The Franchi SPAS12 is a combat shotgun manufactured by Italian firearms company Franchi from 1979 to 2000. Only five percent (about 1,850) of the estimated Franchi SPAS 12 shotguns manufactured were imported into the U.S. The SPAS12 is a dual-mode shotgun, adjustable for semi-automatic or pump-action operation. The SPAS12 was sold to military and police users worldwide on the civilian market, and has been featured in many movies, TV shows and video games.[1]

The appearance and intended purpose of the SPAS12 initially led to its "Military" designation as a Combat Shotgun. The SPAS12 was designed from the ground up as a rugged military shotgun and it was named the (Special Purpose Automatic Shotgun). In 1990 Franchi renamed the shotgun to the (Sporting Purpose Automatic Shotgun), this allowed continued sales to the U.S. as a limited-magazine-capacity, fixed-stock model until 1994. Following the United States Federal Assault Weapons Ban, imports of SPAS12 shotguns were stopped into the United States. In September 2004 the ban had expired, but Franchi had ended production in 2000 of the SPAS12 to focus on the manufacturing of the Franchi SPAS15 model. The SPAS12's retail price in its final year of 2000 was $1500.00 USD averaged for final sales outside the U.S. to non-restricted countries. Franchi S.p.A. Italy.[2]


The SPAS12 was designed to function primarily as a semi-automatic firearm, with the pump-action mode used to reliably fire low-pressure ammunition such as tear gas rounds or less-lethal bean bags. The firing mode is switched by depressing the button under the foregrip and also sliding the foregrip forwards or backwards until it clicks into position allowing the rotating sleeve to open or close the two gas ports.

The SPAS12 has a magazine cut-off feature, which prevents loading a new round from the internal magazine when the gun is cycled. This allows the operator to load a specialized round into the chamber without firing the entire magazine first. A unique feature of the SPAS12 was the hook on folding-stock variants. This hook could be rotated in 90-degree increments, so it would fit under the user's forearm when the stock was extended. With the stock supported under the forearm the gun can be fired with one hand, an example would be allowing the user to fire from a vehicle through the passenger side window while driving.

SPAS12 models feature a lever type or push button safety. Lever safeties were recalled by Franchi and were replaced through the importer American Arms in the early 1990s.[a] Two different types of push-button safeties. The earliest version would actually release the hammer on safe up to 1/4in. of travel when the trigger was depressed. This would cause a lockup of the action that would require the user to relock the bolt assembly to the rear to reset the hammer and then reload the chamber. The later version installed a detent and machined hole in the trigger group frame to prevent an action lock. The detent would prevent the hammer from engaging when the trigger was depressed and would prevent an action lock from occurring.

A B-Square rail mount for optics was available for a short time in the 1990s as an aftermarket accessory.

The Barrel of the SPAS12 was externally threaded to accept a variety of attachments. The barrel is cylinder bored and spreads a normal shot charge to about 900mm at 40 meters range, reducing the need for precise aiming. The automatic action will fire about four shots per second, and at this rate of fire, with standard buckshot loadings, it is possible to put 48 pellets per second into a one-meter-square target at 40 meters range. At this range the pellets have about 50 percent more striking energy than a .32 pistol bullet.

Many different choke types both original and aftermarket.[3] A 44mm grenade launcher used by France was used for explosive hand grenades capable of a range of 150 meters.[4] A very rare factory shot diverter that spreads shot vertically or horizontally was originally included with earlier model SPAS12's.[5]

SPAS12, SAS12 and LAW12 Model Differences[edit]

Two shotguns—the top one with a folding stock and the bottom one with a fixed stock
Two of the most commonly found SPAS-12 variants: the folding-stock version (with an eight-round magazine extension) by F.I.E Corp and the fixed-stock version (with a six-round magazine extension) by American Arms Inc.
(Top) Fixed Stock 1991 Sporting Purpose SPAS-12L receiver. (Middle) A rare Choate made aftermarket AR-15 grip style skeleton stock on a 1987 SPAS-12L. (Bottom) Special Purpose Collector SPAS from 1982 with the folding stock and hook.
Franchi Barrel Length SPAS-12 21-1-2" Bbl VS 19-7-8" Bbl

Four different stock styles exist. The first version of the SPAS12 manufactured with the wooden detachable stock with the standard grip. Models were later available with the folding metal stock with hook. A rare aftermarket Choate skeleton stock (Approx: 150-180 Choate stocks Manufactured for the shotgun)[6] with an AR15 style grip was available for a short time in the early 1990s. After the U.S. imposed import restrictions on the SPAS12 in 1989, a version was released in 1990 with the synthetic hollow fixed stock and a six shell capacity to comply with federal regulations for sporting purposes.

Four different factory barrels manufactured for the SPAS12.

  1. (Very Rare) 18-inch (46 cm) "shorty" made for Law Enforcement/Military originally distributed mainly in France.[7]
  2. (Very Rare) 19-7/8 in. found scattered on a very few of the 1983 "AL" proofed SPAS12 Shotguns. These were made for Law Enforcement/Military originally.
  3. (Common to the United Kingdom) 21-1/2" as a one piece barrel converted to a 24" UK legal barrel. This barrel adds with a 2.5-inch (6.4 cm) choke tube brazed or silver-soldered in place).[8]
  4. (Most Common) The standard 21-1/2" with sight blade muzzle ended on barrel for the special purpose model or the pushed back sight blade with brazed extension for the sporting purpose model.

The Franchi SPAS12 came equipped with a non-adjustable circular aperture rear sight and a large, non-adjustable blade foresight integrated into the barrel. The LAW12 was a semi-automatic only and the SAS12 was a pump action only. These three "sister" shotguns accepted all SPAS12 components, notably trigger groups, barrel threaded attachments and stocks. The various magazine extension tubes of the LAW12 and SAS12 were never designed to be interchangeable with the SPAS12 as this would cause issues with the gas selector switch moving from Auto to Pump action on the SPAS12 model.[9] The extensions have been known to spin off the front of the SPAS12 during cycling if the extension was not tapered for the SPAS12 retaining pin. The SPAS12's retail price in its final year of production (2000) was at $1500.00 USD averaged for sales outside of the U.S. to non-restricted countries. Franchi S.p.A. Italy.

The SPAS12 collector shotguns are wanted for certain style features.

  1. The front sight blade is muzzle ended.
  2. The longer extension allowing eight shells in the tubular magazine.[9]
  3. The date code on the receiver is proofed 1989 or prior with F.I.E. (Firearms Import and Export) Corporation as importer.[10]
  4. The barrel length is 21.5 or less and the less barrel length by factory is more sought after.
  5. Attached stock is the wooden detachable with grip and or the metal folding stock with hook.

The Franchi SAS12 could accept 3" shells but it did not have a bolt handle cut in the bolt body. The SPAS and LAW could only accept 234" shells. The SAS 12 has a barrel length of 21.5" an overall length of 41.5" a weight of 7 lbs. 4 oz. and a capacity of 8 rounds in the magazine + 1 in the chamber. The Franchi SAS total numbers of import are unknown according to the BATFE, it is believed the their are fewer than 1000 total SAS12 models imported into the U.S. The SAS12 was never under any import restrictions or assault weapon bans and yet it showed the least amount of sales between the three models from Franchi. The price of a SAS12 shotgun was averaged at $400.00 for retail sales before its discontinuation in 2000.

The Franchi LAW12 Model was also restricted by importation in 1989 and banned in 1994 with the AWB. The LAW12 has a barrel length of 21.5" a weight of 7 lbs. 4 oz. and a capacity of 8 rounds in the magazine + 1 in the chamber. The model was known to have imported with all stock styles used on the Franchi SPAS12. Total numbers imported estimated to around 7,800 shotguns. The LAW12 models were more common with police sales as an alternative to the more expensive SPAS12 for departments throughout the U.S. The LAW12 was discontinued by Franchi shortly before the SPAS12 discontinued in 2000. The LAW12 retail price in its final year of 2000 was $450.00 averaged for final sales outside of the U.S. to non-restricted countries.

U.S. Importers[edit]

The United States allowed two different licensed importers for the Franchi SPAS12 shotguns. From 1982-1989 importation of the first version known as the (Special Purpose Automatic Shotgun), SPAS12 imported into the U.S. from Italy with F.I.E. Corporation. In 1989 F.I.E suffered from major losses of sales due to the importation ban restriction act of an executive order by the president under national security ruling 18 U.S.C. 925 (d)(3) on sporting restrictions. The executive order amended further the 1968 Gun Control Act and is based on the Nazi Weapons Law of 1938 Sporting Purpose Restrictions.[11]

In 1990 American Arms incorporated purchased all remaining inventories of parts and SPAS12 shotguns from F.I.E Corp and began the re-importation of the Franchi SPAS12 as the (Sporting Purpose Automatic Shotgun) under newly approved restrictions. From 1990-1994 American Arms incorporated two changes with the fixed stock and magazine tube extension restrictions, thus allowing Importation to continue. The ATF allowed importation of a SPAS12 variant from American Arms because its size, weight, bulk and modified configuration were such that it was particularly suitable for traditional shooting sports.[12]

The law enforcement SPAS12L models showed little sales to law enforcement departments as it was not considered an affordable shotgun for most law enforcement agencies to maintain. The SPAS12 was tested by the U.S. Coast Guard and showed promising results but again was not considered cost effective for a contract over other available suppliers. The Assault Weapons Ban of September 1994 caused American Arms to stop the importation of the SPAS12 with major losses of sales due to the legal restrictions invoked by the U.S. Assault Weapons Ban.[13]

It is important to know that both importers requested numerous additional orders for the Franchi SPAS12 Shotguns that with both companies were never completely filled due to imposed laws by U.S. restriction throughout both importers time periods. This was the reason for such few numbers of importation into the United States.[14] Only five percent (about 1,850) of the estimated SPAS12 shotguns manufactured were imported into the United States.[15]

U.S. Legal[edit]

A SPAS12 Shotgun is not a NFA Registry item if it was imported/grandfathered into the United States between 1982-1994 bearing the import markings of F.I.E or American Arms.[b]

From 1982 to 2000, a SPAS12L model was manufactured for law enforcement worldwide and imported in to the U.S. until the 1994 (AWB) Assault Weapons Ban. The SPAS12L Law Enforcement model included the prior to 1990 folding stock and high capacity magazine tube extension from 1990-1994. The SPAS12L model was later sold on the U.S. civilian market as existing (grandfathered) import. The production year of an SPAS12 may be identified by a two-digit letter code forward of the loading port.[16]

A SPAS12 and SPAS12L shotgun factory stamped by a year after 1994 is considered an illegal import violating federal importation laws with penalties for possession in the U.S. The SPAS12 would not include Importation Markings on the side of the receiver prior to 1982 and after 1994 by the U.S. importers Firearms Import and Export (F.I.E) or American Arms.

The 1994 federal "Crime Bill," signed into law by President Clinton on Sept. 13, 1994, included the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. That Act included provisions amending the Gun Control Act (GCA, 1968) to make it a federal crime for a private individual to possess or transfer (sell, give, etc.) an "assault weapon" manufactured after that date. [18 U.S.C. 922(v)]. "Assault weapons" manufactured on or before that date are "grandfathered," meaning that the law does not prohibit their possession or transfer. The law requires that "assault weapons" manufactured after Sept. 13, 1994 be stamped with their date of manufacture or serial number to identify with factory date of manufacturing.[17]

SPAS12 and LAW12 Shotguns are listed illegal for possession in states that hold a "military assault weapon style" law that identifies the shotguns by name on each states individual ban. The states may have had a registration timeline that would allow it to be grandfathered prior to each states individual ban. U.S. States and territories listed that ban the Franchi SPAS12 and LAW12 currently from future individual civilian possession. CA,[18] CT,[19] District of Columbia,[20] MD,[21] MA,[22] NJ,[23] NY.[24]


See also[edit]


^a The push-button cross bolt safety has also been known to fail and release the hammer when depressing the trigger on safe and it is recommended that the secondary Quick Employment Safety (lever tab on left side of trigger) is used on both the newer and older style trigger groups in place of the lever or cross bolt safety's to prevent accidental discharge.
^b The LAW12 and SAS12 models were known to have no import markings on the receiver but are actually marked by importer on the barrel itself.


  1. ^ http://www.imfdb.org/wiki/Franchi_SPAS-12
  2. ^ Cooney, Chris (June 2002). "Introduction". Retrieved 2010-05-10. 
  3. ^ http://spas12.com/ChokeAdapter.html
  4. ^ http://www.spas-12.com/cibles-164-november-1983.html
  5. ^ http://spas12.com/spas12acc.htm
  6. ^ http://www.riflestock.com/
  7. ^ http://www.guns.com/reviews/franchi-spas-12/
  8. ^ http://spas12.com/SRreview.htm
  9. ^ a b http://spas12.com/MagazineTypes.html
  10. ^ http://www.spas-12.com/when-was-my-spas-12-made.html
  11. ^ http://jpfo.org/filegen-a-m/GCA_68.htm
  12. ^ https://www.atf.gov/files/firearms/industry/january-2011-importability-of-certain-shotguns.pdf.
  13. ^ http://www.spas-12.com/home/the-coolest-email-youll-read-all-day
  14. ^ https://www.atf.gov/content/firearms/firearms-technology
  15. ^ http://www.berettaholding.com/en/
  16. ^ http://danddsales.com/Bregs.html
  17. ^ http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-110hr1022ih/html/BILLS-110hr1022ih.htm
  18. ^ http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/displaycode?section=pen&group=30001-31000&file=30500-30530
  19. ^ http://www.cga.ct.gov/2013/rpt/2013-R-0241.htm
  20. ^ http://smartgunlaws.org/category/state-assault-weapons/page/5/#identifier_0_5587
  21. ^ http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:ZKfpC2tkT6oJ:www.oag.state.md.us/opinions/2010/95oag101.pdf+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
  22. ^ http://smartgunlaws.org/category/state-assault-weapons/page/3/
  23. ^ http://www.njleg.state.nj.us/2012/Bills/S2500/2497_I1.HTM
  24. ^ http://programs.governor.ny.gov/nysafeact/gun-reform
  25. ^ http://www.bmi.gv.at/cms/BMI_EKO_Cobra/publikationen/files/LawOrder.pdf
  26. ^ http://www.bdmilitary.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=104&Itemid=95
  27. ^ "Kopassus & Kopaska – Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije" (in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  28. ^ http://www.tactical-life.com/firearms/irelands-army-rangers/
  29. ^ Thompson, Leroy (December 2008). "Malaysian Special Forces". Special Weapons. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  30. ^ Shotgun uses by Nepal Mobile Service police^
  31. ^ http://www.jandarma.tsk.tr/silahlar/silahlaric.htm
  32. ^ McManners, Hugh (2003). Ultimate Special Forces. DK Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-7894-9973-8.

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franchi_SPAS-12 — Please support Wikipedia.
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