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A fine is money paid usually to superior authority, usually governmental authority, as a punishment for a crime or other offence. The amount of a fine can be determined case by case, but it is often announced in advance.[1]

The fine bill for violation of traffic law in Czech Republic
A warning sign in Singapore that states the fine for releasing vehicles that are immobilized with wheel clamps by Singapore Police Force officers.

The most usual use of the term, fine, relates to a financial punishment for the commission of crimes, especially minor crimes, or as the settlement of a claim. A synonym, typically used in civil law actions, is mulct.

One common example of a fine is money paid for violations of traffic laws. Currently in English Common Law, relatively small fines are used either in place of or alongside community service orders for low-level criminal offences. Larger fines are also given independently or alongside shorter prison sentences where the judge or magistrate considers a considerable amount of retribution is necessary, but there is unlikely to be significant danger to the public. For instance, fraud is often punished by very large fines since fraudsters are typically banned from the position or profession they abused to commit their crimes.

Fines can also be used as a form of tax. Money for bail may be applied toward a fine.

A day-fine is a fine that, above a minimum, is based on personal income.

Some fines are small, such as loitering which can run about $25–$100. In some areas of the United States (for example California, New York, Texas, and Washington D.C.), there are petty crimes, such as criminal mischief (shouting in public places, projecting an object at a police car) that run between $2500–$5000.

Fines by country[edit]

England and Wales[edit]

In the Magistrates' Courts Act 1980, unless the context otherwise requires, the expression "fine", except for the purposes of any enactment imposing a limit on the amount of any fine, includes any pecuniary penalty or pecuniary forfeiture or pecuniary compensation payable under a conviction.[2]

In section 32 of that Act, the expression "fine" includes a pecuniary penalty but does not include a pecuniary forfeiture or pecuniary compensation.[3]

In sections 15 to 32 and 48 of the Criminal Law Act 1977, the expression "fine" includes any pecuniary penalty.[4]

In England, now there is a system whereby the court gives the offender a "fine card" which is somewhat like a credit card; at any shop that has a paying-in machine he pays the value of the fine to the shop, which then uses the fine card to pass that money on to the court's bank account.

A related concept is the fixed penalty notice, a pecuniary penalty for some minor crimes that can be either accepted (instead of prosecution, thus saving time and paperwork, or taken to court for normal proceedings for that crime. While technically not a fine, which, under the Bill of Rights 1689, may be levied only following a conviction, it serves the same purpose of punishment.

Early examples of fines include the weregild or blood money payable under Anglo-Saxon common law for causing a death. The murderer would be expected to pay a sum of money or goods dependent on the social status of the victim.

See also English criminal law#General power to impose a fine on indictment.

Netherlands[edit]

  • Most crimes are punished by imprisonment or fine. The amount of the fine and the length of the imprisonment depend on the crime committed and can be found in the Wetboek van Strafrecht.
  • According to article 23, part 2, the lowest possible fine is € 3.[5]
  • Part 3: The highest possible fine depends on the category number according to the crime committed. A more severe crime is punished by a fine of a higher category.
  • Part 4 determines the maximum height of the fine per category:
    • First category: € 390.
    • Second category: € 3,900.
    • Third category: € 7,800.
    • Fourth category: € 19,500.
    • Fifth category: € 78,000.
    • Sixth (highest) category: € 780,000.
  • Most traffic violations are punished by a fine, given by a police officer instead of a judge. The fine can be paid by bank transaction, after which the case is closed. Not paying the fine on time will cause a trial.[6] The law has the title Wet administratiefrechtelijke handhaving verkeersvoorschriften, also known as Wet Mulder, named after Albert Mulder, a former secretary of the Dutch Justice Ministry.
  • A person without Dutch nationality may have to pay the fine in cash to the police officer. Confiscation of the driver's license for speeding (driving faster than 50 km/h above the speed limit)[7] will be replaced by a very high fine if the committer of the violation does not have Dutch nationality.

See also[edit]

References[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fine_(penalty) — Please support Wikipedia.
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38 news items

The Guardian

The Guardian
Mon, 30 Jun 2014 12:04:03 -0700

BNP Paribas in Paris. The penalty is thought to be based on $30bn of transactions processed to Sudan, Iran and Cuba. Photograph: John Schults/Reuters. US authorities were expected to impose a record-breaking fine of almost $9bn (£5.2bn) on BNP ...
 
Philly.com
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 19:15:00 -0700

In addition to telling the mayor to quickly approve the bill, NORML's e-mail campaign asks him to issue an executive order - if the bill is made law - that would force Philadelphia police to use the civil-fine penalty, and not just arrest people for ...

Yahoo Sports

Yahoo Sports
Sun, 29 Jun 2014 10:36:26 -0700

SAO PAULO – The heart-stopping start to the World Cup's round of 16, where host nation Brazil rode its luck and crept forward in the tournament by the width of a post, should have brought things into sharp focus for the United States. This is knockout ...
 
Insurance News Net
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:30:00 -0700

(ii) In a civil proceeding, a finding of fault and liability that results in the payment of a monetary fine, penalty, reimbursement, restitution, or damages of $5,000 or more. (iii) In an administrative proceeding, a finding of fault and liability that ...
 
Deutsche Welle
Mon, 14 Jul 2014 11:00:00 -0700

Date 14.07.2014; Keywords citigroup, subrpime, mortgages, fine, penalty, corbat; Share Send Facebook Twitter Google+ More linkedin stumble Digg reddit del.icio.us Newsvine; Feedback: Send us an e-mail. Please include your name and country in your ...
 
JD Supra (press release)
Tue, 22 Jul 2014 09:52:30 -0700

Late last month, the Senate referred the Fiscal Year 2015 Defense Appropriations Act to the Senate Committee on Appropriations for consideration. The House of Representatives passed its version (H.R. 4870) on June 20 with substantial bipartisan support ...

Birmingham Mail

Birmingham Mail
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 22:31:48 -0700

Dorrans despatched a fine penalty to put the 'tourists' ahead. There were scares for Albion. Liam O'Neil dithered and simply wasn't strong enough as he came under the challenge from Tommy Thompson. The Sacramento striker made a mess of his chance, ...

Moneycontrol.com

Moneycontrol.com
Mon, 07 Jul 2014 06:53:07 -0700

The penalty amount translates to four percent of averageof Adani Gas's turnover for the last three financial years. Comments (3). Like this story, share it with millions of investors on M3. Competition Commission slaps Rs 25.67cr fine on Adani Gas. The ...
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