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Fermented milk products, also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc. The fermentation process increases the shelf-life of the product, while enhancing the taste and improving the digestibility of milk. There is evidence that fermented milk products have been produced since around 10,000 BC.[1] A range of different Lactobacilli strains has been grown in laboratories allowing for a wide range of cultured milk products with different tastes.

Products[edit]

Many different types of cultured milk products can be found around the world.

Soured milk[edit]

Country/region of origin Product(s)
acidophilus milk
cheese
buttermilk
Armenia matzoon
Arab World leben
Central Asia yogurt
Brittany laezh-ribod
Bulgaria kiselo mlyako
Central Asia airan & shubat & kymys & kurt & katyk & tan
Central Asia chal & kumis
Czech Republic kefir or Acidofilni mleko
Denmark kærnemælk, tykmælk, and ymer
Estonia soured milk and kefir
Finland piimä and viili
Germany Sauermilch or Dickmilch (soured milk or thickened milk)
Greece Xynogalo or Xynogala
Hungary aludttej
Iceland skyr and súrmjólk
India Dahi, Lassi, Chaas, Mattha, Mishti doi and Shrikhand
Indonesia dadiah
Iran doogh
Israel leben
Japan Calpis
Kazakhstan airan & shubat & kymys & kurt & katyk & tan
Lithuania rūgpienis, kefir
Macedonia kiselo mleko
Mexico Jocoque
Netherlands karnemelk (buttermilk)
Norway surmelk or kulturmelk, kefir, and tjukkmjølk[2]
Pakistan Dahi and Lassi
Poland kwaśne or zsiadłe mleko (soured milk) and kefir
Romania lapte bătut and lapte acru
Russia kefir, ryazhenka and prostokvasha
Rwanda kivuguto
Scotland blaand
Serbia kiselo mleko and yogurt
Slovakia kefir or acidofilne mlieko
Slovenia kislo mleko
South Africa amasi ("maas" in Afrikaans)
Sweden filmjölk, långfil and A-fil (fil is the short form of filmjölk)
Turkic countries ayran, qatiq
United States clabber
Bosnia and Herzegovina kiselo mlijeko and kefir
Zimbabwe lacto
Burundi urubu
Kenya kule naoto, maziwa lala
Ethiopia ergo
Sudan rob

Soured cream[edit]

Country/region of origin Product(s)
cheese
sour cream
Central Asia kaimak
Central & Eastern Europe smetana
Croatia mileram/kiselo vrhnje
Finland kermaviili
France crème fraîche
Iceland sýrður rjómi
Hungary tejföl
Lithuania grietinė
Mexico crema/cream espesa
Norway rømme
Serbia kisela pavlaka
Sweden gräddfil

Comparison chart[edit]

Product Alternative names Typical milkfat content Typical shelf life at 4°C Fermentation agent Description
Cheese 1-75% varies a variety of bacteria and/or mold Any number of solid fermented milk products.
Crème fraîche creme fraiche 30-40% 10 days[1] naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria in cream Mesophilic fermented cream, originally from France; higher-fat variant of sour cream
Cultured sour cream sour cream[3] 14–18%[3] 4 weeks[1] Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis*[3] Mesophilic fermented pasteurized cream with an acidity of at least 0.5%. Rennet extract may be added to make a thicker product.[3] Lower fat variant of crème fraîche
Filmjölk fil 0.1-4.5% 10–14 days[1] Lactococcus lactis* and Leuconostoc[4][5] Mesophilic fermented milk, originally from Scandinavia
Yogurt yoghurt, yogourt, yoghourt 0.5–4% 35–40 days[1] Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus[3] Thermophilic fermented milk, cultured with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus
Kefir kephir, kewra, talai, mudu kekiya, milkkefir, búlgaros 0-4% 10–14 days[1] Kefir grains, a mixture of bacteria and yeasts A fermented beverage, originally from the Caucasus region, made with kefir grains; can be made with any sugary liquid, such as milk from mammals, soy milk, or fruit juices
Kumis koumiss, kumiss, kymys, kymyz, airag, chigee 4%? 10–14 days[1] Lactobacilli and yeasts A carbonated fermented milk beverage traditionally made from horse milk
Viili filbunke 0.1-3.5% 14 days[1] Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis* biovar. diacetylactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and Geotrichum candidum[6] Mesophilic fermented milk that may or may not contain fungus on the surface; originally from Sweden; a Finnish specialty[6]
Cultured buttermilk 1–2% 10 days[1] Lactococcus lactis*[3] (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis*, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis biovar. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris)[1] Mesophilic fermented pasteurized milk
Acidophilus milk acidophilus cultured milk 0.5-2% 2 weeks[1] Lactobacillus acidophilus[1][3] Thermophilic fermented milk, often lowfat (2%, 1.5%) or nonfat (0.5%), cultured with Lactobacillus acidophilus

* Streptococcus lactis has been renamed to Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Fermented Milk Products". Canadian Dairy Commission. 2007-06-06. Retrieved 2012-12-26. 
  2. ^ "From local food to terroir product ? - Some views about Tjukkmjølk, the traditional thick sour milk from Røros, Norway". 2005-05-04. Retrieved 2008-09-04. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g pavlaka "Newer Knowledge of Dairy Foods: Other: Kinds of Other Dairy Foods". National Dairy Council. Retrieved 2007-06-30. [dead link]
  4. ^ "Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-29. 
  5. ^ "Ekologisk filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  6. ^ a b "Viili: the Finnish specialty" (PDF). Valio Foods & Functionals (Valio) 2003 (2): 4–5. 2003. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  7. ^ Schleifer KH, Kraus J, Dvorak C, Kilpper-Balz R, Collins MD, Fischer W (1985). "Transfer of Streptococcus lactis and related streptococci to the. genus Lactococcus gen. nov.". Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 6: 183–195. doi:10.1016/s0723-2020(85)80052-7. ISSN 0723-2020. 

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6 news items

 
Pharmacy Times
Wed, 23 Jul 2014 06:41:15 -0700

The 2013 metaanalysis, which included 14 qualifying randomized controlled trials, estimated average reductions of 3.10 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 1.09 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure with use of probiotic fermented milk products.5. The ...
 
dailyRx
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 13:03:45 -0700

In a recent study, researchers reviewed previous clinical trials to see if probiotics, the live bacteria contained in yogurt, supplements and fermented milk products, had any effect on heart health. The studies showed that probiotic consumption may ...
 
PerishableNews (press release)
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 12:41:15 -0700

“A healthy and at the same time tasty and pleasurable eating experience, is something we all aim for”, adds Mark Fahlin, Global Marketing Manager Fermented Milk Products at DSM Food Specialties. “The survey clearly reveals that the universal appeal of ...

Newsweek

Newsweek
Thu, 17 Jul 2014 12:07:30 -0700

They are also involved in the production of fermented milk products such as yogurt—a staple of Western diets—so the thinking had been that Bifidobacterium in the guts of Western babies might have come from there. This study challenged that assumption.

Medscape

Medscape
Thu, 17 Jul 2014 15:41:15 -0700

Background: The microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract have profound influence at multiple levels, even on the development and maintenance of lung immunity and inflammation. Aim of this review is to evaluate the current knowledge about the specific ...
 
FOOD Magazine - Australia
Thu, 10 Jul 2014 15:41:15 -0700

Mark Fahlin, global marketing manager fermented milk products at DSM Food Specialties said “The survey clearly reveals that the universal appeal of yogurt is driven by the fact that it is considered a healthy choice with ample varieties to choose from.
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