Fields Medal  

The obverse of the Fields Medal


Awarded for  Outstanding contributions in mathematics attributed to young scientists 
Country  Varies 
Presented by  International Mathematical Union (IMU) 
Reward  C$15,000 
First awarded  1936 
Last awarded  2014 
Official website  www.mathunion.org/general/prizes/fields/details 
The Fields Medal, officially known as International Medal for Outstanding Discoveries in Mathematics, is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians not over 40 years of age at each International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years. The Fields Medal is often viewed as the greatest honour a mathematician can receive.^{[1]}^{[2]} The Fields Medal and the Abel Prize have often been described as the "mathematician's Nobel Prize" (but different at least for the age restriction).
The prize comes with a monetary award, which since 2006 has been C$15,000 (in Canadian dollars).^{[3]}^{[4]} The colloquial name is in honour of Canadian mathematician John Charles Fields.^{[5]} Fields was instrumental in establishing the award, designing the medal itself, and funding the monetary component.^{[5]}
The medal was first awarded in 1936 to Finnish mathematician Lars Ahlfors and American mathematician Jesse Douglas, and it has been awarded every four years since 1950. Its purpose is to give recognition and support to younger mathematical researchers who have made major contributions.
In 2014 Maryam Mirzakhani became the first woman as well as the first Iranian, and Artur Avila became the first mathematician from Latin America to be awarded a Fields Medal.^{[6]}^{[7]}
Contents
Conditions of the award[edit]
The Fields Medal is often described as the "Nobel Prize of Mathematics" and for a long time was regarded as the most prestigious award in the field of mathematics.^{[8]} However, in contrast to the Nobel Prize, the Fields Medal is awarded only every four years. The Fields Medal also has an age limit: a recipient must be under age 40 until 1 January of the year in which the medal is awarded (similar to the Clark Medal in economics). The under 40 rule is based on Fields' desire that "while it was in recognition of work already done, it was at the same time intended to be an encouragement for further achievement on the part of the recipients and a stimulus to renewed effort on the part of others."^{[9]}
The monetary award is much lower than the 8,000,000 Swedish kronor (roughly 1,400,000 Canadian dollars)^{[10]} given with each Nobel prize as of 2014.^{[11]} Other major awards in mathematics, such as the Abel Prize and the Chern Medal, have a larger monetary prizes, comparable to the Nobel.
Fields medalists[edit]
Landmarks[edit]
In 1954, JeanPierre Serre became the youngest winner of the Fields Medal, at 27. He still retains this distinction.
In 1966, Alexander Grothendieck boycotted the ICM, held in Moscow, to protest Soviet military actions taking place in Eastern Europe.^{[16]} Léon Motchane, founder and director of the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques attended and accepted Grothendieck's Fields Medal on his behalf.^{[17]}
In 1970, Sergei Novikov, because of restrictions placed on him by the Soviet government, was unable to travel to the congress in Nice to receive his medal.
In 1978, Grigory Margulis, because of restrictions placed on him by the Soviet government, was unable to travel to the congress in Helsinki to receive his medal. The award was accepted on his behalf by Jacques Tits, who said in his address: "I cannot but express my deep disappointment — no doubt shared by many people here — in the absence of Margulis from this ceremony. In view of the symbolic meaning of this city of Helsinki, I had indeed grounds to hope that I would have a chance at last to meet a mathematician whom I know only through his work and for whom I have the greatest respect and admiration."^{[18]}
In 1982, the congress was due to be held in Warsaw but had to be rescheduled to the next year, because of martial law introduced in Poland 13 Dec 1981. The awards were announced at the ninth General Assembly of the IMU earlier in the year and awarded at the 1983 Warsaw congress.
In 1990, Edward Witten became the first and so far only physicist to win this award.
In 1998, at the ICM, Andrew Wiles was presented by the chair of the Fields Medal Committee, Yuri I. Manin, with the firstever IMU silver plaque in recognition of his proof of Fermat's Last Theorem. Don Zagier referred to the plaque as a "quantized Fields Medal". Accounts of this award frequently make reference that at the time of the award Wiles was over the age limit for the Fields medal.^{[19]} Although Wiles was slightly over the age limit in 1994, he was thought to be a favorite to win the medal; however, a gap (later resolved by Taylor and Wiles) in the proof was found in 1993.^{[20]}^{[21]}
In 2006, Grigori Perelman, who proved the Poincaré conjecture, refused his Fields Medal^{[3]} and did not attend the congress.^{[22]} Ironically, this attracted the public attention he was trying to avoid.
In 2014, Artur Avila was the first Brazilian and Latin American awarded the Fields Medal. The same year, Maryam Mirzakhani became the first woman to win this award, as well as the first Iranian person to do so.
Number of Fields Medallists by country of origin[edit]
United States  12  
Soviet Union  9  
France  8  
United Kingdom  5  
West Germany (2) / Germany (2)  4  
Japan  3  
Belgium  2  
Austria  1  
Australia  1  
Brazil  1  
British Hong Kong  1  
Canada  1  
Finland  1  
Iran  1  
Israel  1  
Italy  1  
Norway  1  
New Zealand  1  
Sweden  1  
Vietnam  1 
Number of Fields Medallists by working institutions[edit]
Upon appointment, the Fields medalists were working in the following institutions:^{[23]}
The medal[edit]
The medal was designed by Canadian sculptor R. Tait McKenzie.^{[25]}
 On the obverse is Archimedes and a quote attributed to Marcus Manilius which reads in Latin: "Transire suum pectus mundoque potiri" (Rise above oneself and grasp the world). The date is written in Roman numerals and contains an error ("MCNXXXIII" rather than "MCMXXXIII").^{[26]}
 On the reverse is the inscription (in Latin):
 CONGREGATI
 EX TOTO ORBE
 MATHEMATICI
 OB SCRIPTA INSIGNIA
 TRIBUERE
Translation: "Mathematicians gathered from the entire world have awarded [understood "this prize"] for outstanding writings."
In the background, there is the representation of Archimedes' tomb, with the carving illustrating his theorem on the sphere and the cylinder, behind a branch. (This is the mathematical result of which Archimedes was reportedly most proud: Given a sphere and a circumscribed cylinder of the same height and diameter, the ratio between their volumes is equal to 2/3.)
The rim bears the name of the prizewinner.
See also[edit]
 Kyoto Prize
 List of prizes, medals, and awards in mathematics
 Nevanlinna Prize
 Rolf Schock Prizes
 Turing Award
 Wolf Prize in Mathematics
References[edit]
 ^ "2006 Fields Medals awarded" (PDF). Notices of the American Mathematical Society (American Mathematical Society) 53 (9): 1037–1044. October 2006.
 ^ "Reclusive Russian turns down math world's highest honour". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 22 August 2006. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} "Maths genius turns down top prize". BBC. 22 August 2006. Retrieved 22 August 2006.
 ^ Israeli wins 'Nobel' of Mathematics, JPost.com
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} "About Us: The Fields Medal". The Fields Institute, University of Toronto. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
 ^ "International Mathematical Union (IMU): 2014". Mathunion.org. Retrieved 20140814.
 ^ jobs. "Iranian is first woman to nab highest prize in maths : Nature News & Comment". Nature.com. doi:10.1038/nature.2014.15686. Retrieved 20140814.
 ^ Chang, Kenneth (12 March 2007). "Journeys to the Distant Fields of Prime". The New York Times.
 ^ McKinnon Riehm & Hoffman 2011, p. 183
 ^ On 1 April 2014 at 15:32 UTC, 8,000,000 Swedish kronor was worth $1,360,970 Canadian according to the OANDA currency converter.
 ^ "The Nobel Prize Amounts". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
 ^ "List of Fields Medallists". International Mathematical Union (IMU). 8 May 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2009.
 ^ http://www.mathunion.org/ICM/ICM1954.1/ICM1954.1.ocr.pdf
 ^ http://www.ams.org/notices/201210/rtx121001392p.pdf
 ^ "Fazendo as contas para o futuro — Ciência Hoje" (in (Portuguese)). Cienciahoje.uol.com.br. 20140225. Retrieved 20140814.
 ^ Jackson, Allyn (October 2004). "As If Summoned from the Void: The Life of Alexandre Grothendieck" (PDF). Notices of the American Mathematical Society 51 (9): 1198. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
 ^ "This Mathematical Month  August". American Mathematical Society.
 ^ Margulis biography, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
 ^ Wiles, Andrew John, Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
 ^ Fields Medal Prize Winners (1998)^{[dead link]}, 2002 International Congress of Mathematicians. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
 ^ Notices of the AMS, November 1998. Vol. 45, No. 10, p. 1359.
 ^ Nasar, Sylvia; Gruber, David (21 August 2006). "Manifold Destiny: A legendary problem and the battle over who solved it.". The New Yorker. Retrieved 24 August 2006.^{[dead link]} (dead link). Archived version dated 14 December 2006; accessed 14 August 2014
 ^ "Infoplease.com". Infoplease.com. Retrieved 20140814.
 ^ Including, after separation, Université ParisSud (4), Université ParisDauphine (1), Université Denis Diderot (1), Université Pierre et Marie Curie (1).
 ^ "Fields Institute  The Fields Medal". Fields.utoronto.ca. 9 August 1932. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
 ^ EBERHARD KNOBLOCH Generality and Infinitely Small Quantities in Leibniz's Mathematics  The Case of his Arithmetical Quadrature of Conic Sections and Related Curves. In Infinitesimal Differences: Controversies between Leibniz and his Contemporaries. Edited by Ursula Goldenbaum and Douglas Jesseph. Walter de Gruyter, 2008
Further reading[edit]
 McKinnon Riehm, Elaine; Hoffman, Frances (2011). Turbulent Times in Mathematics: The Life of J.C. Fields and the History of the Fields Medal. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society. ISBN 0821869140.
 Monastyrsky, Michael (1998). Modern Mathematics in the Light of the Fields Medal. Wellesley, MA: A. K. Peters. ISBN 1568810830.
 Tropp, Henry S. (1976). "The Origins and History of the Fields Medal". Historia Mathematica 3 (2): 167–181. doi:10.1016/03150860(76)900331..
External links[edit]
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