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"Economic exploitation" redirects here. For economic exploitation of people by other people, see Exploitation of labour. For other uses, see Exploitation (disambiguation).

The exploitation of natural resources is the use of natural resources for humanity's purposes. It started to emerge on an industrial scale in the 19th century as the extraction and processing of raw materials (such as in mining, steam power, and machinery) developed much further than it had in preindustrial eras. During the 20th century, energy consumption rapidly increased. Today, about 80% of the world’s energy consumption is sustained by the extraction of fossil fuels, which consists of oil, coal and gas.[1] Another non-renewable resource that is exploited by humans are Subsoil minerals such as precious metals that are mainly used in the production of industrial commodities. Intensive agriculture is an example of a mode of production that hinders many aspects of the natural environment, for example the degradation of forests in a terrestrial ecosystem and water pollution in an aquatic ecosystem. As the world population rises and economic growth occurs, the depletion of natural resources influenced by the unsustainable extraction of raw materials becomes an increasing concern.[2]

Why resources are under pressure[edit]

  • Increase in the sophistication of technology enabling natural resources to be extracted quickly and efficiently. E.g., in the past, it could take long hours just to cut down one tree only using saws. Due to increased technology, rates of deforestation have greatly increased
  • Cultures of consumerism. Materialistic views lead to the mining of gold and diamonds to produce jewelry, unnecessary commodities for human life or advancement.
  • Non-equitable distribution of resources.

Problems arising from the exploitation of natural resources[edit]

Effects on local communities[edit]

The Global South[edit]

Human Resources Macon, Georgia, 1909

When a mining company enters a developing country to extract raw materials, advocating the advantages of the industry’s presence and minimizing the potential negative effects gain cooperation of the local people. Advantageous factors are primarily in economic development so services that the government could not provide such as health centers, police departments and schools can be established.[3] However with economic development, money becomes a dominant subject of interest. This can bring about major conflicts that a local community in a developing country has never dealt with before.[4] These conflicts emerge by a change to more egocentric views among the locals influenced by consumerist values.[5]

The effects of the exploitation of natural resources in the local community of a developing country are exhibited in the impacts from the Ok Tedi Mine. After BHP, now BHP Billiton, entered into Papua New Guinea to exploit copper and gold, the economy of the indigenous peoples boomed. Although their quality of life has improved, initially disputes were common among the locals in terms of land rights and who should be getting the benefits from the mining project.[6] The consequences of the Ok Tedi environmental disaster illustrate the potential negative effects from the exploitation of natural resources. The resulting mining pollution includes toxic contamination of the natural water supply for communities along the Ok Tedi River, causing widespread killing of aquatic life. When a mining company ends a project after extracting the raw materials from an area of a developing country, the local people are left to manage with the environmental damage done to their community and the long run sustainability of the economic benefits stimulated by the mining company’s presence becomes a concern.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Planas, Florent. "The Exploitation of Natural Resources". Un An Pour La Planete. Retrieved 22 March 2012. 
  2. ^ McNicoll, Geoffrey (2007). "Population and Sustainability". Handbook of Sustainable Development. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 125–139. Retrieved 2012-03-13. 
  3. ^ Pedro, Antonio M.A. (2004). Mainstreaming Mineral Wealth in Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategies. Economic Commission for Africa. pp. 5–6. ISBN 9789211250978. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  4. ^ Pegg, Simon (2006). "Mining and poverty reduction: Transforming rhetoric into reality". Journal of Cleaner Production (Elsevier) 14 (3-4): 376–387. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.06.006. ISSN 0959-6526. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  5. ^ Weber-Fahr, M.; Strongman, J.; Kunanayagam, R.; McMahon, G.; Sheldon, C. (2001). "Mining and Poverty Reduction". Noord Internationaal WB PRSP Sourcebook. pp. 4–6. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  6. ^ Bray, John (2003). "Attracting Reputable Companies to Risky Environments: Petroleum and Mining Companies". Natural Resources and Conflict: Options and Actions. World Bank Publications. pp. 287–347. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  7. ^ Brereton, D; Forbes, P. (2004). "Monitoring the Impact of Mining on Local Communities: A Hunter Valley Case Study". CSRM. pp. 12–13 http://www.csrm.uq.edu.au/docs/Hunter_Valley.pdf.  Missing or empty |title= (help)

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exploitation_of_natural_resources — Please support Wikipedia.
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2044 news items

 
Sahara Press Service
Tue, 17 Feb 2015 02:18:36 -0800

... on the opinion issued in January 2012, the UN adviser, Hans Corell, of Swedish nationality, who had indicated that the exploitation of natural resources in Western Sahara must be in favor of the Saharawi people and in line with their interests and ...

Jerusalem Post Israel News

Jerusalem Post Israel News
Thu, 05 Mar 2015 14:41:15 -0800

“The Yahad party will work together to protect natural resources and wildlife, in accordance with the principles of the Torah and Jewish law, which prohibit cruelty to animals and greedy exploitation of natural resources for materialistic reasons, or ...

Haaretz

Haaretz
Wed, 04 Mar 2015 19:11:15 -0800

Meanwhile, Netanyahu established the committee on economic concentration, even though he was close to the Dankner family; he also established the Sheshinski committee on taxing revenues from the exploitation of natural resources, even though his door ...

Blasting News

Blasting News
Thu, 05 Mar 2015 11:29:59 -0800

"The government knows how to organize the exploitation of natural resources to spur economic development for the benefit of the population," replied the President of the Assembly Abdelkader Bensalah, denouncing "agitation" in In Salah. Algeria relies ...
 
The Guardian
Thu, 05 Mar 2015 02:22:30 -0800

ON January 4, 1993, the Ogoni protest movement was launched under the leadership of the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP) with massive demonstrations in designated centres in Ogoni. Following the protests, Shell suspended ...
 
Indian Country Today Media Network
Tue, 03 Mar 2015 09:03:45 -0800

We have been one of the indigenous peoples who have foreseen the serious consequences that have begun to manifest themselves given indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources.” I hope there is peace in U'wa territory as well. War dehumanizes.
 
Philippine Star
Wed, 04 Mar 2015 07:56:15 -0800

There will be other areas where the national and regional governments will have to work out joint responsibilities such as the exploitation of natural resources, agriculture, agrarian reform, disaster relief and rehabilitation and land use. I do expect ...
 
AllAfrica.com
Tue, 03 Mar 2015 08:30:00 -0800

In North Africa, national economic performances are often based on the exploitation of natural resources, which generate small profits despite their potentially high environmental costs. The Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) is one of the five ...
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