digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Eugène Delacroix
Félix Nadar 1820-1910 portraits Eugène Delacroix restored.jpg
Eugène Delacroix (portrait by Nadar)
Born Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix
26 April 1798
Charenton-Saint-Maurice, Île-de-France, France
Died 13 August 1863 (aged 65)
Paris, France
Nationality French
Known for Painting, Lithography
Notable work(s) Liberty Leading the People, 1830
Movement Romanticism

Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (French: [ø.ʒɛn də.la.kʁwa]; 26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.[1] Delacroix's use of expressive brushstrokes and his study of the optical effects of colour profoundly shaped the work of the Impressionists, while his passion for the exotic inspired the artists of the Symbolist movement. A fine lithographer, Delacroix illustrated various works of William Shakespeare, the Scottish writer Walter Scott and the German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

In contrast to the Neoclassical perfectionism of his chief rival Ingres, Delacroix took for his inspiration the art of Rubens and painters of the Venetian Renaissance, with an attendant emphasis on colour and movement rather than clarity of outline and carefully modelled form. Dramatic and romantic content characterized the central themes of his maturity, and led him not to the classical models of Greek and Roman art, but to travel in North Africa, in search of the exotic.[2] Friend and spiritual heir to Théodore Géricault, Delacroix was also inspired by Lord Byron, with whom he shared a strong identification with the "forces of the sublime", of nature in often violent action.[3]

However, Delacroix was given to neither sentimentality nor bombast, and his Romanticism was that of an individualist. In the words of Baudelaire, "Delacroix was passionately in love with passion, but coldly determined to express passion as clearly as possible."[4]

Early life[edit]

Portrait of Delacroix early in his career

Eugène Delacroix was born on 26 April 1798 at Charenton-Saint-Maurice in Île-de-France, near Paris. His mother was named Victoire, daughter of the cabinet-maker Jean-François Oeben. He had three much older siblings. Charles-Henri Delacroix (1779–1845) rose to the rank of General in the Napoleonic army. Henriette (1780–1827) married the diplomat Raymond de Verninac Saint-Maur (1762–1822). Henri was born six years later. He was killed at the Battle of Friedland on 14 June 1807.[5]

There is reason to believe that Eugène's father, Charles-François Delacroix, was infertile at the time of Eugène's conception and that his real father was Talleyrand, who was a friend of the family and successor of Charles Delacroix as Minister of Foreign Affairs, and whom the adult Eugène resembled in appearance and character.[6] Throughout his career as a painter, he was protected by Talleyrand, who served successively the Restoration and king Louis-Philippe, and ultimately as ambassador of France in Great Britain, and later by Talleyrand's grandson, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph, duc de Morny, half-brother of Napoleon III and speaker of the French House of Commons. His presumed father, Charles Delacroix, died in 1805, and his mother in 1814, leaving 16-year-old Eugène an orphan.

His early education was at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, and at the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen[7] where he steeped himself in the classics and won awards for drawing. In 1815 he began his training with Pierre-Narcisse Guérin in the neoclassical style of Jacques-Louis David. An early church commission, The Virgin of the Harvest (1819), displays a Raphael-esque influence, but another such commission, The Virgin of the Sacred Heart (1821), evidences a freer interpretation.[8] It precedes the influence of the more colourful and rich style of the Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640), and fellow French artist Théodore Géricault (1791–1824), whose works marked an introduction to Romanticism in art.

The impact of Géricault's The Raft of the Medusa was profound, and stimulated Delacroix to produce his first major painting, The Barque of Dante, which was accepted by the Paris Salon in 1822. The work caused a sensation, and was largely derided by the public and officialdom, yet was purchased by the State for the Luxembourg Galleries; the pattern of widespread opposition to his work, countered by a vigorous, enlightened support, would continue throughout his life.[9] Two years later he again achieved popular success for his The Massacre at Chios.

Maturity[edit]

Chios and Missolonghi[edit]

Delacroix's painting of the massacre at Chios shows sick, dying Greek civilians about to be slaughtered by the Turks. One of several paintings he made of this contemporary event, it expresses sympathy for the Greek cause in their war of independence against the Turks, a popular sentiment at the time for the French people. Delacroix was quickly recognized as a leading painter in the new Romantic style, and the picture was bought by the state. His depiction of suffering was controversial however, as there was no glorious event taking place, no patriots raising their swords in valour as in David's Oath of the Horatii, only a disaster. Many critics deplored the painting's despairing tone; the artist Antoine-Jean Gros called it "a massacre of art".[9] The pathos in the depiction of an infant clutching its dead mother's breast had an especially powerful effect, although this detail was condemned as unfit for art by Delacroix's critics. A viewing of the paintings of John Constable and the watercolour sketches and art of Richard Parkes Bonnington prompted Delacroix to make extensive, freely painted changes to the sky and distant landscape.[10]

Delacroix produced a second painting in support of the Greeks in their war for independence, this time referring to the capture of Missolonghi by Turkish forces in 1825.[11] With a restraint of palette appropriate to the allegory, Greece Expiring on the Ruins of Missolonghi displays a woman in Greek costume with her breast bared, arms half-raised in an imploring gesture before the horrible scene: the suicide of the Greeks, who chose to kill themselves and destroy their city rather than surrender to the Turks. A hand is seen at the bottom, the body having been crushed by rubble. The whole picture serves as a monument to the people of Missolonghi and to the idea of freedom against tyrannical rule. This event interested Delacroix not only for his sympathies with the Greeks, but also because the poet Byron, whom Delacroix greatly admired, had died there.[1]

Romanticism[edit]

A trip to England in 1825 included visits to Thomas Lawrence and Richard Parkes Bonington, and the colour and handling of English painting provided impetus for his only full-length portrait, the elegant Portrait of Louis-Auguste Schwiter (1826–30).[12] At roughly the same time, Delacroix was creating romantic works of numerous themes, many of which would continue to interest him for over thirty years. By 1825, he was producing lithographs illustrating Shakespeare, and soon thereafter lithographs and paintings from Goethe's Faust. Paintings such as The Combat of the Giaour and Hassan (1826), and Woman with Parrot (1827), introduced subjects of violence and sensuality which would prove to be recurrent.

These various romantic strands came together in the Death of Sardanapalus (1827-8). Delacroix's painting of the death of the Assyrian king Sardanapalus shows an emotionally stirring scene alive with beautiful colours, exotic costumes and tragic events. The Death of Sardanapalus depicts the besieged king watching impassively as guards carry out his orders to kill his servants, concubines and animals. The literary source is a play by Byron, although the play does not specifically mention any massacre of concubines.

Sardanapalus' attitude of calm detachment is a familiar pose in Romantic imagery in this period in Europe. The painting, which was not exhibited again for many years afterward, has been regarded by some critics as a gruesome fantasy involving death and lust. Especially shocking is the struggle of a nude woman whose throat is about to be cut, a scene placed prominently in the foreground for maximum impact. However, the sensuous beauty and exotic colours of the composition make the picture appear pleasing and shocking at the same time.

A variety of Romantic interests were again synthesized in The Murder of the Bishop of Liège (1829). It also borrowed from a literary source, this time Scott, and depicts a scene from the Middle Ages, that of the murder of Louis de Bourbon, Bishop of Liège amidst an orgy sponsored by his captor, William de la Marck. Set in an immense vaulted interior which Delacroix based on sketches of the Palais de Justice in Rouen and Westminster Hall, the drama plays out in chiaroscuro, organized around a brilliantly lit stretch of tablecloth. In 1855, a critic described the painting's vibrant handling as "Less finished than a painting, more finished than a sketch, The Murder of the Bishop of Liège was left by the painter at that supreme moment when one more stroke of the brush would have ruined everything".[13]

Liberty Leading the People[edit]

Delacroix's most influential work came in 1830 with the painting Liberty Leading the People, which for choice of subject and technique highlights the differences between the romantic approach and the neoclassical style. Less obviously, it also differs from the Romanticism of Géricault and the Raft of the Medusa.

"Delacroix felt his composition more vividly as a whole, thought of his figures and crowds as types, and dominated them by the symbolic figure of Republican Liberty which is one of his finest plastic inventions…"[14]

Probably Delacroix's best known painting, it is an unforgettable image of Parisians, having taken up arms, marching forward under the banner of the tricolour representing liberty, equality, and fraternity; Delacroix was inspired by contemporary events to invoke the romantic image of the spirit of liberty. The soldiers lying dead in the foreground offer poignant counterpoint to the symbolic female figure, who is illuminated triumphantly, as if in a spotlight.

The French government bought the painting, but officials deemed its glorification of liberty too inflammatory and removed it from public view. Nonetheless, Delacroix still received many government commissions for murals and ceiling paintings. He seems to have been trying to represent the spirit and the character of the people,[14] rather than glorify the actual event, a revolution against King Charles X which did little other than bring in a different king, Louis-Philippe, to power.

Following the Revolution of 1848 that saw the end of the reign of King Louis Philippe, Delacroix' painting, Liberty Leading the People, was finally put on display by the newly elected President, Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III). Traditionally, it has been visible in the Louvre museum in Paris; beginning December, 2012, it has been on exhibit at Louvre-Lens in Lens, Pas-de-Calais.[15]

The boy holding a gun up on the right is sometimes thought to be an inspiration of the Gavroche character in Victor Hugo's 1862 novel, Les Misérables.[citation needed]

Travel to North Africa[edit]

Fanatics of Tangier, 1838, Minneapolis Institute of Arts

In 1832, Delacroix traveled to Spain and North Africa, as part of a diplomatic mission to Morocco shortly after the French conquered Algeria. He went not primarily to study art, but to escape from the civilization of Paris, in hopes of seeing a more primitive culture.[14] He eventually produced over 100 paintings and drawings of scenes from or based on the life of the people of North Africa, and added a new and personal chapter to the interest in Orientalism.[16] Delacroix was entranced by the people and the costumes, and the trip would inform the subject matter of a great many of his future paintings. He believed that the North Africans, in their attire and their attitudes, provided a visual equivalent to the people of Classical Rome and Greece:

"The Greeks and Romans are here at my door, in the Arabs who wrap themselves in a white blanket and look like Cato or Brutus…"[14]

He managed to sketch some women secretly in Algiers, as in the painting Women of Algiers in their Apartment (1834), but generally he encountered difficulty in finding Muslim women to pose for him because of Muslim rules requiring that women be covered. Less problematic was the painting of Jewish women in North Africa, as subjects for the Jewish Wedding in Morocco (1837–41).

While in Tangier, Delacroix made many sketches of the people and the city, subjects to which he would return until the end of his life.[17] Animals—the embodiment of romantic passion—were incorporated into paintings such as Arab Horses Fighting in a Stable (1860), The Lion Hunt (of which there exist many versions, painted between 1856 and 1861), and Arab Saddling his Horse (1855).

Murals and later life[edit]

Self-portrait, 1837. "Eugène Delacroix was a curious mixture of skepticism, politeness, dandyism, willpower, cleverness, despotism, and finally, a kind of special goodness and tenderness that always accompanies genius".[18]

In 1838 Delacroix exhibited Medea about to Kill Her Children, which created a sensation at the Salon. His first large-scale treatment of a scene from Greek mythology, the painting depicts Medea clutching her children, dagger drawn to slay them in vengeance for her abandonment by Jason. The three nude figures form an animated pyramid, bathed in a raking light which penetrates the grotto in which Medea has hidden. Though the painting was quickly purchased by the State, Delacroix was disappointed when it was sent to the Lille Musée des Beaux-Arts; he had intended for it to hang at the Luxembourg, where it would have joined The Barque of Dante and Scenes from the Massacres of Chios.[19]

From 1833 Delacroix received numerous commissions to decorate public buildings in Paris. In that year he began work for the Salon du Roi in the Chambre des Députés, Palais Bourbon, which was not completed until 1837. For the next ten years he painted in both the Library at the Palais Bourbon and the Library at the Palais du Luxembourg. In 1843 he decorated the Church of St. Denis du Saint Sacrement with a large Pietà, and from 1848 to 1850 he painted the ceiling in the Galerie d'Apollon of the Louvre. From 1857 to 1861 he worked in the Chapelle des Anges at St. Sulpice. These commissions offered him the opportunity to compose on a large scale in an architectural setting, much as had those masters he admired, Paolo Veronese, Tintoretto, and Rubens.

The work was fatiguing, and during these years he suffered from an increasingly fragile constitution. In addition to his home in Paris, from 1844 he also lived at a small cottage in Champrosay, where he found respite in the countryside. From 1834 until his death, he was faithfully cared for by his housekeeper, Jeanne-Marie le Guillou, who zealously guarded his privacy, and whose devotion prolonged his life and his ability to continue working in his later years.[20]

In 1862 Delacroix participated in the creation of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. His friend, the writer Théophile Gautier, became chairman, with the painter Aimé Millet acting as deputy chairman. In addition to Delacroix, the committee was composed of the painters Carrier-Belleuse and Puvis de Chavannes. Among the exhibitors were Léon Bonnat, Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, Charles-François Daubigny, Gustave Doré, and Édouard Manet. Just after his death in 1863, the society organized a retrospective exhibition of 248 paintings and lithographs by Delacroix—and ceased to mount any further exhibitions.

Eugène Delacroix died in Paris, France, and was buried there in Père Lachaise Cemetery.

His house, formerly situated along the canal of the Marne, is now near the exit of the motorway leading from Paris to central Germany.

Gallery[edit]

Legacy[edit]

Monument to Delacroix, at the Jardin du Luxembourg
Delacroix 's tomb in Père Lachaise Cemetery
French 100 franc banknote, 1993

At the sale of his work in 1864, 9,140 works were attributed to Delacroix, including 853 paintings, 1,525 pastels and water colours, 6,629 drawings, 109 lithographs, and over 60 sketch books.[21] The number and quality of the drawings, whether done for constructive purposes or to capture a spontaneous movement, underscored his explanation, "Colour always occupies me, but drawing preoccupies me." Delacroix produced several fine self-portraits, and a number of memorable portraits which seem to have been done purely for pleasure, among which were the portrait of fellow artist Baron Schwiter, an inspired small oil of the violinist Nicolò Paganini, and Portrait of Frédéric Chopin and George Sand, a double portrait of his friends, the composer Frédéric Chopin and writer George Sand; the painting was cut after his death, but the individual portraits survive.

On occasion Delacroix painted pure landscapes (The Sea at Dieppe, 1852) and still lifes (Still Life with Lobsters, 1826-7), both of which feature the virtuoso execution of his figure-based works.[22] He is also well known for his Journal, in which he gave eloquent expression to his thoughts on art and contemporary life.[23]

A generation of impressionists was inspired by Delacroix's work. Renoir and Manet made copies of his paintings, and Degas purchased the portrait of Baron Schwiter for his private collection. His painting at the church of St. Sulpice has been called the "finest mural painting of his time".[24]

Contemporary Chinese artist Yue Minjun has created his own interpretation of Delacroix's painting Massacre of Chios, which retains the same name. Yue Minjun's painting was itself sold at Sotheby's for nearly $4.1 million in 2007.[25]

His pencil drawing Moorish Conversation on a Terrace was discovered as part of the 2012 Nazi loot discovery.[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Noon, Patrick, et al., Crossing the Channel: British and French Painting in the Age of Romanticism, p. 58, Tate Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-85437-513-X
  2. ^ Gombrich, E.H., The Story of Art, pages 504–6. Phaidon Press Limited, 1995. ISBN 0-7148-3355-X
  3. ^ Clark, Kenneth, Civilisation, page 313. Harper and Row, 1969.
  4. ^ Wellington, Hubert, The Journal of Eugène Delacroix, introduction, page xiv. Cornell University Press, 1980. ISBN 0-8014-9196-7
  5. ^ Sjöberg, Yves (1963). Pour comprendre Delacroix. Editions Beauchesne. p. 29. GGKEY:021FPT3P5E8. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  6. ^ "Eugène Delacroix biography". Web Gallery of Art. Retrieved 2007-06-14.  André Castelot (Talleyrand ou le cynisme [Paris, Librairie Perrin, 1980]) discusses and rejects the theory, pointing out that correspondence between Charles and his wife during the pregnancy shows no sign of tension or resentment.
  7. ^ Lycée Pierre Corneille de Rouen - History
  8. ^ Jobert, Barthélémy, Delacroix, page 62. Princeton University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-691-00418-8
  9. ^ a b Wellington, page xii.
  10. ^ Wellington, pages xii, 16.
  11. ^ Jobert, page 127.
  12. ^ Jobert, page 98.
  13. ^ Jobert, pages 116-18.
  14. ^ a b c d Wellington, page xv.
  15. ^ "Louvre museum gets a sister". USAToday. 23 December 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2012. 
  16. ^ Jobert, page 140.
  17. ^ Wellington, page xvi.
  18. ^ Baudelaire, quoted in Jobert, page 27.
  19. ^ Jobert, pages 245–6.
  20. ^ Wellington, pages xxvii-xxviii.
  21. ^ Wellington, page xxviii.
  22. ^ Jobert, page 99.
  23. ^ Eugène Delacroix, Journal, nouvelle édition intégrale établie par Michèle Hannoosh, 2 vols., Paris, José Corti, 2009. ISBN 978-2714309990.
  24. ^ Wellington, page xxiii.
  25. ^ New record sale of a Chinese contemporary painting
  26. ^ "Photo Gallery: Munich Nazi Art Stash Revealed". Spiegel. 17 November 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugène_Delacroix — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
21065 videos foundNext > 

Eugene Delacroix Biography

Eugene Delacroix Biography. Literature of the Western World. Texas A&M Corpus Christi.

Creat Artists Delacroix part 1 of 2

Ευγένειος Ντελακρουά (Eugene Ferdinand Victor Delacroix) 1798-1863 www.eteaching.forumup.gr.

Eugène Delacroix - A Liberdade Guiando O Povo - PALETAS

Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix - (Saint-Maurice, 26 de abril de 1798 — Paris, 13 de agosto de 1863) foi um importante pintor francês do Romantismo. Delacr...

Paris, Musée Eugène Delacroix (Full HD)

Plus de 200 vidéos HD gratuites et en ligne sur http://www.toutparisenvideo.com Le Musée Eugène Delacroix (rattaché depuis 2004 au Musée du Louvre) vous est ...

Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830

More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=BP5mCFyBCq8 Eugène Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, oil on canvas, 2.6 x 3.25m, 1830 (Musée du...

EUGENE DELACROIX .- ( El Romantico de La Pintura. )

EUGÉNE DELACROIX. Pintor francés. Ferdinand - Victor - Eugène Delacroix. Pintor romántico francés, nacido en Charenton - Saint - Maurice, en las cercanías de...

Eugène Delacroix

Ferdinand-Victor-Eugène Delacroix, pintor francés. Fue, sin duda, el mejor pintor del movimiento romántico en Francia. Según ciertos historiadores, Delacroix...

D'Art d'Art - Eugène Delacroix - La liberté guidant le peuple

Eugene Delacroix

Along with Turner, Gericault and Fredrich, Eugene Delacroix (26 April 1798 -- 13 August 1863) embodied the romantic spirit of the visual arts in his time. He...

The Art of Eugene Delacroix

Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix 26 April 1798 -- 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the F...

21065 videos foundNext > 

136 news items

 
Universia Brasil
Mon, 30 Jun 2014 08:00:00 -0700

Executada em 1824, The Massacre at Chios é uma das obras mais conhecidas do pintor romântico Eugene Delacroix. Nela, ele retratou o massacre de Chios, uma cidade grega que buscava se libertar dos turcos. Romantismo: The Massacre at Chios, de ...

Straight.com

Straight.com
Tue, 22 Jul 2014 18:18:45 -0700

This includes Eugène Delacroix's 1830 painting Liberty Leading the People, whose foreground is strewn with the bodies of dead soldiers. Like Delacroix and other artists and poets of the Romantic era, Star Wars director George Lucas was clearly on the ...

Minneapolis Star Tribune

Minneapolis Star Tribune
Thu, 17 Jul 2014 15:35:02 -0700

... including armor and Old Master paintings starting in February; Leonardo da Vinci's “Codex Leicester” opening in June; and “Eugene Delacroix and Modernity,” the first exhibit in 50 years to examine the French artist's influence, debuting in October ...
 
vita.mn
Fri, 18 Jul 2014 09:45:07 -0700

... “Italian Style: Fashion Since 1945,” opening in October; treasures from the Habsburg empire, including armor and Old Master paintings starting in February; Leonardo da Vinci's “Codex Leicester” opening in June; and “Eugene Delacroix and Modernity ...
 
TwinCities.com-Pioneer Press
Fri, 11 Jul 2014 08:33:15 -0700

Among the artists featured in "Marks of Genius" are Ludovico Carracci, Thomas Gainsborough, Eugene Delacroix, Edgar Degas, Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele, Rene Magritte and Georgia O'Keeffe. One of McGarry's favorite pieces is 17th century Italian painter ...

Vancouver Sun (blog)

Vancouver Sun (blog)
Mon, 14 Jul 2014 09:16:04 -0700

The carving is on the side facing inward. The image is based on Eugene Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People. Where did that come from? Well, it's from an overlooked but not forgotten part of B.C. history. It's based on a folk copy made in Sointula ...

Radio Prague

Radio Prague
Mon, 14 Jul 2014 06:30:00 -0700

So in the case of Picasso for instance he will paint certain works based on Velasquez, Eugène Delacroix or Manet but will stamp them with his own style. But again this style is a complex concoction of African, Art Nouveau and in some cases 17th century ...
 
Los Angeles Times
Fri, 11 Jul 2014 18:18:45 -0700

Dodging heavy showers, I nipped into the Musée des Beaux-Arts (it's free but you must have a ticket), where I found Romantic painter Eugène Delacroix's "Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi" underwhelming and smaller than I expected for such a ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Eugène Delacroix

You can talk about Eugène Delacroix with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!